Cultural Anthropology and Human Diversity
Cultural Anthropology and Human Diversity ANTHRO 104
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Filomena Kovacek on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTHRO 104 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/205257/anthro-104-university-of-wisconsin-madison in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Culture 10122011 23900 AM What is culture gh which people orient their lives c We all participate in culture making sense of the world through cultural forms that serve as a lens highlighting some things obscuring others Perspectives o Emic perspective of insiders o Etic perspective imposed by outsidersanalysts o Gebusi kogwayay togethernesstalkcheering is their emic term that could roughly translate into the etic term culture Kogwayay isn t exactly culture but it s a manner in which they see their lives Anthropologists seek to understand emic views categories Dialogue key 0 O Preferably dialogues conducted in the language of the people you re trying to learn about Perceptions o Ethnocentrism o Ethno Way of Life 0 Centro Center 0 Judging others from one s own cultural perspective Dangerous because this can dismiss and belittle others o Cultural Relativism o Accepting that all cultures are likely to have different perspectives and takenforgranted ways of behavior Argues for the need to understand people and practices in context of their cultural meaning Dangerous because this can justify inhumane cultural practices ignore human rights o Stories in Social Life 0 Narrative From Latin narrare to relate to tell to know Gnarus knowing 0 Story From Latin historia or Greek istoria learning by inquiry investigation Stories usually involve movement change Entertain instruct and more Carry cultural themes 0 Storytelling A way of making sense of events arranging them in a sequence selecting sorting Nasik India and Kangra n Nasik is where the Ramayana is supposed to take place o Ramayana Epic Ram Sita and Lakshman in exile in the forest of Panchvati o Surpankakha sister of Ravana Nasik is like nap which means nose that s where Sita s nose was cut off a Darshan Hours o Topsyturvy holy man Swamiji 0 People from all over would come to see him 0 Swamiji would stop to tell stories often o Oral Narrative o Spoken o Subtly changed in each retelling o Reshaped by teller in interaction with listeners o Heaven and Hell 0 There s a man under a tree who wishes for food and to meet a saint He asks to see heaven and the said says that the way to Heaven is through Hell Arrive in Hell for lunchtime all the best food is there and everyone s elbows get stuck Nobody is getting fed and they have to leave hungry Arrive in Heaven and its lunchtime again then the same thing happens The people realize they need to feed each other It was very peaceful and happy Swamiji said He says the principle is that you will be hungry ifyou selfishy try to feed yourself but you will be peaceful and happy if you feed someone else because they will in response feed you too Heaven and hell here on Earth 0 O 10122011 23900 AM First Contactquot Highland New Guineans amp Australians 1930 s amp 1980 s o 3 Australian Brothers 0 searching for gold 0 Highlands of New Guinea Only unexplored region o Power Issues 0 White man kills to not be killed 0 Established power with weapons o Power threats 0 Villages thought they could take tools 0 Brothers retaliated with guns o Natives Perspective Emic o Confused as to where the whites came 0 Explained perspective Came from sky water earth lightening and spirits o Language Barrier avoided with signs 0 Work for shells Women Prostituted Natives seen as kids Colonialism of the Types 1 Political Control through displacement 2 Social destruction of society 3 Economic resources fall into hands of colonizers amp exploitation of people 4 Cultural monitor how people learn sharing of knowledge 5 Metropolecolony mutual transformation Bronislaw Malinowski o Trobriand Islands 0 Father of Fieldwork o Argued for fieldwork in book Argonauts of the Western Pacific 0 He could write very clearly and evocativer 0 We must study the hold life has on man o Ethnography Ethno Way of Life Graphy writing Research method and written product Ethnography as thick descriptionquot 0 O O O Culture o What is Culture 0 Cultura l y 0 Edward Tylor British Primitive Culture 1871 n that complex wholeacquired by man as a member of society First anthropologist to use culture o Franz Boas 0 Father of American Anthropology o Disapproval of Cushing Argued 19th century evolutionary theory that all people moved through savagery barbaric Championed cultural relativism a No culture is better a Differences in people lie in different culture not Genetics Cultural diffusion how traits move through culture 0 Stressed value of collecting and documenting texts and material culture salvage ethnography Often worked with native collaborators 0 George Hunt 9 collaboration in documenting