Cultural Anthropology and Human Diversity
Cultural Anthropology and Human Diversity ANTHRO 104
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Filomena Kovacek on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTHRO 104 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Maria Lepowsky in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/205255/anthro-104-university-of-wisconsin-madison in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Religion and Ritual Religion 0 Expressed in song 0 Christianity I Basic form I Holy Ghost People picking up of snakes o Nuer I Based on cattle I Sacri ce I Cattle of girls received as bridewealth payment everyone in birde s family has rights to it I Cattle of money purchased cattle bought from money of work I Money of work money earned from labor I Money of cattle money earned from selling cattle I Money of shit money earned from doing shit labor 0 Very differing opinions 0 Multiple theories I EXAMPLE William Jones argued that all religions have their origins in a mystical state which can only be experienced directly but which can nevertheless be given culturally speci c content and interpretations I EXAMPLE Clifford Geertz saw religion essentially as a cultural system that gives meaning to human experience 0 Symbolism is widely seen I EXAMPLE Snake in Holiness Churches I EXAMPLE Khipus Rituals Rites of Passage 0 Marriage is a ritual which has different preparation and meanings in various cultures 0 Vastly different in different cultures 0 Songs bringing good fortune in Hinduism 0 Main Stages I Separation stripping away of old roles I Liminal Phase between stages I Reaggragation assumption of new roles I Males scari cation I Women child birth Males huntingfirst kill I Women first menstruation Kinship Consanguine blood relatives Affines people related through marriage but not blood39 Bilateral kinship decent kinship traced to relatives through the mother and father Monogamy an individual only has one spouse Polygamy a marriage involving multiple spouses Polyandry a wife with multiple husbands Polygyny a husband with multiple wives Marriage social or legal union between two people that creates kinship Partible paternity nature of a child is shared by multiple fathers Partible maternity nature of a child is shared by multiple mothers Family group affiliated by consanguity affinity or coresidence Lineage a descent group that come from a common ancestor Exogamy marry outside the kin lineage group Endogamy marry outside the kinlineage group Matrilocal a married couple resides with or near the wife s parents Patrilocal a married couple resides with or near the husband s parents Neolocal a newly married couple resides separately from both the husband s natal household and the wife39s natal household Matriarchy is a society in which females especially mothers have the central roles of political leadership and moral authority Patriarchy a social system in which the role of the male as the primary authority gure is central to social organization Family of orientation father mother ego and siblings of ego Family of procreation husband wife and children Nuclear Family a family group consisting of a father and mother and their children who share living quarters Extended Family consanguineous family Things to consider when thinking about kinship 1 How to carry out the reproduction of group members marriage adoption 2 Where group members should like after marriage residence rules 3 How to establish links between generations decent 4 How to pass on social positions in society succession 5 How to pass on material goods and social capital inheritance Gender 0 Define Not same as quotsexquot not biological Assigned by society 0 Includes quotthirdquot and more genders o Eg Nuer female quothusbandsquot 0 Gender roles o quotNisaquot men hunt women gather and raise kids 0 quotNuerquot o quotSidewalkquot conversation analysis 0 Gender identity 0 Rites of passage 0 quotscarificationquot giving birth 0 Sexual orientation Identity Concepts of the Self Processes of identity creation are always historically contingent and socially contested Whether we consider distinctions of gender ethnicity race religion nationality political af liation or the like identity distinctions are cultural creations Identity is partly selfconstruction partly categorizations by others partly a condition a status a label a weapon a shield a fund of memories a creolized aggregate L Malkki Egocentric models of the self The self is conceptualized as an enduring core and the locus of motivations desires and thoughts This model tends to View many aspects of identity as permanent natural and given Identity is predominately prescribed This is the dominant View in much of mainstream American culture and social life American concept of individual freedom are key Sociocentric models of the self The self is viewed in more uid and layered terms Emphasis is on how people s identities are build up in direct relations with others Such relations and identities are actualized through the experience of many substantive and spiritual connections and oppositions with others One s identity is involved in a perpetual process of negotiation One s identity is largely achieved through one s behavior interactions and substantive connections with others Theoretical themes 1 Often when we feel we are most free we are most coerced by the dominant values and norms of our society and culture 2 Our cultural beliefs and values shape not