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Principles of Wildlife Ecology

by: Isabel Kub

Principles of Wildlife Ecology F&W ECOL 318

Isabel Kub
GPA 3.56

James Berkelman

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James Berkelman
Class Notes
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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabel Kub on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to F&W ECOL 318 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by James Berkelman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/205245/f-w-ecol-318-university-of-wisconsin-madison in Forestry and Natural Resources at University of Wisconsin - Madison.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
Thermoregulation 9222010 74800 PM Thermo regulation terms Homeotherm maintains constant body temp Poikilotherm body temp varies with environmental temp Endotherm uses interal heat source to thermoregulate Ectotherm uses external heat source to thermoregulate Homeotherm endotherm mostly Poikilotherm ectotherm synonymous Advantages of endothermy vs ectothermy Endothermy o Tolerate wider range of conditions 0 Can be active day or night yr round 0 Aerobic metabolism sustain longer activity Ectothermy 0 Greater efficiency 0 Lower energy demands 0 Smaller body size possible Metabolic heat production Cellular respiration releases energy C6H1206 602 quot9 6C02 6H20 energy some stores but much dissipated as heat metabolic rate rate of energyreleasing reactions in the body Standard basal metabolic rate lowest rate of energy expenditure of resting fasting animal in its comfortable temp range Thermoneutral zone temp range over which an animal can maintain a constant body temp wo raising its metabolic rate H1 PEKTR6 7 HomgoTAEm l I H iPoTaeaemy 39 15mm aodmam t Tm v atan Tammmm 531 E 3 1 u 39 39 15 A o 22 rmmmsurmz t I 21393 E g Y S 39 39 3quot 9quot Q 6 3 6 fry 5 Va 3 0398 0 39 l i t 1 Low T 39 EHanormsm39i AL TEMP Processes of heat transfer 0 Radiation 0 Animals gain radiant heat from the sun and felfected frm the atmosphere and nearby objects 0 Animals lose heat as they radiate it to their environment 0 Net gain during daytime net loss at night 0 Conduction 0 Animals can either gain or lose heat to the ground or other objects depending on their relative temp o If temp of animal is 30 and rock is 20 then the animal loses heat if animal is 30 and rock is 40 then the animal gains heat o Convection 0 Animals can gain or lose heat depending on relative temp of animal and fluid 0 Usually involves heat loss from animal 0 Insulation reduced convective heat loss o Evaporation 0 Always results in heat loss from the animal 0 Sweating panting bathing increase evaporative heat loss to prevent overheating Bergmann s and Allen s Rules o Bergmann s Rule 0 Individuals of a given species are larger in cold climates than in warm climates o Allen s rule 0 Individuals of a given species have shorter extremities in cold climates than in warm climates Energy and Nutrition 9222010 74800 PM Digestive efficiency Gross energy intake total energy contained in food consumed Net energy intake energy available after food has been processed Net energy gross energy energy in feces energy in urine cost of extraction Energy Demands Self maintenance energy demands 0 O O O O 0 Looking for food Processing food Predator avoidance Growth Locomotion Thermoregulation Reproduction energy demands 0 O O O O O O Courtship Territorial defense Nest or den construction Gamete production Egg laying or bearing live young Lactation Parental care Factors affecting energy demands 0 O O O 0 Temp Food availability Body size Locomotion Seasonality Essential Nutrients Water Carbs Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals Macronutrients minerals needed in relatively large quantities 0 Calcium Ca Phosphorus P Sodium Na Potassium K Magnesium Mg Chlorine Cl Sulfur S o Micronutrients trace elements minerals needed in very small quantities 0 Iron Fe Iodine I Zinc Zn etc Carnivores vs herbivores o Energy and nutrition for carnivores o Nutritionally balanced diet 0 Little variation in food quality 0 More difficult to get enough food than to get a balanced diet 0 Face undernourishment o Energy and nutrition for herbivores 0 Food more abundant but lacking in some nutrients especially proteins and minerals 0 Food quality is highly variable 0 Face malnourishment o Nutritional value of plant parts seeds gt fruits gt buds gt young leaves gt old leaves gt stems and branches gt bark Animals with specialized diets o Hummingbirds 0 Diet nectar mostly carb o Nectar very low in protein vitamins or minerals 0 Eat insectsspiders to balance diet o Vampire bats 0 Diet blood mostly protein 0 Blood very low