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Chapte 9 Notes

by: Alise Robison

Chapte 9 Notes Psyc 2010-003

Alise Robison

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About this Document

These notes cover only parts of Chapter 9 that were covered in class. These WILL be on the test Thursday!! Quiz questions are included as well.
Introduction to Psychology
Chong Hyon Pak
Class Notes
Psychology, chapter 9, thinking, thought, heuristic, Language
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alise Robison on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Chong Hyon Pak in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 03/08/16
Chapter 9: Thinking Stimulus—the mind—response Cognitive Psychology  The study of the mental processes o Attention, memory o Concepts o Problem solving o Decision making Information Processor  The mind is an information processor  External information is “recoded” into symbols (mental representations) o Converts information into something it can recognize  Our mind manipulates these mental representations o This is the “thinking”  Cognitive psychology’s goals is to think about all these things  We organize concepts into category hierarchies Who cares about concepts?  Concepts are fundamental to our ability to THINK and make sense of the world  Concepts influence memory o If something is inconsistent with a prototype, we are less likely to remember it o Slower to think about it Problem Solving  Strategies 1. Trial and Error 2. Algorithms 3. Heuristics (intuition) 4. Insight Algorithms  Algorithms exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution  Computers use algorithms o S P L O Y Y C H O G o If we were to unscramble these letters to form a word using an algorithmic approach, we would face 907,200 possibilities Informal Reasoning  The process of evaluating a conclusion, theory, or course of action on the basis of the believability of the evidence o Not necessarily based on the truth of the evidence  Heuristics: Time-saving mental shortcuts used in reasoning o Steve lives in ATL. He’s shy, withdrawn, helpful, but with little interest in reality. Is he salesperson or librarian? Librarian o More salespeople than librarians in Atlanta according to statistics, but we judge probability of the event based on his description Representative Heuristic  Conclusions about whether something belongs in a certain class are based on how similar it is to other items in that class o You ignore information about base rates o There are many more salespersons than male librarians o Conjunction fallacy  Mistakenly categorize a person based on their description rather than statistics Which is more likely?  If I go to the Middle east, which should I be more worried about? o Terrorist attack o Traffic accident Availability Heuristic  The likelihood or an event or the correctness of a hypothesis is judged by how easy it is to think of that event or hypothesis o Misperceive low-likelihood events as high likelihood because you see or hear about them a lot o It comes to mind easily; its “available” in your mind Language  The primary means through which we communicate our thoughts to others  Phoneme: the smallest unit of sound that affects the meaning of speech  Morphemes: the smallest unit of language that has meaning  Words: units of language composed of one or more morphemes When do we learn language?  Babbling Stage o Beginning at 4 months, the infant spontaneously utters various sounds, like ah-goo o Babbling is not imitation of adult speech  One-Word Stage o Beginning at or around the first birthday, a child starts to speak one word at a time o The word doggy may mean look at the dog out there  Two-Word Stage o Before the 2 ndyear, two-word sentences o This form of speech is called telegraphic speech Explaining Language Development  Behaviorist Explanation: Operant Learning o Association, imitation, reinforcement o BUT children generate phrases, sentences they have never heard before o Overgeneralization errors (adding s to the end of words) doesn’t fit the explanation from behaviorism o Still exists with animal training, but this ended behaviorism for humans  Inborn Universal Grammar o Chomsky (1959, 1987) suggested that the rate of language acquisition is so fast that it cannot be explained through learning principles, and thus most of it is inborn o Evidence to support idea: genetic dysphasia—not able to pick up language because of an error in brain development o Critical periods in language development  Critical Period o Children never exposed to any language (spoken or signed) by about age 7 gradually lose their ability to master any language o If you don’t pick up a language at a certain time window when you’re young, you won’t be able to o Learning new languages gets harder with age QUIZ QUESTIONS 1. The original Atkinson-Schiffrin three-stage information-processing model introduced distinctions among a. Recall, recognition, and relearning b. Shallow processing, semantic processing, and deep processing c. Sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory d. The serial position effect, the spacing effect, and the testing effect 2. A full week after Usha hears her mother read her a list of 12 different farm animals, Usha is most likely to remember the animals __________ of the list a. At the beginning and end b. At the end c. At the beginning d. In the middle 3. Eye witnesses to a crime often recall the details of the crime most accurately when they return to the scene of the crime. This best illustrates a. The spacing effect b. The peg-word system c. Source misattribution d. Context-dependent memory 4. The gradual fading of the physical memory trace contributes to a. Chunking b. Storage decay c. Anterograde amnesia d. Long-term potentiation 5. Faulty memory for how, when, or where information was leaned is called a. Source amnesia b. The misinformation effect c. Repression d. Déjà vu 6. Which of the following best describes the typical forgetting curve? a. A steady, slow decline in retention over time b. A steady, rapid decline in retention over time c. A rapid initial decline in retention becoming stable thereafter d. A slow initial decline in retention becoming rapid thereafter 7. After learning the combination for his new locker at school, Milton is unable to remember the combination for his year-old bicycle lock. Milton is experiencing the effects of a. Source amnesia b. Retroactive interference c. Proactive interference d. Automatic processing 8. A measure of your memory in which you need to pick the correctly learned answer from a displayed list of options is known as a measure of a. Recall b. Recognition c. Reconstruction d. Relearning 9. During her evening Spanish language exam, Janica so easily remembers the French vocabulary she studied that morning that she finds it difficult to recall the Spanish vocabulary that she rehearsed that afternoon. Her difficulty best illustrates a. The spacing effect b. Proactive interference c. Source amnesia d. Retroactive interference QUIZ ANSWERS 1) C 2) A 3) D 4) B 5) A 6) C 7) B 8) B 9) B


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