only our interpretations of our experience but our experience itself An example of an egocentric vision of the self contemporary USA Polarities in American concepts of individualism R Bellah 1 Individual freedom versus social commitment As Americans we have a deep desire for autonomy Yet we have an equally deep conviction that life has no meaning unless shared with others in the context of community We thus strongly assert the value of selfreliance We also deeply feel the emptiness of life without sustaining social commitments However we are often hesitant to express our sense that we need one another as much as we express our need to stand alone for fear that we would lose our independence altogether What are some of the broader forces in our social world that make this particular approach to self and society so compelling for Americans 2 Equal rights versus justi cations of inequality As Americans we share a commitment to the equal right to dignity of every individual However this is combined with an effort to justify inequalities of reward which when extreme may deprive people of dignity What are some of the common justi cations Americans invoke to explain deepening great disparities of wealth status and rewards among themselvesithat is to explain why our society isiand should beias it is 3 Individual integrity of values versus the pragmatics of keeping society going Americans often insist that life requires practical effectiveness and realism However this perspective also runs head on into the feeling that compromise is ethically fatal if we have to sacri ce our individual values Can you think of some ways that this clashing set of premises is being played out in current political discourses An example of a sociocentric vision ofthe self the Sudanese Nuer Evolving Nuer concepts and practices of relatedness maar 1 Blood the vital weakness 4 Money is bloodless 2 Food Blood s twin force 5 Blood and guns 3 Cattle as symbolic counters for blood 6 Blood and paper By helping to ground more abstract social connections and distinctions in the immediacies of bodily experience evolving Nuer concepts of blood lend greater substance and uidity to contemporary concepts of identity formation Through the media of blood food and cattle Nuer continually demonstrate to themselves how each person s identity and sense of self is born out their participation in the selves of others Identity Concepts ofthe Self Processes of identity creation are always historically contingent and socially contested Whether we consider distinctions of gender ethnicity race religion nationality political af liation or the like identity distinctions are cultural creations Identity is partly selfconstruction partly categorizations by others partly a condition a status a label a weapon a shield a fund of memories a creolized aggregate L lkki Egocentric models of the self The self is conceptualized as an enduring core and the locus of motivations desires and thoughts This model tends to view many aspects of identity as permanent natural and given Identity is predominately prescribed This is the dominant view in much of mainstream American culture and social life American concept of individual freedom are key Sociocentric models of the self The self is viewed in more uid and layered terms Emphasis is on how people s identities are build up in direct relations with others Such relations and identities are actualized through the experience of many substantive and spiritual connections and oppositions with others One s identity is involved in a perpetual process of negotiation One s identity is largely achieved through one s behavior interactions and substantive connections with others Theoretical themes 1 Often when we feel we are most free we are most coerced by the dominant values and norms of our society and culture 2 Our cultural beliefs and values shape not only our interpretations of our experience but our experience itself An example of an egocentric vision of the self contemporary USA Polarities in American concepts of individualism R Bellah 1 Individual freedom versus social commitment As Americans we have a deep desire for autonomy Yet we have an equally deep conviction that life has no meaning unless shared with others in the context of community We thus strongly assert the value of selfreliance We also deeply feel the emptiness of life without sustaining social commitments However we are often hesitant to express our sense that we need one another as much as we express our need to stand alone for fear that we would lose our independence altogether What are some of the broader forces in our social world that make this particular approach to self and society so compelling for Americans 2 Equal rights versus justi cations of inequality As Americans we share a commitment to the equal right to dignity of every individual However this is combined with an effort to justify inequalities of reward which when extreme may deprive people of dignity What are some of the common justi cations Americans invoke to explain deepening great disparities of wealth status and rewards among themselvesithat is to explain why our society isiand should beias it is 3 Individual integrity of values versus the pragmatics of keeping society going Americans often insist that life requires practical effectiveness and realism However this perspective also runs head on into the feeling that compromise is ethically fatal if we have to sacri ce our individual values Can