Popular in World History II
Popular in Department
This page Class Notes was uploaded by Mason Notetaker on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to history 1020 at Auburn University taught by Michael B. Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views.
Reviews for Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/08/16
Industrialization I Changes in Manufacturing Agricultural Revolution 0 People began to experiment on how they farmed adopted a more scienti c way of farming English Aristocrats got involved it was seen as fashionable for them to experiment with farming on their land 0 Increase in yields 0 Same amount of land but more produce 0 Jethro Tull Creates a plow that turns over the soil in a more thorough way as well as it worked in straight lines This plow decreased the amount of seeds that didn t grow 0 Learned how to fertilize o Nitrogen sorting crops such as the clover alfalfa and the turnip 0 Farmers learned that their crops would rapidly improve if they grew turnips o Improvements in livestock o Began to control breeding adopted a more scienti c way of breeding No more common livestock area 0 This allows livestock to be bigger and healthier o Turnip Townsed an enthusiast for fertilizing crops and feeding his livestock with turnips was such a big enthusiast he was nicknamed quotTurnip Townsedquot 0 Convertible husbandry switched plots of land between livestock and crops because the droppings of the livestock fertilized the land and allowed the crops to prosper 0 Effects demand 0 Increase in population due to healthier people which also lead to more consumers and then to and increase in demand 0 Demand always precedes major technology innovanns o Creates a labor force for the factories Industrial Revolution Instead of products being made by hands they people are being assisted by machines to make these products No more production in people s homes they are now taking place in factories New source of power steam Changes in technology Steam Engine 1760 0 James Watt perfects the steam engine 0 Transforms the manufacturing process Improvements in the Iron Industry 0 Typically iron was smelted with charcoal but by the early 18th century an energy crisis occurred They were basically deforesting England to smelt the iron ore o Knew they could smelt it with coal but the only downside is that sometimes it would produce pig iron 0 Henry Cort put an end to this he comes up with this process call puddling and rolling You take molten iron and begin to puddle stirring it and then rolls squeezes the iron to eliminate the pig iron o The iron industry then explodes which also allows the steam engine to be made And the steam engine opens up a ton of more industries 0 Improvements in Textile Industry 0 Hargreaves creates the cotton and gin READ o Arkwright creates the water powered loom READ 0 Ceramic industry is also positively effected by the steam engine It allowed ne china to be mass produced which was much healthier than their wood plates and bowls Why was England First 0 Resources 0 People say they were rst because they sat on large deposits of natural resources 0 Banking 0 England had a nancial structure that made loaning money much easier They had a National Bank Bank of England whose job was to get money out in circulation of the people Constitutional Factors 0 Government was pro business because parliament had such a big role 0 Transportation 0 18th19th century 0 Aristocrats began to invest in canals A canal is a waterway that connects two rivers 0 Were able to carry heavier loads on water Urbanization 0 Rapid growth of cities The rstmost signi cant cause of the revolution More than half of the population are living in cities causing the need for new cities to be built 0 Environmental consequences The Great Stink of London1858 Industrialization disaster for the environment Air pollution was at an all time high due to smoke stacks Alcoholism is very high in the 18th century Factories were on rivers most of the time so they could easily get rid of 39waste This caused many different rivers to be polluted London smelled very bad for several months due to the lth of this time and even bridges People would avoid some bridges just because of the stench 0 Housing Problems Families are being forced to live in attics and ceHars Entrepreneurs started to build rows of homesapartments very close to each other Earth Closets where sewage would over ow and kids would do outside and play next to these over owing earth closets o Diseases Typhus typhoid fever cholera in uenza Typhus Spread by water with feces Typhoid Fever Spread by contaminated Cholera Spread by water 0 Diet Lived on bread potatoes beer tea Most apartments did not have ovens Conditions of Labor 0 Many people worked around 16 hours a day and 6 days a week People didn t know anyone inside of the factory Women and children were both used to work in factories Conditions were especially bad with men Women and children usually worked in the Textile Factories because they had smaller hands Some women also had to to go to the mines to carry metals out Children had to work in textile mills and even work in the mines Changes in the Social Structure 0 Decline of the Aristocracy Entrepreneurs merchants all become the extreme wealthy during industrialization They gain power and pass up the Aristocracy 0 Rise of a Proletariat working class during Industrialization Became a political force at points acted violently and or revoke if they needed to 0 Rise of the Middle Class amp Victorian Womanhood Before the middle class was small now it s going to become larger wealthier and more powerful politically The middle class people were the biggest bene ciaries of industrialization During the Victorian Era the middle class dominated everything Victorian womanhood is loosely based off Queen Victorian Victorian womanhood s idea is that the mother s should stay home and take care of the house and children Stay at home mom Status symbol shows that she doesn t have to work because they can afford it nancially The Victorian house was a place for the people to get away from the outside world they had their own little oasis and drapery made this possible 0 Queen Victoria and Family 0 Were thought of as the ideal family 0 Responses to the Problems of Industrial Society 0 Luddites Against the advancement of technology and machines Made up of high skilled craftspeople 0 Union 0 Governmental Reforms Limit working hours cleaner water To learn more and get OneNote visit www0nenotecom Age of Ideology ll Liberalism Classical Economics 0 Adam Smith was the spokesperson for this ideology and his counterpart was known as physiocrats they are Individualism 0 Men should be free to do what he wants as he pleases without government interference LaissezFaire 0 Government takes a hands off approach to the economy Natural Law 0 Laws were selfregulated 0 Economy was self regulating due to supply and demand Freedom of Contract 0 Employers should be free to discuss contracts like hours amp wage 0 Free Competition 0 Adam Smith and Physiocrats believed this was a good thing for the economy because of the competition between businesses 0 Encourages better products specialization it drives the weaker companies out of the market and only leaves the companies that excel in all these categories 0 Classical Liberal Theorists 0 Thomas Malthus