in fats or carbs 0 Minimal nutrient storage must consume and excrete large amounts of liquid o Porcupines 0 Diet tree bark low in nutrition Low energy demands Digestive microbes increase protein intake Attracted to anything salty O O O O Habitat selection 9222010 74800 PM Habitat place where an animal lives Habitat selection process by which an animal chooses a place to live Limiting factor resource or environmentalcondition that limits an animal s abundance and distribution o Have big effect on habitat selection and what type of habitats and animal will choose Generalists and specialists o Habitat generalists wide range of habitats o Able to live in many different areas but not ideally suited to any specific habitat 0 Always going to be a little disadvantaged relative to those in the habitat who are specialized for that habitat 0 Do well in human altered habitats o Rabbits deer coyotes o Habitat specialists narrow range of habitats 0 Strong competitors in their preferred habitat but vulnerable to habitat losschanges 0 Usually endangered species Ultimate and proximate factors o Ultimate factors determine how well animal will survive and reproduce in its chosen habitat why animal chooses this habitat o Proximate factors provide animal with cue that the right conditions are in a certain location not what animal NEEDS in envir but some feature in habitat alerts animal you re in the right place o Habitat selection of breeding birds 0 Ultimate factor food availability when chicks are in the next 0 Proximate factor general appearance of the vegetation in early spring Limiting factors o Food availability 0 Often the most important limiting factor 0 Most species reach their highest population densities when food is most abundant Water 0 Important in dry or seasonally dry climates 0 Animals that require free liquid water can only live in areas near a water source 0 Amphibians require water for breeding and to keep their skin moist most limited by water Cover 0 Provides protection from weather or predators 0 Especially important in winter when animals are thermally stressed Temperature 0 Animals prefer habitats where it is easiest for them to maintain their heat balance Habitat preferences may vary seasonally Ex prefer warmer southfacing slopes in winter and cooler northfacing slopes in winter 0 0 Soil 0 Siol texture is important for fossorial burrowing animals 0 Soil type determines whether minerals and other nutrients will be present in plants in sufficient quantities for herbivores 0 Many herbivores have challenge getting all the essential minerals in their diet neededcertain essential minerals lack in soil they ll be limited in the plant as well Reproductive sites 0 Important for animals with special requirements for nests or dens Ex presence of large dead trees for cavity nesting birds Predators 0 Especially important during reproductive season when young and attending parents are most vulnerable 0 Ex ground nesting seabirds may be restricted to islands where predators are absent Social structure 0 In territorial species animals can only occupy habitats where there are undefended territories o In solitary species animals may be restricted to habitats where they can find a mate Role of inheritance vs learning o Inheritance genetically encoded preferences for certain habitats o Learning modification of inherited preferences based on prior experience Habitat selection experiments on deer mice o 2 subspecies races prairie deer mouse and woodland deer mouse o Experiment released both wildcaught and labreared mice of both races and observed habitat in which they settled Results of habitat selection experiment Most select habitat they need wo prior exposure Learning can reverse heritance Released Observed Wild caught mice all select right habitat Labreared 1 generation 1020 select wrong habitat Crossfostered reared by most select habitat of foster parent parents in other habitat Labreared 20 generations random habitat selection no pattern Mechanisms involved in learning o Habitat imprinting habitat preference acquired thru exposure early in life o Sit tenacity tendency for animals to return to the same location they occupied previously o Philopatry tendency for animals to return to or remain in the areas where they were reared Adaptations to seasonality 9222010 74800 PM Daily periodicity 24 hr rotation of earth on its axis causes daily cycle of light and dark periods animal activity patterns follow daily fluctuations in environmental conditions environmental factors that fluctuate daily 0 temp 0 relative humidity o precipitation 0 food availability diurnal animals active in the day ex birds squirrels diurnal activity pattern nocturnal activity pattern most active during night ex