Survey of Horticulture
Survey of Horticulture HORT 120
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Imelda Casper on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HORT 120 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Sara Patterson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see /class/205249/hort-120-university-of-wisconsin-madison in Agricultural & Resource Econ at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Hort 120 REVIEW QUESTIONS for EXAM 1 1 How may climate change affect our ability to grow crops Changes climate regions Therefore not allowing crops to grow agronomical in a certain area as they normally would 2 The release of energy to control cellular processes occurs in all living organisms and is known as respiration Alternatively plants are unique in their ability to capture energy and this process is known as photosynthesis Brie y outline the basic process of photosynthesis that occurs in the majority ofplants and the two alternative forms C3 C4 CAM C3 The most widely used form of photosynthesis This is done in most plants Take in of light energy H20 and output C02 and sucrose C4 Photosynthesis involving an extra carbon that allows the process to occur at a higher rate of efficiency thus allowing the creation of higher volumes of sucrose in one process of photosynthesis CAM The type of photosynthesis used by desert plants They perform the photosynthesis process of collecting sunlight during the day and transform that energy to sucrose at night when the temperature has gotten much colder 3 Distinguish horticulture from agronomy Scale of production and occasionally the type of crop Corn when grown in largescale production is agronomical 4 List 10 ways that plants impact our lives note there are a couple very important ways that are essential Fooa Clotling OAjgen Production Maintain Air Quality CO2 Shield Furniture Medicrne Shelter Paper Maintain Environment Economics 5 We learned about the organs ofthe plant and their role in development Choose three and brie y describe their function Mitochondria 7 Respiration Chloroplast 7 Cellular Respiration Nucleus 7 DNA transfer and reproduction of cellsplants 6 How could the structure ofthe root system determine a plants ability to survive its environment Marshy areas require small stems to avoid overwatering ie moss Desert areas require long deep root system to search for and gather as much water as possible in such a dry area Size of the plant Trees need long extensive roots to support the constant photosynthesis in all it s leaves 7 Diagram the shoot of a plant identifying apical meristem leaf primordia leaves and stem tissues 8 External factors affecting seed germination include availability of water oxygen light and temperature However even if all these conditions are appropriate 1 seed may not germinate Please explain Stratiflcation 7 Cold treatment required to germinate by removing the rough seed coat Scariflcation 7 Requires intervention from animal or heavy heat to scar the seed coat and allow the cotyledon to germinate 9 Water is important to plants for cooling as well as basic metabolic processes Please explain transpiration and environmental factors in uencing transpiration Transpiration is the loss of water through stomata on the under side of the leaves The pressure of water owing up through the plant in the xylem forces the water to exit from the leaves Oxygen is also lost while C02 is brought into the cells during Transpiration Water moves up due to CohesionWater to water and AdhesionWater to cell walls Affected in the environment by Light Temperature Humidity Wind Soil Moisture 10How did the experiments of J oseph Priestly demonstrate unequivocally that plants produced oxygm Priestly decided to put a glass cap over an open ame and observed the ame extinguished He then put a plant inside the glass cap with the ame The ame produces C02 allowing the plant to continually photosynthesize This photosynthesis continually creates the oxygen that the ame requires to remain ablaze 11 How can you distinguish a plant cell from an animal cell The most notable difference is that the plant cell contains the organelle named Chloroplasts Chloroplasts contain the pigment chlorophyll which makes the plant green The organelle also contains Thylakoids which collect the light rays that the plant needs to perform photosynthesis 12 The Kyoto Treaty was designed to provide countries a means to establish a formal commitment to reduce carbon dioxiie and greenhouse gas emissions What are these gases and how have emissions changed in the last century C02 Methane Nitrous Oxide gt Big 3 Greenhouse Gases The gases have grown by approx 35 and caused a 15 degree Fahrenheit drop in temp worldwide 13 Movement of water from high concentration to low concentration is called osmosis How would this affect plant leaf tissues plant growth in desert conditions 14 We looked at the basic characteristics of 6 plant families Describe two of these families Include drawings and description of the unique characteristics leaf arrangement and morphology if appropriate fruits etc List three members of the family that you select Brassicacae Asteracae 15There are many unique stages of development in a plant where cell separation processes govern growth Please explain Abscission Root and meristem cell division 16 Explain the difference between anaerobic and aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration is respiration with the assistance of oxygen Anaerobic respiration is respiration without the use of oxygen and results in lactic acid production 17Brie y describe the role of seed size in gamination dispersal and predation Seed size is important in germination for the spreading and life of the embryo The embryo requires a certain size or amount of initial food source cotyledon to produce growth Dispersal often requires a seed coat around a very small seed to be planted in the belly of an animal or have the ability to attach to the skin of an animal These are important details for the plant to gain it s own piece of land and allow for germination to occur 18 Why is it useful to have a scienti c system for classi cation Life History Use Plant Form F lower Color Habit Deciduous vs Evergreen Latin Name Interna tinoa Understandmg N 19 Using your knowledge of the Cruciferae family explain how broccoli Brussels sprouts and cabbage have different shootmorphology 20Proviie an example of crops that are harvested for each of the different plant parts roots stem leaves modi ed axillary buds seed and ower Roots gt Carrots Stem gt Celery Leaves gt Lettuce Modif1ed Axillary Buds gt Seeds gt Peanut Sun ower Flower gt Broccoli 21Explain the difference between monoecious and dioecious Provile an example of each Dioecious gt Ginko Requires two separate plants to reproduce Male and female owering parts on separate trees Monoecious gt Sun ower Both male and female parts on the same plant Only requires movement of the pollen to germinate