Essay on Population Classical Liberal Theorist Addressed the problem with poverty and how it effected the population He thought that he should help the people at the poverty line he tried to get rid of it Poor relief only made poverty worse 0 David Ricardo quotlron Law of Wagesquot If there is no minimum wage they will self regulate to where wages are perfect to where people will be able to just get by quotSubsist and perpetuatequot Jeremy Bentham Utilitarianism o Says that there are sometimes when the government should intervene o If you don t occasionally step in it will be a disaster Sometimes government needs to step in 0 Government should only intervene when it would cause the quotgreatest happiness for the greatest number of peoplequot is Mill 0 Wrote an essay called On Liberty about the individual being free 0 Says that in a democracy people are usually not free and that quotmajority rulesquot is a flawed system 0 A little later in life he changes his ideas 0 Evolution of Liberalism in late 19th and 20th Centuries o Capitalists are asking the government to do more 0 Liberalism has now shifted from LaissezFaire to more regulation on the economy 0 Some liberals even Mill started to embrace Socialist policies and ideals To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom Imperialism The Process What is Imperialism Buxton The process of creating empire 0 When people expand away from someonesomething Causes of Imperialism Economic 0 Markets overproduced and now they need to dump their extra product somewhere else Africa amp Asia 0 People wanted raw materials for cheap Leaders found out that if they took over control over raw materials politically and militarily then they could dictate who gets it and they could also promise security for their own markets Lenin is a Marxist he believed Imperialism was the highest stage for Capitalism He thought it became parasitic for the rest of the world He also thought it allowed companies to create monopolies much easier with unregulated capitalism Nationalism the pride and glory of their nations state to get colonies and empires Wanted to show off in a way show that their nation is prestigious Balance of Power was thrown off when everyone started to scramble to get colonies Careers were very sought after and colonies provided jobs This may have not been the sole reason for imperialism but it did play a part Racism o Gobineau tried to assign characteristic qualities and behaviors to people around the world Stated that there were white people black people Asians and Indians He then went on into talking about cranial capacity and said that white people were the smartest 0 People started to argue that it was the whites job to go on 39civilizing missions and bring civilization and colonies Missionaries Buxton Livingstone amp Adventurers 0 Ivory was in very high demand and Ivory was found in Africa This deamand singlehandedly kept slavery in Africa alive maybe even allowing it to grow 0 Livingstone went to Africa to spread Christianity Doing this caused curiosity with people back home It eventually ended up leading towards the spread of Imperialism into Africa When Stanley found Livingstone and interviewed him it only brought more attention to Africa Now Leopold II wanted it so he went and conquered the Congo Technology of Empire Steamships amp Railroads o Steamships decreased time for travel didn t have to rely on wind 0 Railroads allowed leaders to send troops rapidly and people could also travel Suez Canal amp Panama Canal 0 Suez Canal made the trip from Europe to East Asia much shorter The Panama Canal did this as well 0 Military technologies 0 Ri es vs muskets Ri e is much more accurate and faster at reloading than the musket 0 Machine guns The rst machine gun was the Maxim Communication 0 Steamships anol telegraphs Medicals Improvement 0 Quinine is used in making tonic water Tonic water actually helped with malaria To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom German Uni cation Nationalism Holy Roman Empire Geist Hohenzollerns Zollverein Nationalism is the pride in one s country or culture language is a major point This is what brings the Germans to become uni ed as one Read about the Italians Becomes a major Political force Herder and Fichte lntellectuals o Herder was early to say that the German people all shared the same language heritage culture and that German people should be proud of being a German Herder said that each individual had their own Geist spirit 0 Fichte took Herder s idea to another level saying that the German people were actually superior to everyone else Napoleon s Empire roweled up the Germans Stein amp Hardenberg 0 Wanted to try to reform by themselves not allow France to come here to try to tell them what to do The Hohenzollern Family are the Rulers of Prussia and they are the family that led German to its uni cation Zollverien lowered tariffs and taxes so goods could ow freely through German states Prussia bought into this idea and showed that they were very progressive while Austria did not This won over a lot of the liberal people Otto von Bismarck Junkers Early Life 0 In College he was not the most studious person he really liked to party and was part of the Junkers After graduating he went to work in the Government he hated it so he moved back home and his life really turned around once he got married He decided to devote his life to the Hohenzollerns Realpolitik was his idea this means that there are always options open If you go down one path and it doesn t work you can easily back out and take another path 0 quotBlood and Ironquot this means military con ict and industrial might He knows the only way to unify the Germans is to take out Austria Course of Uni cation SchleswigHolstein Napolean Ill Ems Telegram Versailles AlsaceLorraine Goes to war with Denmark and asks Austria if they would help him take over SchleswigHolstein They easily won and now there is con ict between Prussia and Austria on who will get the territory This allows Otto von Bismarck to go to war with Austria for a quotreal reasonquot 0 Prussia defeated Austria in the 7week war Prussia dominated them because of their advancements in militarization and their industrialization 0 North German Confederation Now that Austria has been defeated now only the French are the only people in the way of Prussia unifying the Germans o Bismarck strips the Ems Telegram of all polite wording and made it sound abrupt so he could start war with the French and it did 0 FrancoPrussian War begins the Prussians invade the French and defeat them in a matter of weeks Versailles is where the peace treaties were signed where they acquired AlsaceLorraine as well as William I being crowned the rst King of Germany The French were also told that they were to pay a major sum of money back to the Germans To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom French Revolution Pendulum Theorem 0 Ideas will ip from radical left and then back to radical right this is the beginning of the revolution After all is said and done the pendulum will be at rest with a resolution Origins of the French Revolution 0 The Estates General 1789 0 Seating and voting procedure 0 Tennis Court Oath Bastille July 14 0 Moving of troops in Paris caused citizens to freak out because they thought they were to be used on them 0 Citizens start to prepare for