most mammals owls crepuscular activity patternmost active at dawn and dusk ex deer rabbits 3 IE 639 to a o E 3 o E lt 1200 eoo 1200 6oo 1200 midnight AM noon PM midnight Time of day Lunar tidal periodicity Typical of animals in the intertidal zone Some active at high tide others at low tide Complete tidal cycle takes about 124 hrs Pattern 2 activity periods per day that are about 50 minutes later each day Annual periodicity Season caused by earth s rotation around sun and inclination of its axis Northern hemisphere titled towards the sun from MarchSept Southern hemisphere tilted towards the sun from Sept March Photoperiod o of hrs of daylight over a 24 hr period 0 annual variation increases with increasing latitude ex photoperiod in Madison 12 hrs in sept and march 9 hrs in dec 15 hrs in June environmental factors that fluctuate annually 0 temp o precipitation o prevailing winds 0 vegetation 0 food availability seasonal events reproduction 0 times so young arrive when food is most abundant 0 Wisconsin birds start nesting in spring so chicks will be ready to hatch around June 0 Large mammals ie deer mate in fall so that young will be born the following spring 0 Delayed implantation Some mammals can delay implantantion of fertilized eggs in the uterine wall so that young are born when there is suffiecient food Occurs in bears seals and members of weasel family Seasonal events molting 0 Season change in thickness texture or color of feather or fur increases energy demands 0 Molting at the tight time aids thermoregulation predator avoidance and finding a mate Seasonal events Migration 0 Seasonal movement between two ranges occupied for only part of the yr 0 Birds engage in hyperphagia increased apetite in advance of departure o Seasonal events dormancy torpor 0 Reduction of body temp and metabolic rate to conserve energy 0 Hibernation or aestivation o Requires extended preparation and precise timing Ultimate and proximate factors o Ultimate factor underlying cause 0 Exerts a direct effect on an animal s fitness 0 Answers the why question 0 Ultimate factors for response to seasonal changes food availability water temp o Proximate factor 0 Environmental cue or mechanism that elicits a response 0 May not directly affect an animal s fitness 0 Answers the how question 0 Proximate factor for response to seasonal changes photoperiod most often o Example timing of breeding season in birds 0 Ultimate factor food availability Timed so chicks will hatch during period of greatest food 0 Proximate factor photoperiod Increasing day length causes hormonal changes in birds to prepare for breeding Endogenous rhythms o Builtin biological clocks that allow animals to time their activities o Circadian rhythm periodicity of about 1 day o Circannual rhythm periodicity of about 1 year c Circadian rhythms persist under constant lab conditions o Circadian rhythms often not exactly 24 hours 0 Activity period a little earlier each day if no cues available o Zeitgeber 0 Environmental cue that synchronizes animal s internal clock with its environment o Photoperiod most frequent zeitgeber for circannual rhythms migration 9222010 74800 PM Types of movements o Migration regular seasonal movemnt of a population between 2 or more seasonally occupied areas 0 Typically between a breeding area and nonbreeding or wintering area 0 Animals that migrate Aerial birds bats insects spiders n Arctic tern bird 9 migrates up to 20000 miles per yr between the arctic and the Antarctic a Monarch butterfly 9 larger s converge on small area of Mexican highlands during the winter Terrestrial ungulates carnivores amphibians reptiles millipedescentipedes spiders n Wildebeest 9 migrate between drier south end and wetter north end of Serengeti plains n Eastern tiger salamander 9 migrates between breeding ponds and upland areas where they burrow underground Marine fish whalesdolphins sealssea lions penguins sea turtles a Pacific salmon 9 spend adult life in the ocean then return to streams and rivers to breed D Gray whale 9 migrate between summer feeding grounds in north pacific and winter breeding grounds off baja California o Dispersal permanent oneway movement of an animal away from its natal area 0 Often involves juveniles moving to a new area to avoid competition with their parents o Irruption irregular mass movement of large numbers of animals in response to food shortage 0 Animals that live in areas of climatic extremes and undergo cyclic population fluctuations o Nomadism irregular and unpredictable wandering in search of food or water o Often associated with reliance on a highly unpredictable food source Evolutionary origins o Migration allows animals to take advantage of seasonally available food o Requires strong