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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lucy Stevens on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3240 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Claudio Cantalupo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see PSYCH 3240 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Chapter 8 3-8-16 Read Up to Page 233 Emotion and the Nervous System *E- Motion: E represents movement from inside to the outside. *Ex (Out) Movere (to move) *Something that starts inside and gets expressed out through a movement or response. Stirring up of the mind. *Movement of mind (soul) (“feeling” ex: happiness) Body’s responses (smiling, higher heart rate) *Smiling controlled by the somatic nervous system *Higher heart rate controlled by the autonomic nervous system (Sympathetic) *Relationship between emotional experience and body’s response is unclear/controversial. James-Lang Theory of Emotion (late 1800s): o Perception of specific patterns of physiological arousalspecific emotional response o The change in your body comes first (heart rate increasing, sweating) Cannon’s criticism (1920): autonomic nervous system responds the same way in different emotions perception of physiological responses cannot account for variety of emotional experiences that we feel o Because of this, the James-Lang theory was basically abandoned Emotion was poorly popular in psychology up until the 1960s. Schachter and Singer’s (1962) Cognitive Theory: o Identification of emotions relies on cognitive assessment of the external stimulus situation- physiological arousal contributes only to the sensation of the intensity of that emotion. “Epinephrine” experiments Control group and experimental group were both given epinephrine, but only the control group was told what the effects would be. Both groups exposed to the same setting in the doctors waiting room. Another person was in the waiting room and acted in one of three ways. *Distinctive patterns of autonomic activation among different emotions -Anger and sadness both elevate heart rate, but only anger involves also motor activation *Facial expressions as a source of emotional feedback -Holding a pen in your mouth and the Far Side cartoons study: -Two groups of subjects and were told to evaluate funniness of cartoons. -Control Group: Told to do while holding a pen in lips. -Experiments Group: hold pen between front teeth without touching it with their lips *Both Cognitive assessment of external stimulus physiological feedback play a role in emotion. Emotion and the Nervous System Limbic System 1. Hypothalamus: electrical stimulation in animals produces threatening or defensive behaviors (cats hissing, bared teeth and claws); electrical stimulation in humans evokes feelings of rage, fear, and pleasure 2. Septal Nuclei: electrical stimulation in humans evokes feelings of pleasure (particularly sexual) 3. Amygdala: involved in perception of facial expressions and emotion (particularly fear); damage to amygdala removes fear and aggression in animals; direct stimulation produces fear and aggression; anti-anxiety medications have some of their effect in the amygdala a. Plays a major role in fear and anxiety b. Fear= emotional reaction to a specific immediate threat c. Anxiety= apprehension about a future, and often uncertain, event 4. Circulate Gyrus: hub where many different brain networks converge a. Anterior Cingulate Cortex: combines emotional, attentional, and bodily information to bring about conscious emotional experience. Emotion and Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) *Lot of connections with limbic system (LS) *Use of emotional information from LS for making decisions -Damage to PFC: *Blunts emotional responding *Impairs ability to anticipate consequences of behavior (long-term consequences in particular) Emotion and Hemispheric Asymmetry Left and right cerebral hemispheres can differ in: o Anatomical structure- structural asymmetry (ex: Broca’s area larger in left hemisphere than right) o Function performed- functional asymmetry (ex: left hemisphere more involved in linguistic functions than the right hemisphere) Right hemispheres more involve din emotional expression o Facial expressions of emotion o Chimerical Faces: people are asked to rank Find left chimerical faces to be more expressive; explained because the left side of the brain is more expressive than the right side of the brain. o Studies show that the right side of the mouth opens sooner, which indicates that the left side of the brain controls speech