the one plant 22 How does knowledge of basic plant cellular processes in uence what you eat and do Knowing that a plant produces sucrose explains the reason for consuming such a material It provides energy for us to do our cellular processes 23 What is the role of the root system in the plant Bring water and nutrientsminerals into the plant Also apex meristem allows for the roots to continue growth Also maintains the plant s location by rmly holding it into place in the ground 24Maintaining any garden can be both rewarding and a lot ofwork Pretend that you are writing a friend and describe some of the tasks as well as some unique characteristics of some of your plants 25Describe some of the gardens and general features that you observed at Allen Gardens Very interesting how they placed the plants in different sections by the type of climate in which they live 26What part ofthe plant prov39xles energy for the developing seedling Cotyledon provides all initial food for the plant to begin growth 27 The Aztecs and the Incas had the perfect diet with beans maize and squash Please explain 28Seedlings grown in low light or darkness are etiolated Why would this be a useful response 29It is not common to see a plant that has both simple and compound leaves Explain the differences and diagram a simple palmate leaf and a pinnate compound leaf 30 Provide 3 examples of modi ed stems What are some of the roles of modi ed stems 31 Brie y de ne life 32Diagram a pepper plant and label the basic parts 33 Please list the major characteristics of the MINT family and provide three examples Lamiaceae Square Stem Smell Distinct Monoecious Herb Lemon Balm Blue Salvia Mint 34 Provide an example of a plant for each of the following C3 photosynthesis C4 and CAM C3 gt Carrot Broccoli most every plant C4 gt Corn many summer annuals CAM gt mny types of cacti 35There are some uniquely modi ed plants due to drought high salts and low pH This lack of water or poor water quality could result in poor growth but fortunately does not due to special modi cations Explain how the plants are modi ed 36 What are some ofthe early crops that were cultivated where and when 37Explain the difference between a monocot and a dicot Diagram a dicot seedling and a monocot Dicot has two cotyledons in one seed An example would be a bean seed Monocot has only one cotyledon and one example is a corn seed 38 Which scientists were involved in the development of the classi cation system Theophrastus Folklore Groupings John Ray Species Concept gt Genus epithet Carl Linnaeus lWord Epithet gt Species Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species 39 What are some of the specialized features of plants that limit or prevent water loss Plasma Semipermeable Membrane A thin tough layer around the cells of plant that always for the retention and release of water as necessary to maintain the correct levels of water 40Legumes were one of the first crops grown by humans Although there was established breeding programs thousands of years ago these early crops were selected for several traits Please explain 41We previously discussed how some plants have been modi ed to grow in low pH environments They have developed alternative leaf structure to assist in acquisition of nutrients Please explain 42The length ofwinter and degreedays below 45 F can determine what fruit crops are appropriate to Wisconsin as warm fall days or early spring days could quotfoolquot the plant into owering What are some of the other ways that temperature can regulate plant growth Early winter frost can kill plants too early 43What are six ofthe basic elds that encompass horticulture Fruits F lowers Herbs Turf Vegetables Woody 44Outline the basic plant developmental program seed to seed Seed gt Seedling gt Vegetative Plant gt Flowering Plant gt Seed 45 In the Horticulture greenhouse there are many owering plants Select one and diagram the ower and label the parts label each whorl and its components Sepals Petals Stamen gt Male Part Anther amp Filament Pistil gt Female Part Ovary amp Style amp Stigma Complete 7 All 4 Whorls Perfect 7 Male amp Female parts in one plant 46Some plants are more sensitive to air pollutants than others Crops like beans and corn are among these Alternatively plants like Gingko and White Ash are fairly resistant When would this be important This is very important in the world of agriculture and is the chief reason crops like beans and corn are unable to be grown in areas of large air pollution It s limiting the areas food crops can grow and paving the way for plants like Ginko to thrive where they are unwanted 48Crops like cabbage and carrots require vernalization for owering Explain 49In purchasing seed for your garden what are six criteria besides the variety color avor and nutrition that you might consider hint source of seed Genetic Background Structural Traits Diseasepest resistance Genetically modi ed or not Treated vs Untreated Fungicides pesticides Adapted for local growing conditions THEE 6 Open Pollinated Self Pollinated Hybrid Treated vs Untreated GMO vs NONGMO Disease and Pest Resistance Transplant Conditions ESSAY QUESTION 1 Using your knowledge on plant biology write an essay in the form of a letter or an article on harvesting tissues from a summer garden and saving seed tubers or unique plant parts for next years garden Be sure to demonstrate how your knowledge of plant structure and basic cellular processes helps one select the freshest produce or owers as well as collection for future years One should be sure to discuss all tissue parts of the plant that may be harvested for example owers leaves etc and highlight this discussion with examples identi ed during the semester In addition select one of the six plant families that we observed in lab and lecture to also support your answer this question will be worth 40 points on the exam and you should come to class Wednesday prepared to answer Perennials Sun ower F amin Cone Flower These require strati cation or cold treatment to germinate Mexican Sun ower Seeds meant to stick to animals Monocot has apical meristem at the base 7 reason grass can be cut Leaf Morphology Monocot 7 Parallel venation Dicot 7 Netlike Venation Gymnosperms 7 naked seeds conifers Angiosperms 7 owering plants Protect the seeds C3 C4 CAM 7 Types of phtotosynthesis C4 7 Contains 4 carbons Light independent section is different More ef cient CAM 7 Do light dependant portion during the day and proceed to nish the photosynthesis at night Know 6 classi cations 3 plants in each Plants harvested for ower broccoli 7 brassicacae family 7 in orescence Brussels sprouts Parts of the plant 7 Drawing Parts of the ower 7 Drawing Sepals Petals Stamens anther amp laments Pistil Stigma amp Ovary amp Style Sink amp Source Xylem amp Phloem Source Leaves Location of photosynthesis Sink Phloem carries the created sugars to the tubers or owers and those are the sinks
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