kwakuit o Zora Neale Hurston o Frank Hamilton Cushing 0 Original participant observer 19th Century 0 Bureau of American Ethnology We need to encompass the land Led first expedition of self taught anthropologists 9 artifacts are everywhere 0 Zuni New Mexico 45 Years with governor First war chief 9 he who eats 1 dish with 1 spoon cricket medicine flower o Culture has 1 Cognitive consequencese how we see 2 Behavioral consequencese how we treat each other 3 Material consequencese how we treat things around us o Qualities 0 Culture and place No distinct boundaries A place cannot have just 1 culture generation class race internal differentiation 0 Culture and individuals How does culture affect personality Positioned subjects 0 Culture and Time Culture unsteady and constantly changing Ethnocide forced acculturation tendency of one culture group to adopt tradition of another group Genocide people destroyed 0 Culture as Performing identity The way a culture presents itself o Placemaking o Telling stories as Speech Acts Doing something by saying something to someone If something is believed to be real it is real in its consequences The Apache studied by Basso Giving landmarksplaces special names relevant to specific location 0 Way of doing human history Where something happened as important as when it happened 0 O Work 10122011 23900 AM Society o A Group o Community connected linguistically politically amp economically Socially bounded spatially contiguous Share basic economic amp political institutions Interactions culturally patterned Social Structure o Patterned ways that people interact o Ordered arrangement of parts win structure social relationships are controlled by norms rules and patterns o Status 0 Position in social structure 0 Sum of rights amp duties associated w the position Other members have expectancies of each other 0 Overlapping statuses o Often exist in complementary pairs 0 Types 1 Ascribed Status born into unavoidable 2 Achieved status gained through actions amp efforts o Roledynamic aspect of status 1i 7 o Customary performing of the rights and duties assosciated with a status 0 Overlapping roles 9 social actors o Institutions 0 Clusters of social statuses groups that share a common focus 0 Institutions in a society overlap amp interweave o Separation of Societies o Egalitarian all share roughly the same degree of wealth power prestige o Stratified some groups have more access amp control of wealth power prestige Modes of Subsistence o Foraging 0 Hunting and Gathering 9 original affluent society o Naturally occurring plants amp animals fish 0 Kung San bushmen found in 1960 s o Subsistence Agriculture 0 Horticulture 9 earliest form of agriculture Fairly low energy input gardening hoe stick Swidden or slash and burn o Gebusi as inbetweener Sedentary or settled in villages but lifestyle is mobile almost seminomadic moving through the forrest Semidomesticated pigs 0 Sedentary settling down returning to same field year after year not using extra energy to move o Intensive Agriculture 1 The commodification of domestic labor is turning women who work at nannies and maids into commodities and taking man hours to clean a house or take care of your kids o More females in the work force a higher divorce rate higher immigration rate 2 Employers receive more labor than what they pay for and there s a lot of flexibility to how much they pay their employees Employers can also make them work for a lot of hours Employees receive shelter and undocumented immigrants receive security Opportunity to develop familial relationships 3 Filipinas in the UK in Athens like the Ethiopians but they say the Moroccans are difficult Role o Dynamic aspect of status o Customary performing of the rights and duties associated with a status c We tend to have multiple overlapping roles Institutions o Clusters of social statuses and groups that share a common focus 0 Education political religious o Institutions in a society overlap and interweave Modes of Subsistence o Foraging 0 Hunting and gathering o Subsistence agriculture 0 Horticulture swidden or slashandburn o Sedentism o Intensive agriculture 0 Ploughs animals irrigation at one place o Industrial agriculture o Pastoralism o Specialized relations with animals 0 Nomadic Foraging o Hunting and gathering o Naturally occurring plants and animals and fish Gebusi as inbetweeners o Sedentary or settled in villages but lifestyle is mobile even semi nomadic moving around in the forest o Horticulturalists raising crops in cleared gardens but also hunt and forage Waking LifeWorking Life Call Centers and Youth Culture in India Mathangi Krishnamurthy Call centers customer service c When you call Dell the call goes to India not the American headquarters o There s an 11 hour time difference so most people work during the night o In Punjabi 55 million person student city and call centers are central to industry there In the service economy what are you selling o You