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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jess Graff on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 508 at University of New Hampshire taught by Mary Katherine Lockwood, PhD in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biological Sciences at University of New Hampshire.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
BMS 508.03 3/2/16 Chapter 21 (cont) Cardiovascular Adaptation • Blood Flow to the Heart • Epinephrine • Dilates coronary vessels • Increases heart rate • Strengthens contractions • Heart Attack • A blockage of coronary blood flow • Can cause: • Angina (chest pain) • Tissue damage • Heart failure • Death • Blood Flow to the Lungs • Regulated by O lev2ls in alveoli • High O c2ntent • Vessels dilate • Low O c2ntent • Vessels constrict Pulmonary and Systemic Patterns • 3 General Functional Patterns 1. Peripheral artery and vein distribution is the same on right and left, except near the heart 2. The same vessel may have different names in different locations 3. Tissues and organs usually have multiple arteries and veins • Vessels may be interconnected with anastomoses The Pulmonary Circuit • Deoxygenated Blood Arrives at Heart from Systemic Circuit • Passes through right atrium and right ventricle • Enters pulmonary trunk • At the lungs • CO 2s removed • O 2s added • Oxygenated blood • Returns to the heart • Distributed to systemic circuit • Pulmonary Vessels • Pulmonary arteries • Carry deoxygenated blood • Pulmonary trunk • Branches to left and right pulmonary arteries • Pulmonary arteries • Branch into pulmonary arterioles • Pulmonary arterioles • Branch into capillary networks that surround alveoli • Pulmonary veins • Carry oxygenated blood • Capillary networks around alveoli • Join to form venules • Venules • Join to form four pulmonary veins • Pulmonary veins • Empty into left atrium The Systemic Circuit • The Systemic Circuit • Contains 84% of blood volume • Supplies entire body except for pulmonary circuit • Systemic Arteries • Blood moves from left ventricle into ascending aorta • Coronary arteries • Branch from aortic sinus • Systemic Veins • Complementary Arteries and Veins • Run side by side • Branching patterns of peripheral veins are more variable • In neck and limbs • 1 set of arteries (deep) • 2 sets of veins (one deep, one superficial) • Venous system controls body temperature Fetal and Maternal Circulation • Patent Foramen Ovale and Patent Ductus Arteriosus • Pressures rise in the pulmonary circuit • If pulmonary pressures rise enough, they may force blood into systemic circuit through ductus arteriosus • A patent ductus arteriosus creates a “right-to-left shunt” • Because circulating blood is not adequately oxygenated, it develops deep red color • Skin develops blue tones typical of cyanosis and infant is known as a “blue baby” • Tetralogy of Fallot • Complex group of heart and circulatory defects that affect 0.10% of newborn infants • Pulmonary trunk is abnormally narrow (pulmonary stenosis) • Interventricular septum is incomplete • Aorta originates where interventricular septum normally ends • Right ventricle is enlarged and both ventricles thicken in response to increased workload • Ventricular Septal Defect • Openings in interventricular septum that separate right and left ventricles • The most common congenital heart problems, affecting 0.12% of newborns • Opening between the 2 ventricles has an effect similar to a connection between the atria • When more powerful left ventricle beats, it ejects blood into right ventricle and pulmonary circuit • Atrioventricular Septal Defect • Both the atria and ventricles are incompletely separated • Results are quite variable, depending on extent of defect and effects on atrioventricular valves • This type of defect most commonly affects infants with Down’s syndrome, a disorder caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21