HIST 2020 Notes (Mar. 15 & 17)
HIST 2020 Notes (Mar. 15 & 17) HIST 2020-016
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by DeAngelica Rose on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2020-016 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Clay Cooper in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Survey of United States History II in History at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
03/15/2016 ▯ How US prepared for war Planned economy: US actually put its hands in the economy and manipulated it to provide for the war effort; very strong central leader like a dictator; reality for war time US o Businesses that made consumer goods now made stuff for war (guns, ammo, food for soldiers, clothing, fuel) o War boards: group of fed employees who oversaw certain parts of the economy and regulated them Food board Fuel board Railroads/transportation Labor (important priority for fed gov) Workers were given better incentives (hours and pay) but now it’s illegal to go on strike o Fed gov is now reaching out into everyone’s lives Stick and Carrot (negative and positive incentives) o Carrot Committee on public information (CPI) Head: George Creel Propaganda (heavily biased, persuasive that’s designed to appeal to the senses; emotionally charged) used to get Americans on board with the war effort Armenia (1915) Armenian Genocide; Turkish gov executed around 1mill Armenians; first major genocide in American history; Turks believed they (Armenians) were outsiders, culturally distinct, caused decay, blamed them for all of their trouble; Turkish government still denies this happened o Stick Two parts: forced people to fight in the war regardless of will (drafts/process of conscription) (Alvin C York was affected by conscription) and gov would not tolerate anyone speaking out against the war 1917 Espionage (spying) and Sedition (speaking out against the government; lighter form of treason; trying to encourage people to resist government and war) Acts Eugene Debbs (Pullman Strike and ran in 1912 as socialist candidate) : spoke out against the war effort; main concern (as a socialist) was wanting the working class to be treated better (working conditions); the entire WW was a distraction to him; wound up in jail; brought in under the Sedition Act; he spoke about his political beliefs (he didn’t actually say anything bad about the pres but was still thrown in jail) (ran for pres from jail) AFL Sam Gompers : supported pres when war started; made a big deal about their support because he thought it would be beneficial in the long run Freedom of speech: you can’t be locked up for voicing political beliefs People believed they could get the Sedition Act overturned if they took it to the supreme court Schenck v. US (1918) o SC ruled that Sedition Act was constitutional; Oliver Wendell Holmes set the limits of free speech (ex. ‘you can’t yell ‘fire’ in a crowded theater’) free speech ends when it violates national security (puts people in danger) ▯ Conflict Technology outpaced strategy in WWI Fought with tactics of the previous war even though the tech was more advanced o Trenches o Concrete bunkers o Mustard gas (worst part) Kills you by drowning you in your own fluids (causes your lungs to break up and fill with fluid so you’d partly drown and partly cough up parts of your lungs mixed with blood) o Machine guns o Artillery shells o Airplanes o No mans land (between trenches and littered with landmines and barb wire) Defensive tech became so good that a direct assault was suicide Most of these battles were pretty much stand stills Battle of Verdun close to 1mil people died This war left a lot of soldiers who survived this were shell shocked (PTSD) quieter, distant, different, sat by themselves and lived more solitary lives, nothing treatable for it Among the British, French and Germans millions of them died o Referred to as the Lost Generation (since they didn’t come back) US didn’t lose as many people as Europe Even when a cease fire was called (Armistice 11 am on 11/11/18) both sides agreed to stop war then, commanders were still sending soldiers at 10:30 am even though the war was already resolved Wilson entered the war to make this the last war and make the world safe for democracy Wilson’s 14 Points (won’t cover all of them) (13 of them were ignored because the US came late, lost less people, the war wasn’t fought on their land, the US had lost very little in comparison, Wilson filled the American stereotype of barging in and claiming he was in charge) o Self Determination: ability for a group of people (nation) to govern themselves instead of being under the heal of another country o League of nations : proposed diplomatic form where all nations could work out their problems civilly by discussing them instead of fighting (idea behind United Nations); makes it into final treaty in 1919; ironic because the US never joined the league of nations since Wilson had a stroke and couldn’t campaign for this so they took it to congress who didn’t pass it French wanted heavy