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Week 9 Notes

by: Krista Notetaker

Week 9 Notes LSLS 7060

Krista Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These are the notes for week 9 in class. They cover chapter 9 of our textbook.
Applied Linguistics
Dr. Hye Pae
Class Notes
Language Learning: Basic Principles and Debates
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LSLS 7060 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Hye Pae in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.


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Date Created: 03/08/16
Module  9  Notes   Language  Learning:  Basic  Principles  and  Debates   Written  by  Krista  Anstead   March  2016     Learning  Outcomes   •   articulate  differences  among  language  acquisition,  language  learning,  and  language   socialization.   •    understand  differences  between  sociocultural  theory  and  Krashe's  hypotheses.   •    summarize  strengths  and  weaknesses  of  different  approaches  to  bilingual  education.   •    summarize  pedagogical  implications  of  different  types  of  bilingual  education  programs.     Readings/References:   Razfar,  A.  &  Rumenapp,  J.  (2014).  Language  learning:  Basic  principles  and  debates.  In  Applying     linguistics  in  the  classroom:  A  sociocultural  approach  (pp.  154-­‐178).  New  York:     Routledge.     Acronyms:   •   L1  =  native/first  language   •   L2  =  second  language   •   SUP  =  separate  underlying  proficiency   •   SLA  =  second  language  acquisition   •   SCT  =  Sociocultural  Theory   •   BICS  =  basic  interpersonal  conversational  skills   •   CALP  =  cognitive  advanced  language  proficiency     Chapter  9  Notes   Introduction   •   Traditionally,  L1  and  L2  have  been  used  to  refer  to  native  and  targeted  language,   respectively   o   L1-­‐L2  dichotomy  assumes  that  languages  are  self-­‐contained,  compartmentalized,   and  isolated  entities  housed  in  the  brain   o   Assumes  the  languages  are  independently  functioning  based  on  SUP     Major  differences  between  language  acquisition  and  language  socialization   •   SLA  and  SCT  offer  contrasting  views  of  how  we  conceptualize  the  learner  and  the  role  of   language  in  learning   o   SCT  –  learning  is  defined  by  variation   §   heterogeneity  is  a  critical  organizing  principle   §   mediational  tools  available  to  the  participants  that  are  specific  to  their   current  and  potential  development   §   learning  through  ZPD  is  continuous,  frustrating,  and  stressful   §   learning  is  not  the  outcome  but  the  process  itself;  focus  is  on  learning   process   o   SLA  –  assumes  the  process  to  to  be  relatively  more  universal   §   tendency  toward  homogeneity  since  everybody  acquires  language  in  a   similar  fashion   §   designing  the  same  activity  for  everyone   §   affective  filter  stipulates  that  language  acquisition  only  occurs  in  low-­‐ stress  environments   §   language  ins  learned  when  language  is  produced;  focus  is  on  outcomes  of   learning   •   Language  learning  and  vocabulary   o   One  of  the  most  critical  points  of  divergence  between  the  two  is  the  notion  of   “targeted  language”   o   SLA:  lessons  and  activities  are  designed  to  target  linguistic  form  through   induction   §   Artifacts  such  as  word  walls  and  worksheets  suggested  language   §   Language  is  target  of  instruction  instead  of  means  to  solving  problems   and  making  meaning   §   Meaning  is  made  by  the  individual   o   SCT:  language  form  does  not  serve  as  target  of  instruction  but  rather  as  the   primary  mediational  means  to  accomplishing  concrete  goals  within  culturally   organized  activities   §   Language  is  purposefully  designed  to  develop  greater  metalinguistic   awareness,  enhance  metacognition,  and  greater  independent  problem-­‐ solving  or  self-­‐regulation   §   Leads  to  an  overt  focus  on  fixed  definitions  rather  than  situated  meaning   §   Meaning  occurs  socially   •   Basic  to  advanced  vocabulary   