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Principles of Biological Anthropology

by: Filomena Kovacek

Principles of Biological Anthropology ANTHRO 105

Filomena Kovacek
GPA 3.84

John Hawks

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John Hawks
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Filomena Kovacek on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTHRO 105 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by John Hawks in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/205256/anthro-105-university-of-wisconsin-madison in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Wisconsin - Madison.

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Date Created: 09/17/15
Chapter Four What causes evolutionary genetic change Deviation from the proportions of gene frequencies and genotype frequencies as defmd by the HardyWeinberg law of equilibrium is explained by one or more of the four forces of evolutionmutation natural selection genetic drift and gene ow These forces result in genetic change over time Mutations are DNA coding errors that are biochemical manifested as permanent changes in the structure or amount of genetic material Although a mutation can occur in any cell only mutations in gametes have implications for offspring and therefore they have greater importance for evolution than do mutations in somatic cells Natural selection begins with variation among the individual members of a population Members with advantageous characteristics survive and reproduce in greater numbers than do members lacking the same characteristics Allele frequencies can increase decreease or remain the same owing to natural selection Advantageous characteristics can be Visible physical attributes e g the peppered moth s color invisible biochemical attributes eg in regions of endemic malaria the heterozygote advantage of hemolytic anemias or enzyme deficiency or some combination of the physical and the biochemical Genetic drift is change in gene frequency due to chance Within smaller populations chances are greater that gene frequencies will change randomly Drift was likely an important force in most human evolution since prior to 10000 yBP most human populations included fewer than several hundred individuals Gene ow is the transfer of genes across population boundaries In humans gene ow became a major force of evolution mostly within the last 10000 years when population sizes increased and created greater opportunities for contact and reproduction Key Terms Abnormal hemoglobin hemoglobin altered so that it is less efficient in binding to and ca1rying oxygen Admixture the exchange of genetic material between two or more populations Balanced polymorphism situation in which selection maintains two or more phenotypes for a specific gene in a population Capillaries small blood vessels between the terminal ends of arteries and the veins Deme a local population of organisms that have similar genes interbreed and produce offspring Demic Diffusion a population s movement into an area previously uninhabited by that group Directional Selection selection for one allele over the other alleles causing the allele frequencies to shift in one direction Disruptive Selection selection for both extremes of the phenotypic distribution may eventually lead to a speciation event Endogamous refers to a population in which individuals breed only with other members of the population Equilibrium a condition in which the system is stable balanced and unchanging Exogamous refers to a population in which individuals breed only with nonmembers of their population Fitness average number of offspring produced by parents with a particular genotype compared to the number of offspring produced by parents with another genotype Founder Effect the accumulation of random genetic changes in a small population that has become isolated from the parent population due to the genetic input of only a few colonizers Frameshift Mutation the change in a gene due to the insertion or deletion of one or more nitrogen bases which causes the subsequent triplets to be rearraged and the codons to be read incorrectly during translation Gene Pool all the genetic information in the breeding population Glucose G phosphate dehydrogenase G6PD an enzyme that aids in the proper functioning of red blood cells its deficiency a genetic condtion leads to hemolytic anemia Hardy Weinberg law of equilibrium a mathematical model in population genetics that re ects the relationship between frequencies of alleles and of genotypes it can be used to determine whether a population is undergoing evolutionary changes Hemoglobinopathies a group of related genetic blood diseases characterized by abnormal hemoglobin Hemolytic Anemias a condition of insufficient iron in the blood due to the destruction of red blood cells resulting from genetic blood diseases toxins or infectious pathogens Huntington s Chorea a rare genetic disease in which the central nervous system degenerates and the individual loses control over voluntary movements with the symptoms often appearing between ages 30 and 50 Induced Mutations refers to those mutations in the DNA resulting from exposure to toxic chemicals or to radiation Klinefelter s Syndrome a chromosomal trisomy in which males have an extra X chromosome resulting in an XXY condition affected individuals typically have reduced fertility Macroevolution largescale evolution such as a speciation event that occurs after hundred or thousands of generations Melanic refers to an individual with high concentrations of melanin Microevolution smallscale evolution such as changes in allele frequency that occurs from one generation to the next Mutagens substances such as toxins chemicals or radiation that may induce genetic mutations Nonmelanic refers to an individual with low concentrations of melanin Nonsynonymous point mutation a point mutation that creates a triplet coded to produce a different amino acid than that of the original triplet Point mutations replacements of a single nitrogen base with another base which may or may not affect the amino acid for which the triplet codes Positive selection process in which advantageous genetic variants quickly increase in frequency in a population Reproductive isolation any mechanism that prevents two populations from interbreeding and exchanging genetic material Sickle cell anemia a genetic blood disease in which the red blood cells become deformed and sickleshaped decreasing their ability to carry oxygen to tissues Spontaneous mutations random changes in DNA that occur during cell divison Stabilizing selection selection against the extremes of the phenotypic distribution decreasing the genetic diversity for this trait in the population Synonymous point mutation a neutral point mutation in which the substituted nitrogen base creates a triplet coded to produce the sam amino acid as that of the original triplet Thalassemia a genetic blood disease in which the hemoglobin is improperly synthesized causing the red blood cells to have a much shorter lifespan Transposable elements mobile pieces of DNA that can copy themselves into entirely new areas of the chromosomes


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