reparations since they thought Germany started the war France took lots of money from Germany for years to come and took some of their land Currently in peace time now, soldiers come home and families reunite 1919 should be a fun happy year but it’s not and sees more death than the years before it ▯ 1919: The Year of Discord 5 Aspects o Spanish Flu pandemic (spread around the world) that killed about 100 million Americans killed more than the bubonic plague ; deadliest outbreak of any disease that we’ve ever seen more people died because of this than the war public health was at a minimum o Economic Recession Economy tanked 15% inflation (prices rose by 15%) since companies weren’t making much money during the war; costs of products rise but the workers pay does not (they’re often being paid less) o Unhappy Workers Largely driven by decreased purchasing power Gov’s temp boost in wages are now gone Find themselves working for less Can’t form unions Lots of strikes (3600 in this year) (over 4mil workers) Ex) police goes on strike (in Boston), baseball players (had to work during off season since they didn’t make enough money to get by) Charles Comiskey: Chicago White Sox owner; forced players to pay to wash their own uniforms (were fined if they showed up with a dirty uniform); because bb players were making very little most worked on the side (gambles <throw games>) <- was pretty common knowledge among players (but not the general public) could not throw the World Series The Black Sox scandal 8 bb players agreed to throw World Series in 1919 o Shoeless Joe Jackson (name came from his shoes not fitting properly when he was younger so he would take them off halfway through the game): name was signed on a piece of paper that said he was going to throw the game but he was a poor, illiterate South Carolinian; it’s very likely someone tricked him into signing it; one of the best players in the world series (did nothing to try to lose) but because his name was on it he (and the other 7) were kicked out of bb permanently o Race Riots Throughout the US Wartime escalated a series of changes that were happening since 1900 Great Migration (1900 - 1920) large movement of African Americans from deep south to the north Push factor: wanted to leave after 1900 because of Jim Crow Pull factor: there were jobs open for them (more industrial ones) (especially during WWI) By the end of the war when soldiers (white) return from overseas they find competition for their jobs and larger African American communities where there hadn’t been White veterans were seeing African American families moving into previously white neighborhoods and job comp Chicago Race Riot: took place in the summer of 1919; on shores of Lake Michigan the beach was segregated but was done by practice (ropes) vs being written in the law books; on a summer day a young black boy swam into the white section; whites threw rocks at him, hit him in the head, he passed out and drowned; this lead to a several day riot 38 people were killed in this riot o Red Scare ‘red’ meaning ‘communists’ people were thrown into jail with no trials and not being told what they were accused of detained indefinitely because of their political beliefs Alexander Berkman (shot/stabbed Carnegies #2 in command) and his love interest Emma Goldman were both included in group of people who were arrested and not particularly charged with a crime These people were sent to Russia ▯ **Side note: Bolshevik Revolution, Vladmir Lenin ▯ Russia became first communist nation USSR in 1917 ▯ Radicals in US and violent communists rejoiced at this event and began a series of anarchtic plots (Sending bombs as packages to the homes of rich people) ▯ A Mitchell Palmer : Attorney General (Top legal advisor to Pres); decided that any known or suspected communists/radical should be rounded up and tossed into jail with no questions asked since the chaos that came from the bombings was a threat to national security ▯ Palmer Raids led to Red Scare** ▯ ▯ 3/17 ▯ ▯ Roaring ‘20s (a very distinct era) US comes out of the recession; the economy starts booming (on the top end) Nightlife, entertainment, music mass production of the automobile year for presidential election (TR died, WW suffered a stroke) ▯ Warren G (Gamaliel) Harding (R) Set the trend for presidents in 20s Advocates “a return to normalcy” o Important when he says this because the original word was ‘normality’ but he misread it The “normal” he’s looking for: o The end of all of the chaos that happened in 1919 (wartime chaos, flu, recession, etc.) o Main point: labor unions, worker strikes o He wanted to get rid of labor strikes/unions since he thought they were ruining America; he wanted to go back to the Guilded Age where big businesses controlled society and Presidents didn’t do much, they sat back and let big business run things which was vastly different from the previously active presidents o Sets the trend for R pres in ‘20s o In the middle of prohibition he had his own alcohol brought to him in the white house o Presidency was marked with