o   SLA:  One  of  the  most  pervasive  metaphors  in  SLA  is  the  distinction  between  BICS   and  CALP;  model  should  not  be  used  to  oversimplify  instruction  but  to  make   tasks  that  are  cognitively  challenging,  holistic,  and  develop  a  critical  awareness   about  language  functions   §   Language  learning  follows  a  similar  linear  pathway   §   Heavy  emphasis  on  “simplified”  speech  in  early  stages  of  development   •   Simplified  speech:  elongated  pauses  and  use  of  nonverbal  cues  to   scaffold  meaning-­‐making   §   Learners  move  in  and  out  of  novice/expert  roles  depending  on  their  role   within  an  activity   §   Many  students  learning  L2  through  grammatical  methods  do  well  on   traditionally  “decontextualized”  testing  tasks  and  struggle  with  basic   interpersonal  conversation  skills   §   In  isolation,  all  words  become  “academic”  in  the  sense  of  being   decontextualized  because  the  context  has  to  be  provided  by  the  listener   o   SCT:  shift  from  object/action  to  meaning  ratio   §   Result  of  situated,  meaning-­‐making  activities,  and  is  necessary  for  ALL  the   words  we  learn   §   It  is  not  the  words  themselves  that  are  basic  or  advanced,  but  the  type  of   thinking  that  is  occurring     Different  approaches  to  bilingual  education   •   Krashen  and  Terrell   o   Believe  that  SLA  is  identical  process  as  native  language  process   o   Explicit  instruction  of  grammar  or  any  part  of  linguistic  structure  was  not  only   viewed  as  ineffective,  but  also  potentially  harmful  to  SLA   o   Believe  that  the  best  way  to  acquire  a  second  language  was  to  engage  the   language  naturally,  holistically,  and  using  it  for  communicative  purposes  (Natural   Approach)   •   Natural  Approach  formed  backbone  of  Whole  Language  Movement,  which  supports   notions  of  common  underlying  proficiency,  BICS,  and  CALP   •   SCT  of  late  1970s  (Vygotsky):  provided  an  alternative  perspective  to  the  role  of  language   in  human  development   o   Belief  that  all  language  and  cognition  is  first  social,  embedded  in  cultural   contexts     o   Looked  at  language  as  a  form  of  mediation  or  a  tool  for  learning     Laws  affecting  second  language  learning   •   There  has  always  been  an  inextricable  link  between  English-­‐Only  movements  and   national  identity   •   English-­‐only  proficiency  served  as  a  litmus  test  for  political  loyalty  and  being  a  “good”   American   •   Hymes  Turn  of  the  Civil  Rights  era  of  the  1960’s:  movement  against  the  structural  and   nativist  assumptions  of  Chomskyan  linguistics   o   Focused  on  the  context  of  language  use  and  the  languages  of  non-­‐dominant   population   •   Lau  v.  Nichols  in  1974:  some  1800  Chinese  American  students  sued  for  not  having  equal   access  to  education   o   School  district  was  violating  the  1974  Civil  Rights  Act,  denying  the  students  equal   access  to  education   o   Court  demanded  that  language  minority  students  had  language  support  in   schools   •   Bilingual  Education  Act  of  1968:  did  not  specify  which  type  of  approach  should  be   implemented,  just  that  it  had  to  be  implemented   •   Bilingual  Education  Amendment  of  1974:  allowed  for  use  of  a  student’s  primary   language  to  transition  into  English  proficiency  as  well  as  study  content  matter  like   mathematics  and  science  in  the  first  language.       