violence went from neighborhood to neighborhood collecting weapons to defend themselves 0 Citizens marched up to the Bastille and ordered for the leader of the Bastille to hand over his weapons when he denied the citizens marched on Bastille killed the leader and put his head on a stick and marched around Paris with it o This is known as the Storming of Bastille which is now a holiday 0 Great Fear 0 Peastants are afraid the Nobility is going to turn against them so they begin to storm the Nobility manors The peasants demand to see the The Work of the National Assembly 0 Decrees of August 4th 0 National meeting held on the night of August 3rd and went on into August 4th 0 One member would renounce the dues fees and payments to the peasants that work on my land One after another did this and they in turn freed the serfs 0 Declaration of Rights of Man September 0 Lafayette wrote this document and shows his friend Thomas Jefferson this document for approval 0 Says that we have not nished our declaration but states that all men are equal no matter social status 0 Comes out in September and they continue to write the Constitution 0 New Constitution Constitutional Monarchy Fall 0 This constitution saved the monarchy 0 Rights of citizens are guaranteed monarchy and representative assembly share power 0 Legislative Assembly Right Side 0 Composition is very pro revolution 0 So radical that the conservatives are in favor of this 0 Other countries are freaking out because they think they are going to bring their ideas to their country 0 People were willing to go to war to preserve their own ideas 0 Legislative Assembly was pro War o Girondists amp Jacobins Left Side 0 Pro republic debate group and represent the middle class Want a government that supports the idea aissezfaire 0 Pro republic debate group but they want a government that looks out for the working class Much more radical than the Girondists o Danton lnspired people Considered an unmade bed Everyone loved him 0 Ropespierre quotControl freakquot lcy personality Drove the republic phase of the revolution 0 War 0 Everyone Austrians Prussians wanted to go to war to prove that their government was superior and this brought up a new government 0 The Girondists amp Jacobins got their way no more King NannalConvenUon o No more King a total Republic Government 0 Had the rst military draft of Western History 0 France created the rst patriotic 0 Reign of Terror Committee of Public Safety was meant to protect from counter revolutionaries This committee carried out a purge of France known as the Reign of Terror Executed thousands and thousands of people that were accused of counter revolutionary ideasactions by the hand of the guillotine Little to no trail Major censorship going on Changed the calendar because of the Christian in uence Women started to adopt the fashion of the Ancient Romans Roman names are beginning to be used for children being born Went way too far and lead to the execution of Danton he was believed to be a counter revolutionist Ropspierre wanted to have another purge but cooler heads prevailed The Directory 1795 o Longest lasting government during the revolution 4 years 0 Moderate republic o 5man committee want to balance out power 0 Rise Major policy of this government was war France wanted to export the revolution by the war of Napoleon Bonaparte Italian born on the island of Corsica Was shipped of to military school in France In just a decade s time he goes from General to Emperor Was able to do this because of war and vacancy in positions Spent most of his time by himself During this time he read all about history and philosophy Career took off when he was a General ghting in Italy Strategies mass and mobility these were two reasons why his armies were so powerful Taught his soldiers how to live off the land so they didn t have to carry as much stuff allowing him to move a lot of people faster than his enemies could He knew a lot about geography this allowed him to be able to strategize around the land to bene t his army Takes part of a Coup d tat an overthrow of the government when he got back from the battle of the Nile Coup d tat abrupt seize of power After overthrowing The Directory another government was established In this government there were 3 consoles instead of a 5man committee and Napoleon was 1 of these 3 consoles 0 Napoleon went from having a tenure on the console to a life term Then after this he was voted Emperor of France in 1804 Napoleon s Empire 0 Creates a European Empire which includes allied o Carries out many reforms throughout his dependent states to get rid of monarchies and implement his republic government 0 Wanted to abolish serfdom and have everyone be equaL 0 Napoleon imposed the metric system throughout all of his empire Napoleon s Downfall 0 Could never defeat the British 0 Believed that he would be able to take down Britain at Sea Battle of Trafalgar takes place and is defeated by Admiral Nelson at sea 0 Realizes he cannot beat Britain by ghting them so he decided he needed to destroy their economy by boycotting their goods The Continental System 0 The Continental System was not supported by the people no one bought into it o Caused hardship scarcity and many other problems for the people of his empire o This caused people to hate the French and started to take pride in who they are This is the birth of nationalism 0 Put together the largest army on a single campaign to try to take over Russia 0 Scorched Earth 0 Lost 500k men on this journey o Retreats all the way back to France where the British are waiting for him after defeating him they deposit him on Elba where he puts together an army 0 Then proceeds the 100 day s march up to waterloo 0 Napoleon is nally defeated in Waterloo by the Commander Duke of Wellington 0 He is then taken to St Helena to live as a prisoner it is here where he eventually died 6 years later 0 The Congress of Vienna tried to turn everything back To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom Age of Ideology I Conservatism Ideas of the Enlightenment 0 Natural aw Newton showed that our world is ruled by natural laws Gravity and Inertia Was very popular that it applied to non scienti c areas such as stock and supply and demand It is believed that that world is rational 0 Reason 0 Progress 0 Natural rights John Locke is an inspiration for the 18th century Certain rights that everyone has since birth these rights are Life Liberty and Property 0 Impact on Revolution Conservatism 0 Opposition to Enlightenment and Revolution Didn t like that they were anti reform and pro revolution Edmund Burke writes a book during the French Revolution He didn t believe in Natural Rights he believes rights are earned He believed hat was o Tradition vs Anarchy He believes that tradition shows that it has stood the test of time Congress of Vienna is dominated by conservatives Restored ruling dynasties redrew boundaries The Reign of Terror and Robespierre discredited the good doings of the French Revolution To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom Industrialization lll Technology amp Progress Speake World Shaping Technology Annihilators of Time amp Space 0 Travel time was cut down dramatically with steam travel and railroads o Telegraph and telephones allowed people to be able to conduct business allows us to ask the question of how far