you think of some ways that this clashing set of premises is being played out in current political discourses Hierarch Social hierarchyorganization is the patterning of human interdependence in a society through people s actions and decisions Social hierarchy is a result of an adaptation to a typical ecological environment Scientists believed that the environment determined how society acts creating the term ecological determinism Power that is mitigated by choice determines economic distribution population pressure and environment determinism Human choice is always part of determining society The degree of social hierarchy leads to inequality and a disproportional distribution of social rewards The three desirable traitsgoodies is wealth relative social power and prestige or individual worthiness Strati ed societies have power prestige wealth and can be monopolized by certain groups Most people don t move up or down the ladder of status in this type of society Class is de ned as being groups with similar access to goods or power or all 3 desirable traits They seldom come together as a group A caste system is where the membership of an individual is determined at birth and lacks mobility Members of the lower strata reinforce the higher strata which increases the prestige of elite Social mobility are we born into it or does it require hard work The integrated theory of social hierarchy is complex which bene ts inequality However the exploitative theory of social hierarchy suggests that there is a high degree of inequality which is socially unjust and robs society of potential talents meaning the people at the bottom can t contribute Power and privilege inherited In matrilineal societies the women s status is higher It s not matriarchy meaning rule by women Among the Nuer the males create a circle of dependence for power The women gain status by helping others become independent particularly children As the women get older their status goes up The children complete the women and make her an adult Women can become men but it is not often that men can become women The males status goes up upon initiation The cattle completes the men Men are dependent on other men for procreation not on women The Nuer is a malesuperior society They try to cover their dependence on women Economic Change Beginning of economics Caused by transition from huntergatherer lifestyle to agricultural lifestyle 0 Capitalism Mechanism ruled by market supply and demand land labor and wealth Economic classes In the US economic classes are becoming much more strati ed O 0 People often use capitol to work for them and increase wealth Top stays at the top via coercion use their money to stay at the top Marginal productivity theory New theory during the 193911 century 0 O O Creates growing inequality Creates distortions in econom As strati cation between class increases the rich and poor have more different lifestyles based on different daily routines and worries Guest Lectures that talked about economics Films Dr Salomon Khipus in Peru 0 Khipus were kept in a Kaha Wayi counting house and used to count and control the resources of the community 0 Not used anymore due to different forms of trade and government issued currency Dr Narayan Dr Lepowsky Discussed the anthropology of gender didn t talk much about economic change but still had the broad theme that in many cultures men and women have become more equal through time Dr Nesper Gone for this lecture so I don t have notes to share for it Dr Nading Informal economy in urban Nicaragua 0 Studied in Ciudad Sandino where most people had no formal employment 0 Waste management connected to formal economy via reuse of trash 0 Resistance when government attempted to enforce rules on use of trashwhich may have funneled economic prosperity to the few city employed garbage collectors who had first contact with trash Caused market to crash in 2008 0 Waste management became a market activity 0 Market was dictated somewhat by dengue fever More trash lying around meant more spots for mosquito larvae to ourish and spread disease First Contact 0 Australian mining brothers the Leahy s completely introduced a new economic system to central New Guinea people by bringing with them foreign objects which the New Guineans desired Holy Ghost People 0 People in this movie gave much of their money to the church and lived their lives in a way that God meant for them to live not sure how this connects too much to economics but maybe in uenced the way they spent their money Nai o Showed some aspects of how formal currency was introduced to the kung As money came to the Kung some started working for white people and using their stores and drinking their beer 0 Nai was sometimes disliked because she often received more money goods from whites than others This showed a little of separation between classes and caused con ict o Darwin s Nightmare o Nile perch introduced into Lake Victoria and greatly affected the economy in Tanzania 0 Fisherman counted on hundreds of sh species for food and economic prosperity 0 After introduction of Nile perch there was only one sh to catch This created monoculture that was dependent upon resources being own in and out of Tanzania 0 Local Tanzanians then became completely dependent on one market This made them more susceptible to being manipulated and used So went from having a free trade market to one that depends on outsiders and people with special interests 00 Economic Change