have to train your body to be nocturnal o Say yes the customer is always right Why is nightly work difficult o Society labels you always equally to a prostitute o Your body suffers 0 Food tastes bad o Social life is down the drain o Best commodity is sleep Women weren t allowed to work at night for a while o Then they started getting cabs but navigating the city is a problem o Coffee and red bull in the office 0 Swanky buildings 0 Neon lights to keep your eyelids open Why do people do this despite the fact that it messes up their life o Nobody can nag me makes good money Whatever it takes is what you have to do in a service economy Women workers have different societal roles than men do o Women have to take care of the house child rear o You have to manage your time o Women workers get much less sleep because they re treated equally to men Languages 10122011 23900 AM Linguistic diversity c 60007000 known languages UNESCO s scale for Endangered Languages o Five categories from vulnerable when children are still learning the language as a mother tongue but it s restricted in certain areas like the home c To three levels of endangered with only older generations still speaking o Definitely endangered severely endangered critically endangered extinct Extinct no speakers left Language Loss o Through population loss o Through voluntary language shift o Through language shift due to coercion o Language is always caught up in power relations Language and Globalization o Globalization happens through and tolanguage o Linguistic resources political and economic resources o English spread and pluralized into Englishes SapirWhorf Hypothesis o Language influences how we perceive the world o Categories cognition and perception 0 Edward Sapir 0 Benjamin Lee Whorf The BerlinKay Color Terminology Study Limits to Sapir Whorf o A crosscultural look at basic color categories 0 White black red green or yellow blue Birdsong as music and weeping o Spirits go to Mount Bosavi o Weeping o Listen to bird song AnloEwe Ghana o Balance as a sense 0 Many ways of walking Seselelame o Feeling in the body or hearing in the body Midterm 1 10122011 23900 AM Culture o The way of life of a people o What is learned shared and transmitted o Symbolic meaning through which people orient their lives o Body of learned symbolic behavior that s transmitted across generations and is infinitely expandable c We all participate in culture making sense of the world through cultural forms that serve as a lens highlighting some things obscuring others Society o A group or community that shares institutions is linked Kogwayay o Gebusi kogwayay togethernesstalkcheering is their emic term that could roughly translate into the etic term culture o Kogwayay isn t exactly culture but it s a manner in which they see their lives Sister exchange o Preferred system of marriage among the Gebusi Reciprocity o At the heart of social life of the Gebusi o Maintained balance between giving and getting between acting and acting upon o Hit most aspects of Gebusi culture PatrilineagePatriclan o The clan of your father Sorcery o Gebusi o Adameni 9 love potion did nothing o Bogay o Parcel sorcerylong lasting lillnessess caused by women o Ogowili o Sudden death or assault sorcerer takes the form of a warrior Ademeni o A love potion used by the traders for the men to attract women o Magic confidence boosting used by young men learning modern methods of courtship Inbetweener society o Semimobile sedentary but mobile o Horticulturalists and sedentary o Gebusi as an example Fieldwork o The hallmark of research and cultural anthropology Participant observation o The primary research method of cultural anthropology o Long term observations conducted in natural settings Reflexivity o Bruce Knauft author of the Gebusi o Perspective of the researchers shaping research 0 Acknowledging that the researcher s own perspectives will shape the research and the outcome Natives o Less strong rootsrelation than indigenous The Native s Point of Viewquot o Malinowski said the goal of the anthropologist is to grasp this Native Collaborators o Other people were hired to do research too Native anthropology o Anthropologists who write about their own cultures so it s very intimate Emic o perspective of insiders Etic o perspective imposed by outsidersanalysts Ethnocentrism o Judging others from one s own cultural perspective 0 Dangerous because this can dismiss and belittle others Cultural relativism o Accepting that all cultures are likely to have different perspectives and takenforgranted ways of behavior Argues for the need to understand people and practices in context of their cultural meaning o Dangerous because this can justify inhumane cultural practices ignore human rights Cultural miscommunication o Selfexplanatory Thick description o An aspect of ethnography Nacirema o Cultural meanings that underlie behavior which would otherwise seem opaque Ethnography o Writing about fieldwork