apart are we really 0 A World of Comfort amp Convenience 0 New domestic appliances phonographs cameras 0 quotWhat may not be expected in a country of eternal lightquot 0 Electric lights transit On World39s Fairs Held throughout the 19th century to showcase new technological advances to reinforce notions of empire and to stimulate economic activity 0 Notable fairs London 1851 Philadelphia Buffalo 0 Some of these fairs were held at the Crystal Palace Crystal Palace Sentential Engine American Fairs Social Darwinism and Nonwhite Peoples quothuman zoosquot 0 People like native Americans and African Americans were paid to come to these fairs to show off the other cultures of America Manifest Columbian Exposition in Chicago 0 Tiffany Chapel was there was a shrine for the worship of art 0 Had electric moving sidewalks powered boats and lots of lights 0 Electricity had an impact on the people who visited who really had never seen this before Electricity 0 Edison vs Westinghouse for who would really power America Nikola Tesla really developed the idea of bringing electricity to homes not actually have it be produced in someone s home X Rays To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom Age of Ideology III Socialism Utopian Socialism Group of thinkers who propose the perfect industrial world this idea was very strong in France 0 Saint Simon orders a complete reorder of society he believed intellectuals should be at the top of the social class then the Captains of Industry and then the VVorkers 0 Charles Fourier wanted a series of separate communities called Phalanx These Phalanxes are all autonomous no government and the economy runs itself 0 quotFrom each according to his ability from each according to his needquot this was the guiding 0 Robert Owen an industrialist transformed an industrial town buy cleaning up factories and sending kids to school all at the same time Marxism Dialectical Materialism or Scienti c Socialism 0 Early life of Karl Marx 0 German NOT Russian 0 Born into a middle class German family superbly educated and wanted to become a History Professor Instead he worked at a newspaper company Begins to write his ideas in this newspaper and he ends up getting ran out of Germany to France where he meets Friederich Engels o Engels and Marx become good friends and Engels gave Marx an inside look of what happened at factories o Marx and Engels end up getting ran out of France to Brussels Here they meet up with some other radicals and here they came up with the Communist Manifesto 0 Because of the Communist Manifesto they then have to leave Brussels Marx goes to London where he lives the rest of his life This is also where he wrote Das Kapital 0 Theory of History Q Hegel a German philosopher developed a theory of history known as the dialectic theory of history His thesis is if you are given any given civilization in any given time will be shaped by this dominant culture As time goes on the culture starts to become the opposite of what it was this is known as the antithesis Then comes the synthesis the new dominant culture that will after time go through this cycle once again Dialectic is the advancement in history through clashing Clash and move forward 0 Marx is a materialist because he believes that humans are materialistic o Substructure vs Superstructure 0 Capitalism as theft 0 Introduces this idea in Das Kapital 0 Labor Theory of Value What makes the value of the product is the labor that went into it creating its product 0 Shared this idea with Ricardo 0 He views capitalism as theft because workers are not being compensated by the value of the goods they are providing So he believes a revolution is inevitable Revolution by Proletariat 0 He believes that there will be a clash between the working class and the proletariats The proletariats will rise up and overthrow the working class After this comes a time when a temporary dictatorship is in place to prepare this To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom Review Exam 1 Estates General 0 Tennis Court Oath Response to the Louis closing the Estate took and oath to write an oath Bastille Fortress in the heart of Paris used for a prison Symbol for the old regime citizens stormed the fortress 0 Great Fear Everyone was in paranoia though the nobility were going to turn on them Decrees of August 4th The 3rd and 2nd estates are now called the National Convention abolished serfdom in Versailles Declaration of the Rights of Man All French men are free and equal no matter where they come from or what their social class is Has an American avor Legislative Assembly Last 1 year there is still a King It39s a constitutional monarchy Kings powers are limited Did not last long because people wanted the revolution to go farther France went to war with Austria and Prussia National Convention Most radical leftward phase No King it is now a Republic Carries out the Reign of Terror Turned around the War with Austria and Prussia Called for a national draft Put together an army of people who were ghting for a cause 0 Reign of Terror A purge Robespierre The hardcore radical Led the Reign of Terror Absolutely republicans and they were supported by the working class Danton Robespierre s friend Grioundins Republicans but they are different from the Jacobins The middle class supports this group which favors laisse faire Directory Still a Repbulic but not as extreme as before Designed to prevent the abuse of power The government that starts the exportation of the revolution to other countries The Expansion Government where Napoleon started Napoleon Continental System A blockade of Britain Napoleon wanted to defeat Britain by having an economic blockade Russian Campaign Napoleon tried to take over Russia but failed miserably this was the turning point Conscription Hundred Days Napoleon is taken to an island say he can rule this island and that is it He wants more so he gets 1500 troops and marches to waterloo during this time his old veterans come to his aid Ends up being defeated at waterloo Agriculture Revolution Surge in population more workers and a catalyst for the industrialization because there are more consumers More demand for stuff Industrialization lron industry James Watt Perfects the steam engine in 1760 Henry Cort lnvented the puddling and rolling process for iron lron had always been smelted with charcoal and they were running out of it But Henry Cort developed a way to use the large deposits of coal that they were sitting on Bourgeoisie Proletariat Child Labor Luddites a movement in England protested Josiah Cox Wedgewood Applied the steam engine to ceramics Natural Rights All men had the same natural right of Life Liberty and Property Brand new idea Natural Law Gravity inertia economy Laissez Faire Government should be self regulating Adam Smith Ideas are call Classic Economic Thoery Market Forces Natural Law Malthus Charity only makes things worse for people Ricardo Classical Economic Theorist Classical Liberalist lron law of wages believed if wages were left alone then they would balance out where people could survive and perpetuate Came up with the Labor theory of Bentham Believed that sometimes governments needed to step in Only when its in the interest of the majority Utilitarianism Anti Government JS Mill Classical Liberalism Political ideology of the middle class during the 19th century