Colonialism Economic Change Ethnographies Nisa Colonialism introduced monetary system that was not in existence before new reliance on money for foodclothing etc Introduction of anthropologists brought a desire by the Kung for money as a form of payment Longrange effect of money was unknown because it was only introduced to the area recently Kung economy was based primarily on sharing until monetary system was introduced Nuer Dilemmas Colonialism caused economic change for Nuer Introduction of guns other arms caused rapid economic and social change Bride wealth shifted from cattle to money Colonialism brought shift from cattle used by Nuer to cattle being shipped to Europe Nuer merchant class created with colonialism men became merchants to earn money to buy cattle Sidewa Hakim shifted from working in the corporate world to living on the streets Those sellingliving on the streets can make a decent living in some cases better than at other jobs New urban poor result of changes in the economy result of shift from formal economy to new underground informal economy Marvin blamed change from formal to informalunderground economy on lack of ob opportunities in formal economy Drug and alcohol addiction could cause a shift out of formal to informalunderground economy Labor and Legality Undocumented immigrants can make le more income than in Mexico allowing families back home to purchase important things like homes and higher education Textbook A society and economy can change rapidly A difference in time of a few years can make it hard to check ethnographic activity Colonialism Colonialism political conquest by one society leads to cultural domination and forced change anthropology born during the heyday of colonialism to understand conquered area key metaphor land labor and wealth are all commodities Neocolonialism new awareness of how former colonies still linked to former coloniesthost ie why can t they develop internally on their own The Kung and Colonialism introduced monetary system working for colonists restrict Kung to hunting in smaller areas and may only hunt certain animals living space restricted cannot be nomadic The Nuer and Colonialism Introduction of monetary system increased reliance on money ie cattle nes to get backbuy cattle Impacts of Colonialism gradual forging of cattlemoney equation during colonial and post colonial civil war eras Colonialism introduced government chiefs With colonialism Christians came in and challenged importance of cattle Impact of Westernization medicines shift from why is a person ill to what are they ill with Tanzania Fisheries a result of colonialismneocolonialism Tanzanian people rely on rich shery companies for work but still poor Extremely high levels of poverty and famine but abundance of fish sent to Europe not kept in Tanzania Colonialism Colonialism cultural domination with enforced social change Neocolonialism the persistence of profound social and economic entanglement linking former colonial territories to their formal colonial rulers despite political independence First Contact 0 People working for diamonds 0 Trade for European things 0 People ew on airplanes with Australians o Brought back things Nai The story of a Kung Woman Men went to ght in war Food shortages government provided small amount of grains Diseases Tuberculosis Kung s boundaries were limited Hunting decreased game Gun gun powder new war technology Money to buy from markets trade changed People went off to work for the government Nuer Dilemmas Value of cow changed Marriage rituals younger generations married easier Bull boys didn t want to get scari ed School boys Disease Starving Seeking education Guns and war Tribal Courts and Local Justice in Wisconsin Larry Nesper 0 Still go by what their beliefs are 0 But the US government can take action into the more serious things Colonialism industrialization 0 Agriculture Slash and burn pastoralism Social Structure Social Structure is the idea that social relations are patterned and predictable quotPerhaps the most fundamental ways in which human groups arrange themselves is through a division of labourquot From text Social and Cultural Anthropology quotGroups are formed to accomplish particular functions and they coordinate their activities with other groupsquot There were multiple people with theories describing social structure Malinowski and Radcliffe Brown sought to understand ways that groups are formed in society the rules governing behavior of their members how groups relate to one another and the function both latent and manifest that they perform Radcliffe Brown and other structural functionalists used the idea of social structure to describe patterns of relations between individuals and groups and to explain those patterns in terms of their functions Levi Strauss theory saw social structures as existing to organize the flow of marriage partners among groups seeing reciprocity exchange and alliance as defining social relations quotVirtually all explanations made by anthropologists of human behavior or human relations are couched in terms of functions such behavior or relations perform Agency Human agency refers to people and their purposeful effective activities In Labor and Legality agency is brought up in terms of undocumented immigrants and quotwhether these workers actually exercise agency or are merely doing what they have to in order to survivequot This is saying that since these immigrants live and work in a highly controlled