and a way of life o A research and written method Ethnology o A study of cultures o More theoretical Salvage ethnography o Collecting and documenting texts and material culture o Franz Boas Crosscultural comparison o Standard form of anthropological analysis using the traditions and practices from different societies Theorization o The functionary use of theories Cultural rulessituationscultural patterns o Selfexplanatory Cultural continuity o Traditions that are resistant to change Cultural change o Changes in the culture Cultural adaption c When individuals adopt their culture to fit in with another culture Cultural diffusion o Traits moving between cultures o Agents of Diaspora colonization Colonialism and its consequences o The dominations of people in a territory by another group o Consequences 1 Political Control through displacement shifts local hierarchy 2 Social destruction of society Changes way of life 3 Economic resources fall into hands of colonizers amp exploitation of people work without resultsreward 4 Cultural monitor how people learn sharing of knowledge disregard traditions for new civilized ideas 5 Metropolecolony mutual transformation Missionaries Indigenous people o Original inhabitants Ecological noble savage c From article Two Wrongs Don t Make a Right 0 Good natives don t waste the land 0 Bad natives ignoble savage o How anthros describe native s relationship with the environment Ethnocide o Killing another culture Genocide o Killing other people Bronislaw Malinowski 18841942 0 Trobriand Islands 19151918 0 Argued for fieldwork in 1922 book called Argonauts of the Western Pacific o Ethnography writing about a way of life 0 He could write very clearly and evocatively 0 We must study the hold life has on man 0 In each culture the values aims impulses and happiness are slightly different Both a research method and a written product Ethnography as thick description 0 O o The first to argue for fieldwork o Worked in the Trobriand Islands first to do fieldwork for 3 years there and realized you need to do fieldwork for an extended period of time 0 Used participant information Frank Hamilton Cushing o Original participant observer 19th Century o Bureau of American Ethnology 0 We need to encompass the land 0 Led first expedition of self taught anthropologists 9 artifacts are everywhere o Zuni New Mexico 0 45 Years with governor 0 First war chief 9 he who eats 1 dish with 1 spoon cricket medicine flower Franz Boas Battled racist assumptions of the 19th century revolutionist theories Championed cultural relativism Interest in cultural diffusion Stressed value of collecting and documenting texts and material culture salvage ethnography o Often worked with native collaborators o Autobiographical ethnography 0 An American Keith Basso o Wrote the Western Apache article o He s really into placemaking o Telling stories as speech acts Doing something by saying something to someone 0 People would know they were being instructed morally because each place had a moral significance to it Narrative c From Latin narrare to relate to tell to know o Gnarus knowing Story c From Latin historia or Greek istoria learning by inquiry investigation o Stories usually involve movement change o Entertain instruct and more o Carry cultural themes Oral Narrative o Spoken o Subtly changed in each retelling o Reshaped by teller in interaction with listeners o Myth sacred o Greek mythos true tale o Legend historical o Folktale makebelieve Storytelling o A way of making sense of events arranging them in a sequence selecting sorting o Ethnographer and Subject Placemaking o Telling stories as Speech Acts Doing something by saying something to someone o Morality of actions quotStalking with Storiesquot o moral instruction that warns points towards and makes one think Social organizationsocial structure o Patterns and the ways that people interact o Within the structure social relationships are controlled by rules StatusRoleStatus ambiguityRole expectation o Status the sums of rights and duties related to a position in a social structure o Role the dynamic aspect the performing of rights and duties associated with the status Achieved status c an earned status Ascribed status o status you re born into Egalitarian society o everyone has roughly the same degree of wealth and power o Kalahari Stratified society o Stratified some groups have more access to wealth and power than others Modes of subsistence o Ways of eating o ForagingHunterGatherer 0 Looking for food o HorticultureSwiddenSlash and burn agriculture 0 Low energy input o Sedentary subsistence agriculture 0 o Intensive agriculture 0 Used year after year c Industrial agriculture 0 o Pastoralism o Nomadic groups practice bringing animals with them where the land can t support agriculture Fair Trade o An economic partnership which serves marginalized or impoverished producers by providing market incentives access to markets garunteed minimum purchase