On Liberation Week 3 Notes
On Liberation Week 3 Notes CORE-UA 400 - 080
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CORE-UA 400 - 080
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Halsey Hazzard on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CORE-UA 400 - 080 at New York University taught by Jini Watson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Texts and Ideas: On Liberation in Education and Teacher Studies at New York University.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Lecture Notes 2/8/16 -Book of Exodus – escape from Egypt -- Establishment of Mosaic Law -- The Covenant with God -- Old Testament Ethics/Morals -Modern Appropriations of Exodus Narrative -Implications for ethics/Revolutionary/politics **Reading Question for Las Casas** -How are Native Caribbeans and Christian Spaniards represented? **Exodus – from Greek ‘exodos’ (from ex – “out of” + hodos “way”) nd Exodus is 2 of 5 Mosaic books (Genesis, Exodus, Levicticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy)- - Bible Organized book/chapter/verse (written in prose) - Events date 1500-1280 BC, text dates to 6 centuryh - Covenant – goes from general specifically Israelites, Basic Story: - God liberates Israel from Egypt - God journeys with Israelites too Mt. Sinai - God establishes covenant - Israelites break the covenant but God reestablishes it - God takes up residence amongst the Israelites Backstory (Genesis) - God has made covenant with Abraham promising his people prosperity/Canaan - Joseph goes down to Egypt – Israelites prosper - Egyptians enslave Israelites for prospering too much Escape From Slavery - Moses was unwilling leader but called by God Goes to Pharaoh to ask for freedom, Pharaoh refuses God lays plagues and pestilence on Egyptians Israelites escape through Red Sea, which closes on Egyptians - God manipulates Pharaoh – dramatic performance of divine power in real world - Uses God as vessel for narrating historical events - Community being delivered from oppression, being marked as special see Passover ritual, 33:16 “so we shall be distinct” **Covenant with God - Following commandments, new spiritual/political regime - Divine election – Israelites made chosen people if they obey Old Testament Justice and Ethics - Old Testament God = vengeful god - Ten Commandments – not just decontextualized secular laws, but obligations to gods - Registration/Laws – detailed descriptions of how to treat slaves (seen as part of life) o Ex talionis – aw of relatiation (eye for an eye) Now considered brutal, but then was seen as a limit Personal/property legislation New Battle of Wills -Moses sees Israelites partying, smashes original tablets - Israelites – stubborn, complaining, impatient – led out of slavery and into foodless desert Ethical Dilemma -God says “do not oppress aliens for you were once aliens” -Then says, “smash everybody + take over their territory” tension between hospitality to aliens + displacing people whose lands you take over Anna Hartnell – liberation nation-building dialectic, power cycle Michael Walzer – oppression -> liberation -> social contract -> political struggle -> new society Always a danger of restoration – not revolutionary unless it’s a cycle Post-Exodus Numbers – entire generation lost in the desert for 40 years Joshua – finally reach Canaan, entirely new generation except Moses (who dies shortly thereafter) Question: who is included in liberation? Musical Interlude: “Exodus” by Bob Marley - “Babylon” – connection to secular, materialistic western culture - “Fatherland” – Pan-Africanism, return to Africa, postcolonial black world - “Are you satisfied” – Consciousness raising necessary for revolution Appropriations of Exodus Narrative Puritans – fled to America because of religious persecution, displaced natives Zionists – lay claim to Palestine as holy land Boers – led by Dutch Reform Church, “chosen people” invaded South Africa to make white homeland Dr. MLK Jr. “I’ve seen the mountaintops” speech - “When the slaves get together, that’s the beginning of getting out of slavery” o Relates to pharaoh having slaves fight each other - “we’ve got some difficult days ahead” o Evokes 40 years in the desert o Struggle is worth it even if you don’t see the end - God’s will is on the side of the oppressed - Why did he not use new testament imagery? o New testament often used to justify slavery o Old testament focused on material/political not spiritual salvation o Freedom is not neutral but rather constant struggle Final Notes on Exodus - Enduring model for new/emancipatory politics - Ethical question - Michael Watzer – all liberation follows Egypt wilderness/collective Promised Land - Edward Said – being redeemed makes it impossible for them to see other people in process of being redeemed Lecture Notes February 2 2016 Bartolome de las Casas (1485-1566) - Fought Spanish control of indies, defender of indigenous - Brought Christian scripture into defense of the natives o Said natives were no less civilized; would be ideal Christians - Friend of Columbus, chronicled his voyages, joined him on second one Geography th - Americas called “Las Indias” in the 16 century – name stuck - Islands of Caribbean = West Indies (distinguish from East Indies) - “Americas” named for Vespucci by German mapmaker in 1507 Terms Contact Zones – social spaces where disparate cultures meet, often in highly asymmetrical relations like colonialism, slavery, etc. Encomienda – (from Spanish encomendar – “to entrust”) legal system by which Spanish crown offered grants to settlers in America; depended on exploitation of indigenous for items/labor in exchange for “protection” and evangelization Stereotypes Natives – docile, ‘lambs,’ ineffective weapons, compared to children (condescending) Spanish – barbaric, wolves, needlessly violent Imagery/Characterization Weapons – Taino weapons seen as ineffective, like children playing. Compared to games, jousting Animals – natives = lambs, Spanish = wolves, ironic given Christian imagery Subversion of normal presentation of natives as savage Spirituality – natives seen as gullible/ready to be converted The Black Legend Refers to the fact or fiction that Spanish were uniquely cruel/callous in their interactions with natives Las Casas Very complicated – on one hand, seen as defender of Indies; Ironic stance on translatlantic slave trade Seen as both imperialist + activist/inspired liberation politics Genre: ??? Can be read as historical, but is it truthful? Also travel literature, chronicle Testimonio- reinventing narratives to promote social change William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616) - Most influential writer in all of English canon - 31 plays, 150 sonnets - Earliest performance of Tempest Nov 1 1611 - Originally classified as comedy romance/tragicomedy Terms Exile – state of being banned from one’s own county for political or punitive reasons - Sycorax: witch who had lived on the island o accused of being satan’s lover, blue eyes, pregnant with Caliban o Not quite colonial/colonized, but originally from Algeria - Prospero: crime committed against him – he was wronged o Unlike Sycorax, becomes leader o Like Sycorax, has a child (Miranda) Captivity – the state or period of being held/imprisoned/enslaved/confined Characters Ariel – airy spirit, embodied panopticon, “secret police” Prospero – foil for Sycorax (when Prospera, gap closes further, evokes fallen woman archetype) Caliban – savage/deformed slave, grotesque Relationship to Prospero parallels colonized/colonizer **Reading Questions for Wednesday** What is unusual about Miranda’s betrothal? Why does Prospero give up his magic?
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