environment their sense of meaningful agency is deprived quotBut while human agency represents power in a broad sense of capability for action it is not reducible to empowermentquot The book says that if you have a sense of agency you have the ability for control over your own existence inequality constrains this but these immigrants have a chance to shape their lives through collective agency or workers agency When looking at workers agency you get a sense of how these undocumented immigrants navigate the terrain of work and society here in the US So since they may not be able to have complete control over their own lives they can have some control over what they do as a group of people human vs collective agency Culture the set of shared attitudes values goals and practices that characterize an institution organization and or sidewalk culture and the informal econom illegal immigrants tting into US culture and maintaining their own Nuer differences between east and west Meaning Perceptions and values that are transposed on situations sidewalk characters struggled to nd personal meaning and self worth illegal immigrants struggled to nd meaning in the workplace Nuer struggled to nd personal and cultural meaning with in the changing environ ment that they lived in Identity a person39s conception and expression of themselves sidewalk characters seemed that this was extremely important to them likely because i ws one of the few things that they had sole ownership of illegal immigrants see themselves as hardworking and family oriented Less variation Nuer largely make identity associations through cattle The Cultural Construciton of Reality Overarching Themes Lecture Notes People attempting to make sense of their experiences make use of shared cultural assumptions of how the world works the resulting images of reality are called Worldviews Metaphors valuable tools for constructing worldviews by directing attention to certain aspects of experience and downplaying or ignoring others Key metaphors are those that are foundational to particular worldviews As metaphors are created they are often marked by a symbol that sums up an entire semantic domain summarizing symbol These symbols sum up express or represent for people in an emotionally powerful way what ie system means to them Ex to many people 1he American Flag stands for ie American way The American way is a complex collection of ideas and feelings including patriotism democracy hard work free enterprise progress national superiority apple pie and motherhood The symbol focuses our attention on this whole collection at once The ag s symbolism can even have a double meaning For some people the American ag stands for imperialism racism military aggression unfettered capitalism and opposition to the legitimate struggles of Third World peoples and support for corrupt rightwing dictatorships Elaborating symbols essentially analytic allow people to sort out and label complex and undifferentiated feelings and ideas into comprehensible and communicable language and action Elaborating symbols provide people with categories for thinking about how their world is ordered Ex The Sudanese Nuer a cattleherding people use cattle for thinking about and responding to many aspects of their experience and social life Nuer perceptions of color light and shade are connected to the color variations they perceive in their beloved cattle They even compare how their society is put together to how a cow or bull is put together The Nuer also use the cow to de ne how men and women differ and to establish hierarchical distinctions between them Worldviews and the metaphors they employ vary enormously from culture to culture however within any particular culture where boundaries can be drawn there are also differences of opinion about how the world truly works To be in the running for the of cial picture of reality a worldview must be able however minimally to make sense of some people s personal and social experiences But sometimes minimally persuasive views of reality triumph over alternatives that seem far more plausible at least this is how things seem from the perspective of other members of society Knowledge like power is not evenly distributed throughout a society More powerful individuals and groups are often able to impose their preferred worldviews on the rest of society Those without power can resist this imposition by creating their own contrasting metaphors and worldviews Abrupt changes in people s experiences lead them to create new meanings to explain the changes and to cope with them This can be accomplished through elaboration of the old system to t changing times conversion to a new worldview syncretism a blend of new and old resistance or revitalization a conscious deliberate and organized attempt by some members of a society to create a more satisfying culture Culture humans capacity to conceptualize the world and to communicate those conceptions symbolically Most anthropologists agree it has something to do with aspects of human cognition and what we learn as members of society we learn a lot that is never explicitly taught o Humans primary way to conceptualize abstract ideas and communicate them symbolically is language Identity 0 Dependent on history and social contention I Identity can be de ned as gender ethnicity religion etc but are all socially create 0 Identity is partly selfconstruction partly categorizations by others partly a condition a status a label a weapon