Edmund Burke Conservatism Stood the test of time Hegel History moves forward with clashes dialectic One dominant culture for a while thesis and there is an opposing culture antithesis When they clash a new dominant culture is birthed synthesis Utopian Socialism This is mainly in France Someone who would envision what a perfect industrial world Marxism Scienti c Socialism In uenced by Hegel People are Substructure The means for production and the society associated with this Superstructure Religious beliefs constitution art Re ects the substructure Crystal Palace Built in 9 months made from iron and glass Testimony for the technological advancements Chicago World s Fairs Powered by electricity Edison Didn t power the worlds fair lost to Westing House Nikola Tesla Had the idea of having electricity being piped in from a local generator Nationalism Geist A spirit nature This de nes every person Herder Fitche Bismarck Chief Minister architect of German Uni cation Zollverien An economic free trade union Blood and Iron Warfare and industrial mite was what was going to lead Germany to Uni cation Hohenzoern Family to unify Germany FrancoPrussian War France lost two territories and William was crowned king of Germany David Livingstone Wanted to stop slavery and slave trade Wanted to bring some other kind of econonmic development and spread Christianity Missionary involvement only increases slavery Henry Stanley Was sent to look for Livingstone Becomes the representative for King Leopold King Leopold Suez Canal To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom Terms to Know for the First Exam EstatesGeneral Tennis Court Oath Bastille Great Fear Decrees of August 4th 0 Declaration of the Rights of Man 0 Legislative Assembly 0 National Convention 0 Reign of Terror Robespierre Danton Girondins Jacobins Directory 0 Napoleon Continental System 0 Russian campaign Conscription Hundred Days To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom Imperialism II India and Africa India East India Company Joint Stock Company that was royally chartered that traded in the East Indies Trading big time with pepper and spices then later on they start buying Chinese goods Mughals Muslim leaders allowed the EIC into their land Sepoy Indian Soldier in the British army Sepoy Revolt 1857 British Of cers introduced a new cartridge and the Sepoy s were to use this in their guns Hindu s amp Muslims were not allowed to eat meat and they were basically being forced to by their British Of cers This causes and uprising and it takes the British 1 year to nally stop this Many Indians and British people died British Reforms amp the Raj British form a government in Indian known as the Raj All top positions belonged to British people and all lower positions belonged to the Indian people Victoria was declared empress of India in 1877 Maharajah Indian Royalty Impact of British Rule Western Education Education was introduced to the Indian people Only effected the Indian NobilityElite Railroads These were built all over India one of the best things the British brought to India Banking amp Mining More advanced banking introduced as well as mining that was crucial to India s economy Landholdings Largescale plots of land owned by families Peasants were driven off the land and into cities to look for work This lead to the further impoverishment in India 0 Textile Industries lndian markets are being lled with cheap products from British this helped destroy the production of handmade goods 0 Caste System When the British came in they didn t understand the Caste System They tried to understand it but when they read the ancient reading that couldn39t understand it 0 Poverty India s poverty only got worse when the British entered into India Africa a The Berlin Conference A conference that took place to gure out how they were going to divide up Africa 0 The Scramble Treaties a Military Advantages The Europeans had a huge advantage because of their technological advancements like the machine gun 0 Con ict Among the Colonizers Boer War The British start to invade so the Dutch Afrikaaners begin to move known as the Great Trek They move into the Orange Free State and discover diamonds The British nd this and they want in on it This becomes the Basis for the war Even though the British won they suffered many causalities as did the Dutch To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom Russian Revolution Russia on the Eve of the Revolution Major Revolution 0 Rapid social amp economic change 0 Middle class becoming bigger amp more prosperous due to industrialization The middle class is now going to want political power There is a real disconnect because things are changing but there is still a czar and monarchy 80 of the population are still peasants even though they are going through industrialization All peasants wanted was to have land that they could farm on and make money for themselves instead of aristocrats Stolypin brought some of these wishes true he had land reforms that gave some peasants land and the others have to go work on the Mir World War I 0 Russia fought valiantly they committed 15 million troops for this con ict and lost half of their soldiers They were losing a lot of soldiers and this caused dislocation with the economy The government looks so bad in the eyes of the citizens Government 0 The government look very bad now While Czar Nicholas is on the front trying to x things Rasputin becomes very prevalent in the government Rasputin is a quotconartist and he convinces Alexandria that he can heal their son who has hemophilia The son stops bleeding for a period of time and Alexandria believes him This allows Rasputin to climb the ranks in the government and get his own cronies in government too March Revolution 1917 Strike in St Petersburg 0 Food riots started by women started off the strike in St Petersburg More and more people gather for the riots so the Czar sends in troops and he abolished the Dumont But the troops are sympathetic for the people rioting and they take a vote on to not shoot at these people They eventually switch sides and join the riots which are slowly turning into the rst Revolution Provisional Government 0 The Dumont now takes over as the new government for Russia and Kerensky was chosen to be the leader of this government 0 Problems of the War 0 This government has to still deal with the war This government was all for staying in the War and it went terribly this was the ultimate demise for this provisional government Soviets 0 During this time the Soviets are rst formed There are Marxist political parties who helped form the Soviets Bolshevik Revolution 0 Arrival of Lenin 0 Very talented intellectual very bright spent some time in a prison in Siberia when he got out he was exiled from Russia he returns to Russia during the war He is assisted by Germany to get back once he gets back he begins to campaign Lenin s Interpretation of Marx o Lenin decided to push for a Marxist revolution unlike Karl Marx who thought it would happen on it own Lenin Trotsky and Stalin will rule under the slogan quotPeace land amp breadquot 0 St Petersburg Soviet 0 They take this over and it allows them to take over all of the Soviets This marks the end of the provisional government 0 Civil War 0 Whites vs Reds CounterRevolutionists vs Revolutionists The British and US were very concerned