selective pressure high energetic costrisk of death o Independent origin in different groups of animals under different conditions o Possible origins o Nomadic wandering become more regular as food becomes more reliable Irruptions increase in frequency as more individuals survive Northward expansion of ranges following retreat of ice during interglacial periods 0 Many species have both migratory and resident populations o Most of our birds originated from tropical species flying north during breeding season 0 More land longer days more seasonally abundant food less competition less nest predation at high latitudes than tropics Preparation for migration o Birds accumulate fat by consuming large quantities of energy rich food before migrating Premigratory fattening must start well in advance so bird is ready at the right time Decreasing photoperiod acts as Zeitgeber time giver 9 environmental cue that synchronizes bird s internal clock Timing of departure 0 Most bird species migrate within window of time that optimized survival and reproductive success Period of Zugunruhe premigratory restlessness prior to departure o Conserve energy by flying with tailwinds ie north winds during fall south winds during spring 0 O O Routes o Migratory routes routes followed depend on locations of major geographical features 0 Birds typically follow N to S oriented coastlines river valleys or mountain ranges o Flyways broad bands in which numerous species follow similar migration paths o Different pattern in each hemisphere 0 Western hemisphere positions of N amp S America mountain ranges and islands facilitate N to S movement 0 Eastern hemisphere mountain ranges Mediterranean Sea and Sahara Desert act as barriers o Overlapping flyways facilitate spread of avian influenza Intraspecific competition 9222010 74800 PM Competition use of defense of a resource by one individual that reduces availability of that resource to other individuals Intraspecific competition occurs between member of the same species Interspecific competition occurs between members of 2 or more species Overlap in resource use within vs between species 0 Ex range of prey sized taken by 2 individuals of the same species and one individual of a different species Types of competition 0 Exploitative scramble competition through reduction of shared resources 0 Each individual s use of a resource makes it less available to others 0 No direct interaction between competitors 0 Differences among individuals allow some to be more efficient at exploiting limited resources 0 Differences between individuals can reduce competition Size age sex Reverse sexual size dimorphism in raptors so not the same Prey o Interference contest competition in which individuals actively interfere with one another s access to resources 0 Dominance hierarchy pecking order among individuals in a social group that shares space Typically occur in large social groups that live together Those highest in pecking order get priority access to limited resources Advantages n Orderly distribution of limited resources a Minimizes need for aggression n Dominants get priority access to good mates etc a Subordinates get less access to resources but still receive benefits of group living Factors that determine rank a Size larger individuals dominant n Age older individuals dominant a Sex males often dominant but not always a Experience increases dominance n Hormone levels increase dominance n Reproductive condition breeders dominant over non breeders o Territoriality division and exclusive occupation of space by an individual or group with a defended boundary Territoriality 9222010 74800 PM Territory a fixed area that an animal actively defends in order to have exclusive access to resources Territory l home range Home range total area over which an animal roams over a period of time All animals have home ranges only some defend territories Home range size may vary over time Home range size always is great than or equal to territory size Home ranges often overlap but territories do not Types of territories Multipurpose 0 Used for everything an animal does 0 Encompasses entire home range very large area 0 Most song birds and some mammals Breeding site 0 Supplies everything except food 0 Smaller than animal s home range 0 Animals with special requirements for breeding sites Nest space within a colony 0 Pair defend immediate area of nest only 0 Found among colonial nesters sea birds vultures swallows Feeding site 0 Used for feeding only and not breeding 0 Found among some migratory birds during nonbreeding season Display site 0 Used strictly for courting and mating o Defend a small area within a communal display area 0 Found in frogs and toads game birds some mammals Lek area