a shield a fund of memories a creolized aggregate L Malkki o 2 Models of self I Egocentric Model of self 0 Identity is inherited and permanent 0 Strong view in American culture I Sociocentric Model of Se 0 Identity results from how one interacts with others 0 One s identity is subjected to negotiation with others 0 Outsiders can become Neur you don t have to be born Neur 0 Professor Hutchinson said one Neur man was exiled for attempting sexual assault iNeur don t sexually assault others CultureMeaning 0 De ned as all the knowledge and values shared by a society 0 Socially transmitted ideas and ways to interpret experiences 0 Gender and age cultural variation is universal o In Nisa the men and women had different food collection roles 0 Women obtained more respect as they grew older where men lost in uence 0 Rural Chinese women were expected to produce boys 0 Cultures are shared learned symbolic integrated and dynamic 0 Dynamic I The elder Hmong living in Appleton still participated in ritual events and the younger Hmong no longer participated o Enculturation process of learning accepted norms 0 Culture must satisfy the biological and psychological needs of the members 0 Provide structure for reproduction maintain order stability of life and the groups relationship to its resource base 0 Two errors in evaluating a culture 0 Ethnocentrism I Believing that one s culture is the correct way of living 0 Relativism I Believing no behavior or belief can be judged to be wrong because it differs from the observer Anthropologists may use their moral judgment to condemn certain behaviors but always try to understand from the culture s perspective Health Humans and the Environment Nisa Chapter 3 o The Kung live in the Kalahari Desert so the environment is very harsh 0 Rainy and dry seasons can be very rough the Kung travel around year long and even week long sources of water 0 The Kung are knowledgeable about many types of plants They depend on this knowledge to gather food when meat is scarce 0 Hunting and gathering 0 Men hunt 0 Women and children gather 0 Food and meat are shared amongst the family and then the rest of the people in the village 0 Villages o The Kung live in villages with other to help protect themselves from wild animals 0 Traveling alone is seen as dangerous 0 Overall Health 0 The Kung are very healthy they get a lot of protein and nutrients from the plants roots nuts and fruit they gather o Trancing used to heal people Nuer Dilemmas o The Environment and War 0 The landscape itself slowed civil war from spreading from East to West and the impact of the war was different from the east Darwin 3 Nightmare 0 Environment 0 Nile Perch introduced to Lake Victoria I Destroyed the ecosystem I Ate all of the other species of sh and starting to eat their own young 0 Many men fish for big companies sh then sold to Europe 7 live in villages by the lake 0 People can t afford to eat the sh they catch 0 Women and children try to get what food they can from the remains of the sh after they get processed at the big companies mounds of sh remains unloaded by the truckload outside of villages 0 Health 0 Very poor imany people have diseases such as AIDS 0 If men get very sick while living in a shing village they try to make it back to their homes to die 7 it is cheaper to send a living person than a dead body 0 Many women forced into prostitution STDs Alex Nading 0 Large garbage dumps and land lls play a huge role in the economy 0 People scavenge materia s 0 Sell the materials to brokers ends up in the international economy 0 Make crafts and sell to tourists and locals potential global market 0 Garbage that people depend on has serious health consequences 0 Dengue Fever 7 mosquitoborne 7 breed in the materials people scavenge 0 Spread rapidly throughout Central and northern South America and southeast United tates 0 Government attempts to stop this I Can t stop the movement of goods and people I Kill the mosquito 7 don t have materials that mosquitoes use to breed in your yard 7 people depend on these materials to make a living Social and Cultural Anthropology The Self in Sickness and Health 0 Concepts of person and self are culturally constructed 0 Ideas about the world and the people in it that seem obvious to members of a culture are the products of a speci c historical tradition and differ from culture to culture 0 This perspective is applied in order to understand culture bound syndromes aka the reason why people in different cultures become sick in different ways 0 A person s perception of their body and environment has a lot to do with their state of relative health or sickness 0 Culture bound syndromes I Anorexia and bulimia in the UStied to unrealistic perception of bodily beauty I Susto in Latin America where a frightening or shocking event causes the soul to leave the body causing depression and a wasting sicknesssometimes experienced by individuals who are already malnourished or suffering from some sort of infection I Kaget in Indonesia where a sudden shock or surprise leads to a momentary lowering of psychic shields allowing illness to enter 0 Medical anthropologists must distinguish between disease sickness caused by a psysiological malfunction or agent and illness sickness brought on by a patient s perception of his or her bodily state 0 Culture bound syndromes can erupt into epidemics because perceptions are shared by a large group of people
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