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OCD and related disorders

by: heatherzim84

OCD and related disorders PSYCH 470

Marketplace > Penn State Harrisburg > Psychlogy > PSYCH 470 > OCD and related disorders
Penn State Harrisburg
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Material will be on next midterm exam.
Abnormal Psychology
Senel Poyrazli, Ph. D.
Class Notes
OCD, obsessive compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, hoarding disorder, compulsions




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by heatherzim84 on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 470 at Penn State Harrisburg taught by Senel Poyrazli, Ph. D. in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Penn State Harrisburg.


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Date Created: 03/08/16
CHAPTER 7 OCD and TRAUMA RELATED DISORDERS OCD & Related Disorders: repetitive thoughts and behaviors that are so extreme that  they interfere with everyday life. Trauma & Related Disorders: triggered by exposure to severely traumatic events Often experience anxiety or other anxiety disorders as well Distinct causes compared to other anxiety disorders Some overlap with anxiety disorders OCD & Related Disorders 1. OCD 2. Body­dysmorphic disorder 3. Hoarding disorder *Genetics are a major cause (40­50%) 1. OCD – include obsessions and compulsions Obsessions­ recurring thoughts, images, or impulses that are persistent and  usually feel irrational to the person experiencing them Compulsions­ repetitive, excessive behaviors or mental acts one feels driven to  perform to reduce anxiety caused by obsessive thoughts or prevent  calamity *Common compulsions include:  Pursuing cleanliness and orderliness, sometimes through elaborate rituals  Performing repetitive, magically protective acts, such as counting or touching a  body part  Repetitive checking to ensure that certain acts are carried out, such as returning  several times to make sure the lights are off, stove is off, etc. *Compulsive eaters, gamblers, and drinkers are not OCD as their acts are considered  pleasurable. *Different from someone with a germ phobia or a single phobia/behavior – recurring  thoughts and behaviors in OCD *Symptoms:   Obsessions and behaviors to calm anxiety  Time consuming (at least 1 hour per day)  Perfectionism (also in anorexia)  Clinical significant distress or impairment *Characteristics:  More common in women, more likely to talk about it/get help  Gender role socialization  Multi­tasking expectations  Chronic disorder  Usually onset before age 10 or during late adolescent/college years  No cultural differences  Easy to keep under control  Prevalence – 2% of the population  Over 75% meet criteria for comorbid anxiety disorders  Over 2/3 meet criteria for major depressive disorder  Substance abuse is common  About 1/3 experience at least some symptoms of hoarding *Treatment:  Medication treatment: antidepressants that help with anxiety (SRI’s)  Psychological treatment: exposure and response­prevention treatments (ERP)  and cognitive/behavioral therapy. 2. Body­Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)  Preoccupation with perceived defect in appearance  Performed repetitive behaviors or mental acts in response to appearance  concerns  Preoccupation is not restricted to concerns about weight or body fat *Characteristics:  Many engage in plastic surgery but no matter how many times they do, they are  still not satisfied  Every time they pass a mirror, they focus on part of body they believe has deficit, compare self to others, camouflage body part, asking for reassurance about body part(s)  Environment and social situations can change chemicals produced by your body, can change genes to affect behaviors  Hard to stop thinking about body concerns – 3 to 8 hours per day  About 1/3 describe delusions about appearance  Up to 1/5 think about suicide  High levels of shame, anxiety, and depression  More common in America  Body part focused on changes in different cultures  Almost all meet criteria for another disorder – especially major depressive  disorder, social anxiety disorder, OCD, substance abuse disorder, and  personality disorders *Treatment:  Psychological treatment: exposure and response­prevention treatments (ERP)  and cognitive/behavioral therapy 3. Hoarding Disorder  Persistent difficulty discarding possessions without regard to value to others  Strong urges to save items and/or distress associated with discarding  Symptoms result in accumulation of large number of possessions that clutter key  areas of the home or workplace to extent that intended use is no longer possible  without intervention *Characteristics:  Need to acquire things is only part of the problem  Abhor parting with objects  Extreme attachment to possessions  Very resistant to efforts to get rid of possessions  About 1/3 (more commonly women) also do animal hoarding  Leads to poor physical health  Many are unable to work  Excessive buying   Starts in childhood or early adolescence *Treatment:  Psychological treatment: exposure and response­prevention treatments (ERP)  and cognitive/behavioral therapy. Kring, A. M., Johnson, S. L., Davison, G. C., & Neale, J. M. (2012). Abnormal  psychology (12 ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 


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