prices social and health programs environmental stewardship and improved relationships between consumers and producers SedentaryNomadic o Sedentary is one place nomadic is moving Call center o Indian center where American service calls are sent 0 Problem sleep becomes a commodity Sleep sold for money Sleeplessness o What s problematic Maternalism o In glossary Domestic labor o Glosssary o Work performed in the home such as cooking clearning and taking care of children CommodityCommodification o Anything bought or sold that has monetary value c Commodification making something that has monetary value CapitalismConsumerism o Capitalism o Consumerism the process of buying goods Global economy Globalization o The influx of cultures to a global scale in which production and consumers can be in different places Linguistic diversity 0 MonolingualismMultilingualism o Monolingualism one language o Multilingualism many language Language loss o Occurs through population lost voluntary or forced shift in language o Related to power SapirWhorf hypothesis o Language influences how we perceive the world o Categories cognition and perception 0 Edward Sapir 0 Benjamin Lee Whorf BerlinKay color category studies o A crosscultural look at basic color categories o White black red green or yellow blue Kalulihearingbird calls c We think of 5 senses but many cultures believe senses are things felt internally rather than externally o Intuition and balance are both considered sixth senses AnloEweSeselelamebalance 0 Medical anthropology o Viral superhighway article everything is connected Personalistic o Disease caused by an active agent Naturalistic o Disease caused naturallywithin Soul LossImbalanceIntrusion InternalizingExternalizing Bodily idealsNormsObesityAnthropometry Etiology o The theory of causation of a disease or illness Pathogen o Agent that causes disease Epidemiological Transition o The historical change and the primary cause of mortality in a population from infectious disease to chronic disease Materialist model of culture Mode of productionsocial systemideology The Linguists Chulym Sora Kallawaya First Contact Highland New Guineans Australians ApacheChineseGebusiKwakuitil Trobriand IslandersAcheGuarani The Nacirema o America backwards The body is ugly o Extreme examples of human behavior o Sadist and Masochistic is the norm o Medicine men highest then holy mouth men 9 daily mouth rite o Listener who exercised devils parents bewitched their kids Shakespeare in the Bush o Tiv of Western Africa o Through language we socialize and pass down cultural values 0 Communication involves a sender a receiver and a shared code for exchanging information o Miscommunication reflects cultural differences not lack of intelligence o Inferred that human nature is pretty much the same Western Apachee o Ethnography of communication knowledge of codes channels and expressions to use in what kinds of situations and to what type of people c When not to talk meeting strangers use caution and time 2 courting silence 3 children s return 15 minutes of silence kid breaks it 4 cussed out do nothinguse silence 5 being around mourning don t engage keep silent ceremony Christmas in the Kalahari o Buys the fattest calf for feast amp people seem pissed o Egalitarian Society o HunterGatherers o Kung Chinese table Manners Slumber s Unexplored Landscape Cultural Evolution of Obesity o Modernization has rapidly increased the prevalence of obesity and tradition hunter gatherer society showed no obesity o Positive association between status and weight 0 lower social classes used formula and kept baby fat 0 fatter bride equals higher bride wealth o epitomology study of disease in a population Viral Superhighway o Disease of civilization 0 Chronic diseases cariovascular that characterize the epidemiological profile of modern capitalist societies and are the results of infrequent exercises and poor diet o Globalization spread diseases 0 Pathogen transmits disease A TEACHING FRAMEWORK FOR CROSS CULTURAL HEALTHCARE H Fquot o Explanatory model 0 Patients cognative scheme for understanding his or her illness o Somatization 0 Physical expression of psychosocial problems Psychological manifestation of illness o Susto 0 Child s fears will manifest in sickness Gebusi 10122011 23900 AM 198019982008 Sorcery 9 Christianity 9 Christianity Male initiation 9 stopped 9tradition gone High Homicide 999 much lower Lived off land 9 markets 9 markets closed no education 9 schools 9 schools closed Characteristics of Culture Language same word for todaytomorrow and grandparentchild Gender preferential 9 sister exchange 3 Food hunter gatherer agrarian mix shift to materialism 4 ReligionCeremonies sorcery s ances initiation 5 Treatment of death body rots not hidden Ethnography culture can change even in 10 years c Written form telling the story of a people is important Lineage charts More interesting better NH
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