ANT 215 Week 6 Notes
ANT 215 Week 6 Notes ANT 215
Popular in Origins of Civilization
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Czowski on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 215 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jeff Chivis in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Origins of Civilization in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Mesopotamia • Create time (minutes and seconds) • Opening first trade groups • Collapsed 4,000 years ago Between Euphrates and Tigris River; water was important for plants, animals, and people but became passage way for trade between 2 economic systems; spring flood were dangerous Fertile terraces of Anatolia contained wild wheat present throughout Turkey; tribes and H/G had all they needed for survival 15,000 BC wheat grew wildly over hills allowing people to settle and obtain and store enough grain that would need to be stored from those who’d take it; first farmers full of invention —especially writing Cereals were main source of Sumarian culture City, States, & Empires Empire: collection by absorption of other city/states into their environment, making them to smaller provinces with their own government although they have taxes/obligations to the empire • Multi-ethic • Multi-lingual • Multiple religions o ALL 3 also for states States: centralized political institutions where ruling elites exercise control over popul ations; as small as 7,000 to millions of people • Highly centralized, formal governments, professional/upper ruling class (Emperor/King) “Civilization”: composed of a large regional tradition that includes one or more state level societies in a given region • Ex. Mesoamerican: of Aztec, • Cohersive power over people • Specialists still present as leaders Like agriculture, state level societies developed independently across the world; most earliest states made of 1,000s to 10,000s of people Independent states obtain revenue (surplus, craft items, raw materials collected, or labor) from members or obligate them to participate in military; they receive protection in times of famine/warfare Exploitative: leaders are gaining wealth and power for themselves at the expense of the population How complex societies arose: • V. Gordan Childe o Agriculture surplus and craft specialization , over time societies gained complexity and gained more wealth and status. As populations grew, they grouped into cities that composed first states. • Hydrolic Theory—Karl Wittfogel o Noticed civilizations were near river valleys and used irrigation. States were a result from the people who controlled the water ways of those systems. Coordinated and maintained canals and canal systems creating power and wealth, resulting in a state level society (democracy). Others were forced to obey the commands of the canal system because cuttings groups off from irrigation system fail them. o Archeological systems were not managed locally by elites. Would look for irrigation present before states, although there’s evidence of larger settlements that began without irrigation • Population growth in circumscribed environment —Carneiro o Valleys separated by large stretches of deserts and resources are limited because o f the landscape that creates a circumscribed environment. This environment was really successful at first—expansion of population and growth in crops. Usually results in competition between people, leading to warfare because of the limited resources that are no longer available. The conquerors become the elites in those societies and become rulers over slaves and tax the other members of society. Based on warfare of conquering others—military and authority elite (state society) o Several assumptions § Population growth is inevitable: § Warfare is the “natural” response to population growth o Issue: population is NOT inevitable because people control the rate of population growth within society. • Marxist Perspectives —Class conflict o Increase in surplus from successful agriculture, you get economic differentiation. More people gaining more power and creates classes within society. Focuses on economy as driving factor. Groups who gain control over production become the elite over time. o State according to this means tha t the group of elites are ruling and exploiting others as it relates to controlling land and the means of production. • Flannery/Wright—Systems theory o Does not put one single cause forwards; different kinds of external stresses that result in changes in the society. The stresses vary based on the culture. 1) population pressure 2) economic factors; Societies become more complex and hierarchal to deal with stresses, increase in hierarchy leads to formation of state. State level society • Hereditary status • Full-time craft specialization • Ranking of settlements within cities based on size, prestige (more luxury goods) Classifying a state • Food/labor controlled by elites • Social stratification • Formal/legal government • Specialized labor • Monumental public works • Dense populations • System of record keeping—writing, characteristics of state -level society • Clear geographical boundaries and territories Leadership in fully-stratified societies • Formal leadership: essential to govern the state by collecting and redistributing goods, providing protection to members, food for the protection of outside invaders Part-time specialization Full-time specialization Elites and nobles can obtain status by earning it rather than inheriting State-level defined by power Ability to make other members do what you want them to, exerting power Persuasive power: swaying peoples opinions to make people do what the bureaucracy wants Symbols of Leaders: linked to religion as it justifies their power over a state; related to a certain god Death: power and authority is maintained and justified over the subordinates, human sacrifice — reinforce the social order and justifying the higher status that the leaders hold 1. Military: provide order and protection to subjugated population and in return others wil l provide the state with goods they produce 2. Bureaucracy: formal hierarchal organization with many levels where tasks, responsibilities, and authority are delegated among individuals, offices, departments held together by central administrator; controlling spread of information 3. Religion: justifies the states power to rule How to keep/maintain their power • Shared display—through military action, prestige goods and public display of monumental works • Ideology: dominant world view used by elites to justify the power; Development of writing: a system of communication between humans with conventional, visible marks
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