of this revolution because they still need their allies in WWI Lenin s Russia 0 New Economic Policy NEP 0 Was supposed to be temporary This policy went back to the idea of capitalism he wanted to use individual or t to jumpstart productivity and it worked 0 Constitution amp the Communist Party 0 Controls the Politburo this is where all the policies To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom Hitler and the Rise of Fascism Fascism vs Communism Both produced totalitarian states doctorial states both abolished the ideas of civil liberties Government played a huge role in the economy Both had very regulated economies Communism comes from an enlightenment ideology They were trying to make a perfect place Universalist amp Optimistic Fascism very nationalistic and pessimistic De ned goals are vague Production are privately owned but still heavily regulated Causes of Fascism Great Depression 0 Fall of 1929 people were speculating in an extreme way on Wall Street People were pouring money on companies in stocks and production started to raise up so people who saw it took money out This resulted in the crash of the stock market this set off the banks they began to recall loans This is what made it go international because loans were given out to other people Governments speci cally started public works projects infrastructure so people could have jobs as well as military spending Weimar Republic 0 You have a President as well as a parliament or Reichstag Occupation of the Ruhr o Ruhr Valley was rich in mineral deposits Germany fell back on its repreations from WWI so the French came into the Ruhr Valley and controlled it militarily Germany workers were not listening to the French soldiers The government supported the German workers so to repay the French they decided to print money 0 In ation of 1923 1914 42 Marks to the Dollar 1919 89 Nov 1 1923 130 billion Nov 20 1923 42 trillion Dawes Plan 0 O O O 0 New payment schedule from WWI Impact on Middle Class 0 Middle class was wiped out Every investment and savings were all useless This caused for middle class to move down to the proletariat Rise of Hitler Life after WWI 0 He links up with the National Socialist German Workers39 Party Nazis Munich Beer Hall Putsch 1923 o Attempt to revolt against the Government was supposed to overthrow the government but it failed But this put the Nazi party on the map and it put Hitler in jail Prison 0 This is where Hitler writes Mein Kampf this is an autobiography of his feelings Told people to quotkeep it simplequot Propaganda o Hitler and the Nazi39s were masterly in the use of propaganda Repetition was his approach to propaganda keep it simple and when you need to lie make it bold and bodacious 0 People were impressed by the amount of supporters he had Reichstag 0 Work through the Reichstag and ended up winning the election 0 Due to the fact of how powerful Hitler was Hindenberg had Hitler become Chancellor 0 There was a rebombing in the Reichstag building and they needed to do something immediately Enabling Act 1933 0 Given unlimited dictorial power for four years so Germany could quotstraighten themselves outquot o Hitler immediately begins to expunges all other political parties The Nazi State 0 Terrorism 0 SA quotBrown Shirtsquot were kind of used as thugs if something bad was said by the Nazis then the SA would visit you o 55 Had the most involvement in the Holocaust Hitler favored the 55 because they looked how he wanted them to look blonde hair and blue eyes 0 Military Expansion 0 Policy towards the Jews 0 Nuremburg Laws No German could marry a Jew Jews could not attend college o Rallies To learn more and get OneNote visit www0nenotecom Soviet Union under Stalin Lenin s successors Stalin vs Trotsky Trotsky s quotPermanent Revolutionquot 0 The revolution would need to keep going it will have to immediately become a national revolution Stalin39s quotSocialism in one countryquot 0 Thought you had to make socialism to work in Russia before trying to make it go national Stalin39s victory 0 He is crucially located because he is part of the Poltiburo He builds a good network and appoints people who support him and he ends up winning 0 Stalin goes on to create a totalitarian state 0 Trotsky is exiled and he lived in Mexico where he was eventually killed by Stalin s men Five Year Plans 1928 End of NEP why g Past its prime their effects were positive but nite Stalin personally despised NEP He also thought that the NEP created a small group of capitalists named the Kulats and he despised them Goals amp economic objectives Q Wanted to super industrialize Russia overnight Q Triple the output of heavy industry double the output of the smaller industry and increase by 50 agricultural activity oPeasants and land hunger 0 Government is now coming back to the peasants and telling them to their land back as well as livestock and equipment Peasant Response Q The peasants destroyed their land equipment and livestock Q This had a great negative impact on the agriculture Kulaks Q Some were executed so they disappeared Factories Q Meets his staggering objectives Q Stakhanov A legendary Russian worker who meet his objectives each day and what you should be like Economic results Russia 3rd largest industrial power Life in Stalinist Russia Terrorism Purges and show Trials Q Show Trials People who are suspected to have capitalism ideas have these These are trials that are taken as a joke Housing and necessities Worlds rst Socialist Country Propaganda Lysenko Was using chemistry to prove that you could make a better type of wheat 20 Million Perished Between 19301941 10 Million in collectivization 89 million arrested To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom Review Chapter 2628 and 29 East India Company Bosnia Herzegovina All about nationalist revolt beginning of WWI Bosnia is in the Bismarckian System An alliance system that took all the major continental powers to isolate France Triple Alliance Germany Austria and Italy Triple Entente Schlieffen Plan Made this plan in 1905 Their plan to defeate France their goal was to take out France quickly then turn around and be ready for Russia They went through the North through Belgium Thought they would fool everyone because no one thought they would go through Belgium Trench Warfare War of very little movement digging in and grinding on Offense was old fashioned but defense was 20th century Massive carnage Battle of the Marne 1914 the rst moment when people realized it would be a war of attrition Battle of Verdun A war where Germany tried to break the defense unloaded a massive amount of artillery and bombings Massive carnage but this did not break the French Gaipoi An attempt by the Western Allies Britain to create a sort of distracition but it did not work and lost massive casuaHUes TE Lawrence Provoked an Arabic revolution against the Ottoman Empire to create a problem with one of Germany s allies Treaty of Versailles Ended WWI Harsh reoperations for Germany ost land had to pay major nes was demilitarized These punishments led to the outbreak of WWII Nicolas II and Alexandra Czars of Russia Rasputin Snakey salesman persuaded Nicolas and Alexandria that he cured their son of hemophilila By doing this he could easily manipulate the Czars He brought many of his friends to power Kerensky Middle class revolution Kerensky is in charge