Dominant  models  of  second  language  learning   •   There  are  several  types  of  bilingual  education  that  occur  on  a  continuum   o   Weak:  goal  is  assimilation  and  monolingualism   §   Subtractive:  privileges  the  L2  over  the  L1,  ultimately  leading  to  the  loss  of   an  L1   o   Strong:  L1  and  L2  are  treated  with  equal  status   §   Additive:  seek  to  develop  the  L1,  including  literacy,  as  well  as  develop  the   L2   •   Structured  Immersion  (subtractive)   o   Sink-­‐or-­‐swim  system  where  students  learn  English  quickly  when  immersed  in  a   pre-­‐dominant  English-­‐speaking  environment   o   May  or  may  not  be  accompanied  by  explicit  English  instruction   o   Bans  the  use  of  L1,  little  scaffolding  using  the  L1,  and  no  teaching  content  in  L1   o   Holds  belief  that  more  exposure  to  English  will  result  in  faster  acquisition  of  the   language   •   Sheltered  English  (subtractive)   o   Done  almost  completely  in  the  society’s  dominant  language   o   Students  are  pulled  out  for  specific  instruction  in  the  language  they  are  learning   o   Holds  belief  that  language  acquisition  in  the  classroom  may  need  to  be   supplemented  with  explicit  language  support   •   Transitional  Bilingual  Education  (subtractive,  but  more  towards  the  middle  of  the   continuum)   o   Most  dominant  approach  to  bilingual  education  in  the  US   o   Primary  focus:  students  become  competent  in  the  L2  while  mastering  content  in   the  L1  if  needed   o   Often  leads  to  mastery  of  English  but  not  the  L1  because  L1  literacy  is  not  valued,   however,  there  is  an  opportunity  to  learn  content  in  one’s  L1  while  acquiring   English   o   Slow  immersion  process  with  added  support  using  the  L1  for  1-­‐3  years   §   Instruction  may  take  place  in  L1  for  the  first  two  years  of  school  with  the   third  and  fourth  years  moving  to  English  instruction  with  L1  support,  and   finally  English-­‐only  instruction   •   Immersion  (additive)   o   Created  for  students  who  speak  a  society’s  dominant  language  but  are  learning  a   second  language,  and  the  second  language  is  viewed  as  enrichment   •   Heritage  Language  (additive  but  still  more  towards  middle  of  continuum)   o   Addition  to  learning  English  and  content,  there  is  a  focus  on  learning  the   language  of  the  students’  parents   o   Belief  that  language  connects  to  identity,  and  that  students  should  not  forget   their  heritage  language  at  the  expense  of  the  dominant  language  in  society   o   Tendencies  towards  SLA  over  SCT  in  these  programs   o   Dominant  language  is  still  privileged   •   Mainstream  Bilingual  (additive)   o   Takes  place  when  there  are  two  high  status  languages  in  use-­‐  locally  dominant   and  regionally  dominant   o   Schools  provide  ways  for  bilingualism  and  biliteracy  to  be  a  part  of  the   curriculum   •   Dual  Language  Immersion  (additive)   o   Most  effective  type  of  bilingual  education  program   o   Implemented  in  contexts  where  there  are  two  languages  with  relative  equal   status  and  community  support   o   Goal  is  that  all  students  should  be  bilingual  and  biliterate     o   School  may  alternate  days  or  times  to  use  one  language  or  the  other   o   Often  based  on  SCT  theories  of  learning     Different  pedagogical  concepts  and  how  they  relate  to  second  language  learning   •   Teachers  still  have  the  capacity  to  simultaneously  work  within  and  without  the  system   that  restricts  sociocultural  tenets  of  language  and  learning   •   Seven  points  that  are  helpful  in  resisting  English  dominance   o   Thinking  language  when  preparing  every  activity  of  the  day   o   Thinking  language  when  giving  directions,  asking  questions,  answering  kids’   questions  in  every  interaction   o   Not  allowing  Spanish  materials  in  class  that  do  not  have  the  same  quality  as   English  materials   o   Working  hard  to  convince  all  kids,  parents,  and  staff  that  Spanish  is  fun  and   beautiful   o   Not  allowing  racist  comments  from  anybody   o   Consciously  talking  to  kids  in  their  second  language   o   Taking  a  lot  of  risks     Case  Studies   •   Only  way  for  students  to  learn  how  to  interact  with  people  is  for  them  to  actually  do  it   •   Peer  assistance,  help  from  customers,  and  creativity  helps  students  solve  problems     Db  Post   Open  discussion  this  week!  


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