The Diversity of Microbes
The Diversity of Microbes BIOL 3444 - 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by rocket0724 on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3444 - 001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Thomas Chrzanowski in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Diversity Page 2 339 They use light to make their ATP gt Find them associated with other animals amp plants gt Without NH3 you don t have amino acids or life happens only with the bacteria I If we were to stop this processing life on the planet would come to a grinding haul I Nitrogen to pneumonia is an anaerobic process 339 Spirulina gt Dinner plates stacked together 3 b gt Dermocarpa gt One side of cytoplasm goes under repeated cycles of binary fission o o C gt Spirulina I All the stripes represent different cells 339 d gt Anabaena I The circles are the heterocyst When the cell runs out of reduced nitrogens it gives it up for everyone else All oxygen metabolism is deactivated when the cell wall is made around this structure Q When this happens photosynthesis 2 turns off gt To break the triple nitrogen bond it requires a lot of ATP I Chains are pumping on type of amino acid in amp the heterocyst are pumping out a double amino acid out to another heterocyst I Giving up for the good of everyone else 339 The first one to show up in an environment is called a pioneer species in ecology Page 3 Prochlorophytes v Get up to about 105 or 106 per milliliter of water gt Account for about 5060 of the photosynthesis in our oceans Page 4 339 Hydrogen sulfide supplies this purely anaerobic 3 H25 gt Nasty rotten chemical I Largely produced by decomposition processes by degrading a lot of proteins into amino acids Anaerobically 3 b gt 1012 phototrophic cells per milliliter in the red pink band in the tube Page 5 339 Many can obtain reduced coenzymes by operating electron transport chains in reverse gt Against the thermal gradient 30 N02 9 Nitrite 339 N03 9 Nitrate 0 v Soil is negatively charged gt When fertilizer is applied amp water they separate amp ionize amp the yard becomes green I Goes from positively charged 9 negatively charged Not sticking to the soil but instead they make nitrate N03 gt On the E0 scale if you look all the way down nitrate is right above water amp oxygen I So little energy exchange so they have to eat a lot of pneumonia Turn over a lot of substrate to live gt Most communities get their drinking water from the groundwater gt Pregnant woman drink water with lots of N03 amp develops blue baby syndrome I Baby is fighting this organism for oxygen amp isn t getting the efficient amount of hemoglobin so the baby develops abnormally 339 Discovered Thiobacillus in the mid 1950s 0 v Humans have created this 0 v Hydrogen bacteria that put the hydrogen on the C02 amp create a carbohydrate Page 6 339 First box in right corner is their membrane lipids Page 7 0 v Go home fill up with water put salt in it amp keep dissolving amp adding until it doesn t dissolve anymore Q a gt The Great Salt Lake 3 b gt Sea Salt harvesting gt 1010 organisms per milliliter 339 Pictures below these two are what they look like 339 Dry salted fish gt Split open packed with salt bring it home soak it in water amp through osmosis pull out all of the salt Page 8 339 Methanogens are always in places where there are anaerobic materials 339 The marine biological laboratory in Massachusetts is the oldest biology lab 339 Methanogens are reradiate infrared wavelengths back on the Earth 22 times more 0 v Methanotrophs balance the methane by eating it but not for long 339 Farms use livestock waste amp capture the methane to turn a turbine that runs the whole ranch Hyperthermophillic archae 339 The maximum temperatures can get geothermal temperatures underwater amp that s were we find most of these organisms gt Why important I We know that these represents the upper limits of life on our planet I Kind of organisms we are hunting for in space amp on other planets gt We use these things for their enzymes I The enzymes are essentially stable at these temperatures Just one degree above makes hydrogen bonds break amp they denature apart Page 9 339 Members of the Eukarya are those cells that have a true nucleus 339 Traditionally divided based on a series of morphological amp biochemical properties 339 Mitochondria are for the most part universally present 339 The Protists contain both photrophic amp nonphototrophic organisms 0 v The Fungi are a separate grouping of organisms 339 Cell types include members of the gt Algae gt Fungi gt Slime molds gt Protozoa Page 10 11 339 Diplomonads gt Most likely meet giardia intestinalis gt Where do you get it I Anywhere Sewage waste animals carry it I Can release this fast if we don t filter our drinking water correctly v Parabasalids gt Hydrogenosomes produce hydrogen to make ATP gt Very very common STD I Between 68 million new cases annually v Kinetoplastids gt It induces a kind of cell where you feel very lethargic v Euglenids gt Very common for classroom study I Your 7year old might see this under a microscope in a classroom setting v Ciliates gt The cilia sweep food particles into a food vacuole where it eats it I Found in some digestive tract of dogs I Any aquatic system I Easy experiment Take a piece of sponge Cut it in a little square amp just anchor in the water somewhere for a week Squeeze the sponge into a small glass amp there will be millions of these v Dino agellates gt The groove goes all the way around a cell There is agella in this groove I It creates a current amp goes in this whirling sort of movement gt The toxins are actively exist on other organisms usually in respiratory tract Page 12 339 They are all over the place gt When waves crashing you get an aerosol I You can inhale it gt Mostly in eastern waters Page 13 339 Apicomplexans gt The sporozoites have a sort of point at one end that penetrates your cells gt Very common in warm water amp freshwater environments I The symptoms you receive are like the diplomanids gt A lot of public swimming holes were closed during the drought we had a couple years ago 339 Diatoms gt The silica is basically glass gt They are like petri dishes When they divide they make a new bottom amp top gt No more than 2030 microns Page 14 3 Oomycetes gt They are not fungi even though they look like one gt When your fish dies amp is upside down the next morning amp covered with fuzz this is what it died from gt Phytophora infestans I It was so wet that these guys managed to attack the potatoes in the crops Resulted in some bad economic downfall amp in the food production Induced the movement of millions of people from the United Kingdom Ireland to the United States 0 About 60 0 All settled in Boston 0 The black plague depopulated Europe gt We wouldn t have the Renaissance if this didn t occur 3 Golden Algae Chrysophytes gt They have 2 agella I One moves the organism I The other one acts like a vortex amp sucks bacteria amp other food into a food vacuole gt Prymnesium parvum I Grows in very slightly saline water amp creates toxin Creates a paralysis in the lunges or gills The Brazos River is higher in salt concentration then the Trinity River Lake Granbury Page 15 16 17 3 Cercozoans gt No more than 20 microns across gt The White Cliffs of Dover I All of that huge cliff are these kinds of organisms 3 Radiolarians gt There is always an axis of symmetry gt No more to 1020 microns across gt Single celled organisms 9 v Amoebozoa gt There is one organism that likes warm stannic water If you get this in your respiratory or sinus cavity it swims around amp will get into your brain I Mostly infects little boys 3 Slime molds gt Plasmodial type I One giant mass of permaplasm in Biological Supp Co I The cellular types rescarch onticrsualkcdu632 1 php starccntralmbledumicrosco e ortal h a gt Cellular lime moldon St Augusine grass v Fungi gt The mycelium is the mold I Image of a yeast cell budding Smaller circle is the bud amp the bigger circle is the yeast cell l b 1 o quot If you blew on the whitelpart of an old piece of fruit all of the conidia would blow everywhere The blue picture the mold that yields penicillin the drug 39 gt I The right picture They are called basidium O This are the structures that are microscopically seen on the underside of the head on a mushroom I The left picture Fungus growing on a tree 0 On the underside of the fungus are lots of holes that hollow in a sense amp called ascus 339 Algae gt Plastid is the organelle that holds the chlorophyll amp the photosynthetic apparatus gt They are in soil water air amp everywhere
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