Viruses BIOL 3444 - 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by rocket0724 on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3444 - 001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Thomas Chrzanowski in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Viruses v Viruses Ø About ten times smaller than a bacterium Ø § “ss” means single stranded § “ds” means double stranded § § Very different than the normal nature of the genetic information in regular processes Ø Icsohedrans § § Lots of different variations of what they look like Ø What is their nature? § The nucleic acid is encased by a protein called the capsid & the capsid is made of capsomers § A membrane like material surrounding the capsid is called the envelope § The genetic information articulates with the structure of the virus v Bacteria Viruses Ø Some protein on the surface of the cell that will act as a binding site for the protein on the bacteria virus cell Ø The virus cell will inject the host with its genetic DNA 1 Ø The receptor mediate bonding is from the tail pins Ø The right picture is what happens after the DNA is injected into the cell • You are the cell & it is like you picking up your boyfriends/girlfriends unlocked cell phone & looking through their things § Read it & nothing happens § Read it & it chops up DNA § Read it & it can deactivate your DNA Ø The viral DNA takes over all your metabolic machinery & starts making new viral DNA & cells § Lysis • Cleaves Ø The new virus cell particles come out into the environment Ø We describe the above picture as a single step growth curve 2 Ø Single step growth curve v Infection does not always result in death Ø Virulence is a measure of pathogenic risk Ø Temperate viruses § • If there is a prophage, you will get normal viral cell replication § Streptococcus • Could possibly have the toxin of scarlet fever 3 ♦ The scarlet fever is purely a result of viral DNA § Just replication is blocked v Animal Viruses Ø § The envelope virus is membrane like § During the reading of the DNA, the coding a protein gets coded for a protein to be inputted in the membrane 4 Ø What goes on after a viral infection takes place? v Viroid & Prions Ø Viroid are little pieces of RNA hanging in the dirt § Can inflect plant tissue & cause disease Ø Prions are not viruses § Protein in the environment § It is really tough § When we consume it, it modifies with the neurons & causes it to self replicate & expand upon your neurons • Mental dysfunction is caused ♦ Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are common examples Ø Kuru § Members of the tribe standing off on their own like zombies • Not moving, but falling over & dying § The viral infection was brought about of practices of the tribe • They would eat their dead • Men consumed muscle tissue & women consumed organ tissue • Women would get the disease because it was apart of the nervous tissue § Also happened in cows • Bovine spongiform encephalitis ♦ Cows basically ate each other when remains were grinded up & put into cow feed. 5 v Molecular Biology: Some foundations Ø Supercoil is one strand of the coil taken over the other & closing it Ø The first machine has the parent chromosome & pulls it through Ø The second machine assembles & goes half way through § Add them all up its almost 3 completed DNA, but its only 1 DNA cell Ø RNA synthesized by DNA dependent-RNA polymerase § 5 sub-units to synthesize RNA Ø This occurs at a specific site called the promoter site Ø The -10 position is the Pribnow Box § Rich in AT bonds Ø -35 sequence is rich in AT bonds as well § Easier to break apart bonds Ø The core enzyme of RNA polymerase has all components except sigma. This enzyme is capable of synthesizing RNA essentially anywhere along the DNA strand but the RNA produced is non-sense. Sigma is the unit that is essential to starting the synthesis at the right place on the DNA. Sigma appears to target the -35 & Pribnow sites & align the polymerase onto the promoter. Ø Ribosomes in prokaryotes are 70s & composed of two distinct subunits; 50s & 30s § When the ribosome is completely assembled, it has sites with the structure that function to bind the mRNA, tRNAs, carrying the appropriate amino acids, & provide the conditions that will catalyze the formation of polymers. Ø The first amino acid is formyl-methionine in protein synthesize process Ø Often, the mRNA is being read even before synthesis has been completed 6
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