where males gather to perform courtship displays for females Costs and benefits Economic approach to determining when certain behaviors likely to evolve The higher the benefitcost ratio for a behavior the more likely that an animal will engage in that behavior Costs and benefits of territoriality 0 Costs time and energy spent in defense 0 Benefits exclusive access to resources not available otherwise Effect of resource abundance on bc ration o Scarce resources need to defend a large area to get enough Low bc because of high defense costs 0 Abundant resources enough available for everyone Low bc because low benefit for having territory 0 Moderately abundant resources cost not too high sufficient benefit to justify cost Highest bc ratio dotsresources line territory Effect of resource distribution on benW c Q o Evenly space resources High cost because large area needed low bc o clumped resources A lower cost bc less area needed high bc Q o randomly spaced resources bc could be low or high unpredictable O o effect of population density on benefitcost ratio 0 low density fewer intruders lower cost to defend territory high bc 0 high density many intruders higher cost to defend territory low bc territoriality more likely at low population densities because of great bc ratio 0 territory size o optimum territory size point where benefits exceed costs by greatest margin costs COStS or benefits benefits territory size 0 effect of resource abundance on territory size 0 territories tend to get larger as resources get scarcer 0 when resources get too scarce territories are no longer defended 0 effect of body size on territory size 0 larger animals defend larger territories in absolute terms 0 smaller animals defend larger territories relative to their body size a effect of diet on territory size 0 territory size of carnivores gt omnivores gt herbivores o carnivores need to cover a large area to find enough prey o herbivores generally can find enough to eat w in a small area Signaling territory ownership 0 Visual signals gestures o Auditory signals songs calls etc o Olfactory signals scent marking Exam 3Distribution patterns 9222010 74800 PM NOVEMBER 10th EXTRA CREDIT EVALUATION FORM NEEDED TO BE TURNED IN EXAM 2 0 Number 3 answer B Number 4 answer A 0 NOT reverse sexual size dimorphism bc then the F would be larger than M Number 11 answer D Number 12 answer B 0 Physiological longevity is how long an animal is prolonged to live Number 14 Number 23 answer D 0 High turnover rate when a lot of individuals going in over a period of time constant influx of individuals Number 46 answer A o Ruffed grouse share same predators as the snowshoe hare so they both have a 10 year cycle 0 Number 50 answer B 1 Biogeography study of geographic distribution patterns a b Species tend to be different from continent to continent or a single part of a continent Six biogeographic realms i Boundaries between realms follow major geographic barriers 1 Nearctic north America and Mexican highlands 2 Neotroplcal south and central America 3 Ethiopian sub Saharan African and Madagascar 4 Palearctic Europe Africa north of the Sahara and Asia minus India and SE Asia Oriental Indian subcontinent SE Asia Philippines western Indonesian islands Australian Australia new guinea E Indonesian islands new Zealand Polynesia ii Wallace s Line bisects the country of Indonesia U1 9 1 Most dramatic change in species composition of any realm boundary Follows deep ocean trench a Always been separated by water West of line Asian fauna and flora 4 East of line Australian fauna and flora Wallacea region east 0 line that was never connected to either continent a Sulawesi largest island in the region i Many species with clear affinities to Asia ie macaques monkey hornbill bird tarsier primate Animals with Australian affinities ie cuscus marsupial cockatoo 1 NO MARSUPIALS IN ASIAN carry young in a pouch Sulawesi endemics 1 Babirusa wild pig 2 Maleo megapode uses geothermal heat to incubate eggs 3 Anoa dwarf water buffalo 2 Zoogeography study of animal distribution patterns 3 Phytogeography study of plant distribution patterns N LA U39l Range continuity patterns a continuous range i Uninterrupted distribution within outermost range limits ii Example American robin b Disjunct range i Distributed in two or more discreet areas separated by a gap ii Example redshouldered hawk east and California c Seasonal geographic range i Different range for each season ii Typical of migratory birds iii Example blackpoll warbler d Extralimital occurrence Accidental individual that has wandered outside its normal geographic range Often a migratory bird blow off course Happen a lot after large storms


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