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3/3 Biology Notes

by: Alyssa Shriver

3/3 Biology Notes Bio 102

Alyssa Shriver
GPA 2.7

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About this Document

Notes on Ecology on March 3rd
Introduction to Biology
Dr. Jeremy Chandler
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Biology

Popular in Biology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Shriver on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 102 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Jeremy Chandler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 03/08/16
Lecture 3/3/16 Population Ecology   What’s a population? o Group of organisms of the same species living in the same geographical location  Population Ecology o Multidisciplinary science o Biology o Geography o Meteorology o Mathematics  Ecology meshes with and is influenced by: o Genetics o Behavior and physiology o Evolution  Nomenclature of data o Independent variable- variable that stands alone and is not influenced by other variables o Dependent variable- depends on other factors (usually the independent variable) o (Independent variable) causes a change in (dependent variable) and it isn’t possible that (dependent variable) could cause a change in (independent variable) o (Time spent studying) causes a change in (test score) and it isn’t possible that (test score) could cause a change in (time spent studying)  Hypothesis testing o If your hypothesis is not supported, you accept the null hypothesis  Observational/ Discovery science o In this case taking data and creating a relationship with no set experiment o This type of science usually precedes experimental approaches in Ecology  Brood Paratism o Is a form of kleptoparasitism. Brood parasites manipulate the behavior of the host so that the host raises the young of the parasite instead of the host’s own young.  Ex. Cuckoo  Parasitism rates are variable so the actual relationships are more complex o Picky birds often rely on evidence of cuckoo being around. (sight.. but cuckoos are notoriously sneaky) o Some preliminary evidence relates social calls between affected species (sightings of cuckoos) to increased pickiness in some birds on broods  Scientific Experiment o Makes Observations o Research the topic to find out what is already known o Ask a testable question o Turn the question into a hypothesis o Make predictions o Conduct an experiment to test the predictions o Analyze the results to arrive at a conclusion  Ecology o Individual level: how an individual organism fares in its surroundings o Population level: a group of individuals of the same species living and interacting in the same region  A pack of wolves o Community level: interacting populations of different species  Wolves prey on moose  Ticks infest moose  Moose feed on trees o Ecosystem level: species interacting with other species and the environment  Moose eat the trees, changing the vegetation, which in turn changes the landscape for other animals  Hot summers reduce the ability of moose to feed, affecting their winter survival  Isle Royale, Canada o Track wolves and moose for many years to understand dynamic fluctuations between these populations  Population ecology o Distribution pattern  Organisms distributed in geographic space  Depends on resources and interactions with other members of the population  Reflect behaviorally or ecological adaption  Clumped Distribution o High-density clumps are separated by areas of low abundance o When resources are unevenly distributed across the landscape o Or when social behavior dictates grouping  Random Distribution o May allow individuals to maximize their access to resources o Individuals are equally likely to be anywhere within the area  Uniform Distribution o Individuals maximize space between them by being uniformly spaced o Results from territorial behavior  Population Growth o Difference between the birth rate and the death rate o Influenced by  Immigration: movement of individuals into a population  Emigration: movement of individuals out of a population o Types of population growth  Exponential growth  Unrestricted growth of a population increasing at a constant growth rate  Logistic growth  Starts off fast and then levels off  Environmental factors will limit an organism’s ability to reproduce  For example, access to habitat: the physical environment where an organism lives and to which it is adapted  Today’s Objectives o In absence of technology, what is one way researchers can track large animals?  “Genetic dogs,” genetic analysis, and scientific models to assess habitat suitability for bears in an area linking the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem to the northern U.S Rockies o Explain the difference between independent and dependent variables  Independent variable: variable that stands alone and is not influenced by other variable  Dependent variable: depends on other factors (usually the independent variable) o Explain brood parasitism and why both accepter and rejecter host birds exist  Is a form of kleptoparasitism. Brood parasites manipulate the behavior of the host so that the host raises the young of the parasite instead of the host’s own young.  Ex. Cuckoo o Explain the 3 levels of ecology we discussed in class  Individual level: how an individual organism fares in its surroundings  One wolf  Population level: a group of individuals of the same species living and interacting in the same region  Pack of wolves  Community level  Interacting populations of different species o Wolves prey on moose o Ticks infest moose o Moose feed on trees


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