of the Provisional Governemnt The provisional government continued to be apart of the disastrous WWI Lenin Leader of Bolshevik39s he tweaked Marxism he thought sometimes the intellectuals would have to kind of provoke this a revolution Trotsky Advocate of Permanent Revolution The Marxist revolution needs to be carried out internationally Stalin Felt it was important to create one successful country with socialist economy Bolshevik Revolution quotPeace Land and Breadquot Soviets Based in Leningrad St Petersburg War Communism The attempt to implement a socialist economy and Marxist ideas New Economic Policy NEP The use of pro t incentives capitalism This was used to jumpstart the economy Wanted to make Russia to be more productive quotSocialism in One Countryquot Five Year Plan Rapid industrialization wanted to bring Russia up to the standard of the rest of the world Massively unpopular with the peasants Kulaks They were resistant because they did not want to give their land to the government They would destroy their things instead of giving it to the government Politburo A sub committee in which all policies and ideas where formulated Hitler Weimar Republic Germany came out of WWI as this democracy As good as its intentions were it has huge problems Occupation of the Ruhr French soldiers marched in to a mine because Germany was behind on payments but the Germans would not work for these soldiers so Germany printed more money to pay off their debt this led to hyper in ann Fascism An ideology that is not socialist Very popular with the middle class A lot of government regulation But still involves private ownership The idea of us vs someone else is what makes this ideology tick The Great Depression Fascism is a bug part of this Beer Hall Putsch Attempted revolt by the Nazis that failed ended with Hitler in jail and put the Nazis on the map Mein Kampf Reichstag Goebels Enabling Act Gives Hitler doctorial power for 4 years but he changes it to lifetime AntiSemitism Hitler now Nuremburg Laws RestrictJews more and more Segregate Jews in German society Blitzkrieg WWII style of ghting quotlighting warquot thought it would be a war of movement so he began to create many different war Appeasement Policy of the old western allies from WWI allow Hitler to do his thing because there was a little guilt form WWI They wanted to have peace no one wanted to go back to war Wanted Germany to be the buffer for socialism Anschluss Annexation of Austria Sudetenland Annexation of Czechoslovakia Lebensraum Invasion of Poland The start of WWII Poland is defeated in 1 month Vichy France Government is collaborationist sent some Jewish people back to Germany Battle of Britain Germany wanted to break the air force of the Britain s This attack failed Winston Chruchill emerged as a true leader during this battle Eastern Front Holocaust Systematic attempt to destroy the Jewish race and other minorities New Order the idea of Aryan race To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom Discussion Our prediction of the cart s weight was indefinitely supported by the data We predicted that the cart was 8992 grams the original weight of the cart was 8288 grams which was only an 849 difference Finding the static friction as well as the kinetic friction showed us that Dynamic tension is always less than static friction This is due to the fact that in the dynamic tension formula the denominator is always greater than the numerator Knowing this allowed us to check ourselves throughout the lab to verify that we were on the right track The lab ran fairly smoothly as there were only a few errors that we ran into as a group that could have resulted in even better results One of our errors was when we noticed the string going vertically from the pulley to weight slightly came in contact with the table This caused drag and made the photogate think the cart was going slower in turn giving us data that ended up telling our group that the cart was heavier than it really was Another error when releasing the cart the cord attached to the cart would drag against the table causing the same problem identified in the previous error If we were to run this experiment again we could easily solve these errors by closely watching the string to make sure it does not come into contact with the table We still believe that our method for solving for mass by using dynamic tension and acceleration of an object is a viable option We are confident that if our errors were fixed the prediction of the mass of the cart would be much closer World War II Beginnings Failure of Collective Security Nazi Expansion 0 Race amp Space 0 Believed the German race was superior to everyone and they were growing very fast and they wanted to gain more space Also believed all Germans should be in one nation There were many Germans still living in Sudetenland Alsace Loraine and Austria Lebensraum living space Rearmament 1933 o Begins to secretly rebuild the military Started off with building planed and equipment Then he decides to hold a draft and remilitarized the Rein Land These are all violations of the Treaty of Versailles o 1936 creates an alliance with Mussolini o Chamberlain amp Daladier are concerned with what Hitler is doing Their response to his actions is appeasement They just wanted to keep Hitler happy because the last thing the British people wanted was another war They also kind of felt bad for the people of Germany from the harsh agreements of the Treaty of Versailles The British also saw Germany is a buffer to communism Anschluss 1938 o This is when Hitler annexed Austria bringing even more Germans together Chamberlain amp Daladier are still appeasing Hitler Czechoslovakia Sudetenland o Chamberlain and Hitler have a meeting in Munich and they agree that Hitler would only take the Sudetenland and then stop But that doesn t happen Hitler rst takes the Sudetenland and then the rest of Czech Pact of Steel 0 Strengthens alliance with Mussolini NaziSoviet Pact o In the event of a war they would not attack each other and if there is war in Europe then they will split the winnings 0 Everyone wanted the Soviets on their side because of their size and the fact that they could bring so many troops to the table 0 Poland 1939 0 Germany wanted West Poland and the Soviets wanted East Poland so they decided they would split it Eary War Blitzkrieg o A war of movement covering a lot of land 0 Luftwaffe German air force 0 Poland is bombed so heavily Fall of France 0 France and Britain mobilize for war 0 France fell in the matter of weeks was still weakened from WWI o The Nazis occupy France into two parts Vichy government in France collaborated with Hitler The government was ran by Petain 0 Battle of Britain 0 RAF Britain Air Force much smaller than the Luftwaffe but their pilots are superb to the German pilots o Hitler sends Goering to take out Britain39s RAF before actually invading Britain At rst they went after air bases then they turned their attention towards civilians Civilians were instructed every night to take shelter some people would sleep in the London subway during the bombings 0 Churchill had the ability to move a nation quotkeep calm and carry onquot Brought together a coalition government Churchill was an orator he could easily inspire the British people to ght on The RAF who are outnumbered began to pull it together and took