3/3 Biology Notes
3/3 Biology Notes Bio 102
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Shriver on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 102 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Jeremy Chandler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Lecture 3/3/16 Population Ecology What’s a population? o Group of organisms of the same species living in the same geographical location Population Ecology o Multidisciplinary science o Biology o Geography o Meteorology o Mathematics Ecology meshes with and is influenced by: o Genetics o Behavior and physiology o Evolution Nomenclature of data o Independent variable- variable that stands alone and is not influenced by other variables o Dependent variable- depends on other factors (usually the independent variable) o (Independent variable) causes a change in (dependent variable) and it isn’t possible that (dependent variable) could cause a change in (independent variable) o (Time spent studying) causes a change in (test score) and it isn’t possible that (test score) could cause a change in (time spent studying) Hypothesis testing o If your hypothesis is not supported, you accept the null hypothesis Observational/ Discovery science o In this case taking data and creating a relationship with no set experiment o This type of science usually precedes experimental approaches in Ecology Brood Paratism o Is a form of kleptoparasitism. Brood parasites manipulate the behavior of the host so that the host raises the young of the parasite instead of the host’s own young. Ex. Cuckoo Parasitism rates are variable so the actual relationships are more complex o Picky birds often rely on evidence of cuckoo being around. (sight.. but cuckoos are notoriously sneaky) o Some preliminary evidence relates social calls between affected species (sightings of cuckoos) to increased pickiness in some birds on broods Scientific Experiment o Makes Observations o Research the topic to find out what is already known o Ask a testable question o Turn the question into a hypothesis o Make predictions o Conduct an experiment to test the predictions o Analyze the results to arrive at a conclusion Ecology o Individual level: how an individual organism fares in its surroundings o Population level: a group of individuals of the same species living and interacting in the same region A pack of wolves o Community level: interacting populations of different species Wolves prey on moose Ticks infest moose Moose feed on trees o Ecosystem level: species interacting with other species and the environment Moose eat the trees, changing the vegetation, which in turn changes the landscape for other animals Hot summers reduce the ability of moose to feed, affecting their winter survival Isle Royale, Canada o Track wolves and moose for many years to understand dynamic fluctuations between these populations Population ecology o Distribution pattern Organisms distributed in geographic space Depends on resources and interactions with other members of the population Reflect behaviorally or ecological adaption Clumped Distribution o High-density clumps are separated by areas of low abundance o When resources are unevenly distributed across the landscape o Or when social behavior dictates grouping Random Distribution o May allow individuals to maximize their access to resources o Individuals are equally likely to be anywhere within the area Uniform Distribution o Individuals maximize space between them by being uniformly spaced o Results from territorial behavior Population Growth o Difference between the birth rate and the death rate o Influenced by Immigration: movement of individuals into a population Emigration: movement of individuals out of a population o Types of population growth Exponential growth Unrestricted growth of a population increasing at a constant growth rate Logistic growth Starts off fast and then levels off Environmental factors will limit an organism’s ability to reproduce For example, access to habitat: the physical environment where an organism lives and to which it is adapted Today’s Objectives o In absence of technology, what is one way researchers can track large animals? “Genetic dogs,” genetic analysis, and scientific models to assess habitat suitability for bears in an area linking the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem to the northern U.S Rockies o Explain the difference between independent and dependent variables Independent variable: variable that stands alone and is not influenced by other variable Dependent variable: depends on other factors (usually the independent variable) o Explain brood parasitism and why both accepter and rejecter host birds exist Is a form of kleptoparasitism. Brood parasites manipulate the behavior of the host so that the host raises the young of the parasite instead of the host’s own young. Ex. Cuckoo o Explain the 3 levels of ecology we discussed in class Individual level: how an individual organism fares in its surroundings One wolf Population level: a group of individuals of the same species living and interacting in the same region Pack of wolves Community level Interacting populations of different species o Wolves prey on moose o Ticks infest moose o Moose feed on trees
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