OCD and related disorders
OCD and related disorders PSYCH 470
Penn State Harrisburg
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by heatherzim84 on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 470 at Penn State Harrisburg taught by Senel Poyrazli, Ph. D. in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Penn State Harrisburg.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
CHAPTER 7 OCD and TRAUMA RELATED DISORDERS OCD & Related Disorders: repetitive thoughts and behaviors that are so extreme that they interfere with everyday life. Trauma & Related Disorders: triggered by exposure to severely traumatic events Often experience anxiety or other anxiety disorders as well Distinct causes compared to other anxiety disorders Some overlap with anxiety disorders OCD & Related Disorders 1. OCD 2. Bodydysmorphic disorder 3. Hoarding disorder *Genetics are a major cause (4050%) 1. OCD – include obsessions and compulsions Obsessions recurring thoughts, images, or impulses that are persistent and usually feel irrational to the person experiencing them Compulsions repetitive, excessive behaviors or mental acts one feels driven to perform to reduce anxiety caused by obsessive thoughts or prevent calamity *Common compulsions include: Pursuing cleanliness and orderliness, sometimes through elaborate rituals Performing repetitive, magically protective acts, such as counting or touching a body part Repetitive checking to ensure that certain acts are carried out, such as returning several times to make sure the lights are off, stove is off, etc. *Compulsive eaters, gamblers, and drinkers are not OCD as their acts are considered pleasurable. *Different from someone with a germ phobia or a single phobia/behavior – recurring thoughts and behaviors in OCD *Symptoms: Obsessions and behaviors to calm anxiety Time consuming (at least 1 hour per day) Perfectionism (also in anorexia) Clinical significant distress or impairment *Characteristics: More common in women, more likely to talk about it/get help Gender role socialization Multitasking expectations Chronic disorder Usually onset before age 10 or during late adolescent/college years No cultural differences Easy to keep under control Prevalence – 2% of the population Over 75% meet criteria for comorbid anxiety disorders Over 2/3 meet criteria for major depressive disorder Substance abuse is common About 1/3 experience at least some symptoms of hoarding *Treatment: Medication treatment: antidepressants that help with anxiety (SRI’s) Psychological treatment: exposure and responseprevention treatments (ERP) and cognitive/behavioral therapy. 2. BodyDysmorphic Disorder (BDD) Preoccupation with perceived defect in appearance Performed repetitive behaviors or mental acts in response to appearance concerns Preoccupation is not restricted to concerns about weight or body fat *Characteristics: Many engage in plastic surgery but no matter how many times they do, they are still not satisfied Every time they pass a mirror, they focus on part of body they believe has deficit, compare self to others, camouflage body part, asking for reassurance about body part(s) Environment and social situations can change chemicals produced by your body, can change genes to affect behaviors Hard to stop thinking about body concerns – 3 to 8 hours per day About 1/3 describe delusions about appearance Up to 1/5 think about suicide High levels of shame, anxiety, and depression More common in America Body part focused on changes in different cultures Almost all meet criteria for another disorder – especially major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, OCD, substance abuse disorder, and personality disorders *Treatment: Psychological treatment: exposure and responseprevention treatments (ERP) and cognitive/behavioral therapy 3. Hoarding Disorder Persistent difficulty discarding possessions without regard to value to others Strong urges to save items and/or distress associated with discarding Symptoms result in accumulation of large number of possessions that clutter key areas of the home or workplace to extent that intended use is no longer possible without intervention *Characteristics: Need to acquire things is only part of the problem Abhor parting with objects Extreme attachment to possessions Very resistant to efforts to get rid of possessions About 1/3 (more commonly women) also do animal hoarding Leads to poor physical health Many are unable to work Excessive buying Starts in childhood or early adolescence *Treatment: Psychological treatment: exposure and responseprevention treatments (ERP) and cognitive/behavioral therapy. Kring, A. M., Johnson, S. L., Davison, G. C., & Neale, J. M. (2012). Abnormal psychology (12 ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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