lots of scandals “Teapot Dome Scandal” bribery of public officials closest advisors were involved in this likely Harding was at the very least aware that it was happening popular opinion of him was that he was a criminal and hired criminals o only thing that saved him from being impeached was that he died in office (1923) o believes in a hands off economy ▯ Calvin Coolidge (’24-’28) Took over when Harding died o Also believed the economy should take care of himself o Other than that he they were vastly different than Harding ▯ Changes in Workers’ Lives during ‘20s Paid vacation for the first time (not all workers but a lot) o There was no vacation for most workers prior to this Stock options o As a part of your regular wages you get stock shares in the company so you own a small part of it Reason: it’s incentive to get them to work harder and make better products Company unions o More of these show up where labor unions had been entirely prohibited o Union in that workers are organized and are a voice for their concerns o Company in that the company was the one who paid and organized the unions ▯ How do workers obtain these reforms? Henry Ford o Significance Made interchangeable parts (took moving assembly line idea that was in meat packing plants to construct cars) Allows mass production : Model T being the first o Moving Assembly Line Moving conveyer belt (powered by electricity) brings part of car by workers, they do their one job repeatedly (it’s their only job so people become experts of small things; but it allows quick mass production) Because they can be made faster it takes less labor Car cost drops from $950 to $250 More people can buy cars Notorious for incentivizing his workers $5 a day workday (notorious for) welcomed African Americans more than other industries Why give workers incentives? o Attracts a steady work supply o They won’t go on strikes if they’re happy/content Won’t be a shut down in production o One of the first people to realize that his employees were not just useful because they could make things. They were useful in that they bought things o He was increasing his own sales by paying his workers enough to buy things o These practices start to be imitated in other businesses ▯ Downside to Assembly Lines Monotony Workers felt their labor wasn’t as useful as it was before assembly lines o went from building entire cars by themselves to just tightening one bolt for the rest of their lives ▯ Major Cultural Change Modern Mass Culture o Modern: what’s present (not right now; more so a philosophy of what’s current) o 3 New Forms of Media film (’28 when silent films become ‘talkies’) radio both are mass since they’re parts of culture that can be broadcast internationally accents start to decline around this time advertising (old form but takes a new shape because of film and radio) originally in newspapers and could easily be glossed over film and radio present a new way to present their ads much harder to ignore gets more entertaining if you can be led in with a commercial modern commercials come from this this is like being a traveling salesman who can walk through walls Important in that it affects socialization Socialization: process of making a human; refers to education (moral, academic, life experience, etc) influences children: how they think, behave o originally (traditionally) learned from churches, schools, family o children are exposed to different ideas because of mass media ▯ Modern Aspect of ‘20s Clash of ideologies via Scopes “Monkey” Trial 1925 in Dayton, TN o “Monkey” in that it involved teaching evolution o humans had a similar ancestor as chimpanzees o said the world was older than originally predicted in the bible o they didn’t want this taught in school o clinging to traditional values o evolution was illegal since it contradicted the bible in TN o Butler Act: made teaching evolution illegal o John Scopes Sub teacher who occasional taught biology A part of this trial since he agreed to be ACLU thought Butler Act violated basic rights and agreed to pay defense cost for teachers who willingly broke Butler Act Didn’t really know if he taught evolution or not (in the end he did) still went on trail o Becomes nation wide because: Of who took the case William Jennings Bryan (happily prosecuted Scopes for free for ideological reasons) Voters thought he was old fashioned since he believed every word of the bible was true Defense attorney (also working for free) Clarence Darrow Atheist (and open about it in a largely religious society) Defended this for ideological reasons o Towards the end Darrow put Bryan on the defense stand as a witness o The tactic was to expose what Bryan “knew” about the bible This brought about ridicule since Bryan didn’t know the answers This caused people to see him as a laughing stock This entire tried seemed like a cultural clash between the North (urban) v South (rural) o Scopes was found guilty but no one cared about that o This trial showed how old timey the South was ▯ ▯
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