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General Physics

by: Nichole Keebler

General Physics PHYSICS 103

Nichole Keebler
GPA 3.95


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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nichole Keebler on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYSICS 103 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/205224/physics-103-university-of-wisconsin-madison in Physics 2 at University of Wisconsin - Madison.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
Thermai physics A chimede s and Pascal s Principles Pascal s Principle A change in pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to all portions of the fluid and to the walls of its container This principle is used in hydraulic system 0 Bernoulli s Equation Cont 0 Temperature 0 Thermal Expansion Archimede s Principle Buoyant Force 0 Atoms Molecules and Moles t weight of fluid displaced Ideal Gas Law B p uidg Vdisplaced W pobjectg Vobject object sinks if pomed gt p uid object floats if pomed lt p uid If object float BW Therefore p uid g Vdisplaced pobjectg Vobject Therefore VdisplacedVobject pobject p uid Pnys CS 03 Spring 2007 u Wisconsin Physics 03 Spring 2007 u Wsconsin Review Bernoulli s Equation Sailing Against the Wind 1 P Epv2 pgy const P pv2 pgy const 1 2 1 2 APP1P2PV2pvipgy2 pgy1 A r v pl v2c0m 2 2 V 1 2 P 1 1 2 0 Based on conservation of energy P2 pvz const 0 Pressure drops in a rapidly moving fluid or as the fluid rises 0 whether or not the fluid is con ned to a tube 0 For incompressible frictionless fluid ideal liquid or gas Vlntl o v3gtvr 0 Therefore quot KL39L I axis 0 Applications Wings and sails p gtp 0 Higher velocity on one side of sail or wing versus the Pressure other results in a pressure difference that can even difference a allow the boat to sail into the wind causes a force F 0 Water pressure in your house 0 Velocity measurement W 0 Pliyscs 03 Spring 2007 U Wisconsin Physics 03 Spring 2007 U Wsconsin Axlllll Temperature Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Concerned with the concepts of energy transfers between a system and its TWO owed in thermal equmbrium With 93011 Other are at the same environment and the resulting temperature variations tempe atu e Concerns matter in all of its forms solid liquid and gas 0 Temperature is the property that determines whether or not an object is s Thermodynamics in thermal equilibrium with other object The process by which energy is exchanged between objects Measured by many quot1911100153 VOIUme Of quotqUidi Pressure 019135 because of temperature differences is called I 2 39 Objects are in r if energy can be exchanged ceISIUS scale 39 2 v 2 exists when two objects in thermal contact 0 Temperature of an icewater mixture is may take some time to reach thermal equilibrium defined as 0 C V t This is the freezing point of water Lgf gltsegj jd fma n39 a 0 Temperature of a watersteam mixture is Bhird omit CV tlhen Argnd 7 defined as 100 C are In erma e Ull rIum 39 39 39 quot 39 with each 0 er q t This is the Darling paint of water 0 Distance between these points is divided into 100 segments Phys cs 03 Spring 2007 U Wisconsin 08 Physics 03 Spring 2007 U Wsconsin summmn mm Page ltgt PressureTemperature Graph Modern Definition of Kelvin Scale Tunptnium K 0 Defined in terms of two points t Agreed upon by International Committee on Weights and Measures in 1954 i mi thHH 0 First point is absolute zero 0 All gases extrapolate to the same temperature at 0 pressure 0 This temperature is absolute zero ii in 1 ii lmmh Kelvin Scale 0 Pressure varies with temperature S in cumnu When the pressure of a gas when maintaining a constant volume 0 second Pomt 395 the VP5 Pommf water i E goes to zero its temperature is 0 Triple point is the single point where 27315 C water can exist as solid liquid and gas g e Surl dcc oi the Sun 0 This temperature is called absolute zero 0 This is the zero point of the Kelvin scale t 27315 C 0 K 0 To convert T 27315 Same temperature and pressure Coplww1m Occurs am 01 C 27316 K and P Vim T 27315 ll Liquid niliogcu 1iqnid hydrogen 4 Liquid helium 10 1mm tt39mpci39dull c achimctl 3910quot l a omsonv makxCule Physics 03 Spring 2007 u Wsconsin Thermal Expansion Question Expansion 0 The thermal expansion of an object is a consequence of the change in Two spheres are made of the same metal and have the same radius the average separation between its constituent atoms or molecules but one is hollow and the other is solid at room temperature The 0 At ordinary temperatures molecules vibrate with a small amplitude temperature 0f b th Spheres is increased by the same amount WhiCh sphere expands more 0 Solid sphere t Hollow sphere 9 They expand by the same amount 0 As temperature increases the amplitude increases 0 This causes the overall object as a whole to expand 0 Linear area and volume expansion for small temperature changes 0 Coefficient of linear expansion alpha depends on material a L0 All dimensions increase The increase is proportional to AA y A At y original size of that dimension 0 For the sphere the relevant AV 3 V0 At 3 dimension is its outer radius Pnys CS 03 Spring 2007 u Wisconsin Physics 03 Spring 2007 u Wsconsin mam muswumrnnl a Lecture 19 Preflight 2 Lecture 19 Preflight 4 Sometimes small gaps are left n the roadways on bridges Liquids always expand when heated Intentionally to help slow down the traffic A yes Intentionally to avoid buckl ng the roadways when seasons change Un nten al h usually is a result of poor civil eng neer ng Unusual behavior of water 0 As the temperature of water increases from 0 C to 4 C it contracts and its density increases 0 Above 4 C water exhibits the expected expansion with increasing temperature 0 Maximum density of water is 1000 kgm3 at 4 C Pnys CS 03 Spring 2007 u Wisconsin 08 Physics 03 Spring 2007 u Wsconsin Pageltgt Applications of Thermal Expansion Bimetallic Strip Thermometers 0 Make use of physical properties that change with temperature 0 Many physical properties can be used t volume ofa liquid Emss t length of a solid Room temperature t pressure of a gas held at constant volume mmmmmww r t volume of a gas held at constant pressure t electric resistance of a conductor 0 Thermostats t Use a bimetallic strip t Two metals expand differently t color of a very hot object Pnys CS 03 Spring 2007 u Wisconsin Physics 03 Spring 2007 u Wsconsin o o o o o The Ideal Gas Law L E o Quantify how pressure or volume change With A w i h mereeemg temperature 0 PV NkBT o I I f t P pressure in Nm3 or Pascals quotquot 39 tVvolume in m3 o o o t N number of molecules o o o o t T absolute temperature K 0 t k Boltzmann s constant I i s I u Physics 03 Spring 2007u Wsconsin The Ideal Gas Law 0 PV NkBT 0 Alternate way to write this t N number of moles n x NA moleculesmole PV NkET How does a hot air39 balloon work The flame heats the air which pushes the balloon up Is his correct 0 PV nRT Pnys CS 03 Spring 2007 u Wisconsin Physics 03 Spring 2007 u Wsconsin Page ltgt How does a ho air balloon work m m How does a ho air balloon work 3 W Pair gt Phallnnn B Pairg Vllisplacell W Phallnnng Vhallnn m u m Page ltgt


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