out crucial numbers of German planes and Hitler decided to back off To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom The Holocaust Hitler39s Racial Theories The New Order Nordic People 0 Treated better than others due to the close relation to the Aryan Race 0 Latin People 0 French were grouped into this they weren t considered the worst but they were still not good in the eyes of Hitler Slavic People 0 Hitler enslaved them and wanted to exterminate them so he worked them to death 0 Jews 0 Viewed them in the lowest regards of any man 0 Deprived of virtually every position no jobs treated very poorly well before the Holocaust Q Nuremburg Laws Q Lebensraum Concentration Camps Q Deportation Moving people into Q quotFinal Solutionquot Hitler39s plan of exterminating people all over the world lo Himmler was in charge of the Death Camps therefore he was in charge of the SS troops who co ran the Death Camps lo Wasn t just Jews that were executed Fim quotNight and Fogquot 1954 To learn more and get OneNote visit www0nenotecom WWI Course of the War Idea of Lecture A 19th century offense cannot beat a 20th century defense Strategies Schlieffen Plan 0 In 1905 the Germans put together this plan They wanted to invade the French from the North which they didn t think the French would expect They wanted to go through Belgium in doing this the Germans violated an International Law of neutrality They would invade in a wheeling motion so they could surround Paris Assumed they would be able to knock out the French very quick 0 First Battle of the Marne 1914 amp the advent of trench warfare o This is when it becomes a world con ict This occurs when Germany goes through Belgium but the Schlieffen Plan doesn39t work and the Germans stall at the Marne The French joined by the British dug in and created 475 miles of trenches where they stood their ground Machine Gun Changed the way armies played offense in wars They could shoot so many bullets in a short period of time This caused the war to become War of Attrition a war where you keep grinding on Barbed Wire This was used as reinforcement in no mans land Either had to go over or under it Verdun 1916 700000 deaths o Somme River 60000 British in one day 0 Life in the Trenches 0 You would be rotated 7 days in front and around 3 days in the back to recover Spring brought a lot of rain and since they are in trenches water collects there soldiers were very often up to their knees in mud sometimes even up to their armpits Many rodents also infested these trenches they would feed on the carcasses of soldiers Over the Top 0 An offensive strategy used in WWI once you go over the top you have to crawl under the barbed wire with artillery round landing everywhere Stalemate amp Choices 0 New Allies 0 New Fronts Wanted to distract the Germans and their allies 0 New Weapons Tanks were made in an effort to pass no mans land this was its early testing ground Planes were rst used in this WWl and Planes engaged in dog ght Gas was also used in WWl These gasses consisted of tear uorine and mustard gas Fluorine gas would kill you but Mustard Gas was the worst of them it is said to be the most excruciating death Entrance of US o Submarine warfare is what eventually brings the US into WWl In 1915 a German Submarine attacks a British Ship named the Lusitania and Americans were on this ship and were killed Withdrawal of Russia 0 Battle of Galipole Wanted to take over Istanbul 0 Wanted to create another distraction but this ended in disaster TE Lawrence 0 End of War Treaty of Versailles o The quotWar Guiltquot clause said that Germany caused this war They gave out many punishemnts to Germnay These consisted of Germany paying a huge ne and they were demilitarized All but 100k troops were taken away from Germany 0 Territorial provisions The French get Alsace and Lorraine back from the Germans 0 Effects 0 Loss of Life amp Demographic Effects 0 Colonials 0 Women Keep the home front movingworking during the world and now that the war is over the o Psychological Impact Lost Generation People don39t think the same 0 Fascism The struggle to recover after the war had people give a lot of power back to the government To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom Lecture 013 Ancient Greece 92215 Solon d 560 BCE O O O O O Forbade debt slavery Created jobs so people could nd work Divided Athens into 4 classes based on wealth Step towards democracy Reformed laws made the punishments t the crime Cleisthenes d 508 O 0 Used quotdemequot or locality to de ne citizenship lsonomia the principle of equal rights for all citizens Pericles d 429 BCE O O O 0 Leader of Athens Made the Athenian Navy very strong Popular politic Everyone was in uproar that Pericles allowed her to kiss him on the cheek in public People believed this meant she had more power than Pericles Sparta O O O 0 Were the special forces of their time Not a volunteer army male aristocrats fought in wars Belonged to the social class of Helot39s In between serfs and slaves Helot s outnumbered Aristocrat39s so the Aristocrat s had to always train to keep the Helots in line Spartan women ran almost everything Peloponnesian Wars 0 Spartan s and Athenian s went to war lasted 30 years Terrible war for Greece Stalemate after stalemate o o o Spartan s Better Army 0 Athenian Better Navy 0 Spartans won the war To learn more and get OneNote visit www0nenotecom Lecture 014 Ancient Rome 92315 Roman Coliseum o Held horse races 0 People would bet on sportsraces 0 Played many other sports and performances in the Coliseum Rome amp the Mediterranean 0 Rome was not originally the main power house in the Mediterranean 0 The Etruscans were the rst power house in the Mediterranean 0 Eventually the Romans drove the Etruscans out of the peninsula o Romans borrowed ideas from the Etruscans o Alphabet 0 War tactics where troops would ght as a single group Last Kings of Rome and the Early Roman Public 0 After being defeated by the Etruscans instead of appointing a new king the Romans developed a democracy 0 Developed a council named the Senate The Senate ruled Rome 0 Consoles o Leaders of the Senate 0 Consoles were appointed by the Senate 0 Served for one year at a time 0 There were two consoles and both had to agree on something for it to happen Patricians 0 Passed wealth down through generations 0 Dominated the Senate 0 Had the money and time to educate themselves Plebeians o All the people who were not born into a rich family Plebeians 0 Farmers craftsmen merchants etc 0 Not educated were too poor or did not have enough time 0 Not many images of Plebeians 0 Made up most of the army Early Roman Imperialism 0 Italy invaded by barbarians gals from Germany and France 0 They defeated the Romans but did not destroy Rome 0 The Roman Senate decided the best defense was a good offense 0 Romans started to expand thought that if they extended their power far away from Rome they would have a good buffer between the barbarians and others who would try to invade Rome Punic Wars 246146 BCE o Carthaginians vs Romans in a series of wars 0 Carthaginians dominated North Africa and Spain o Romans and Carthaginians butted heads in Southern France Spain and Sicily 0 When the Romans won they destroyed Carthage 0 Did not want Carthaginians to rebound 0 Wanted to turn Carthage into a wasteland Macedonian Wars 215148 0 Series of four wars that Rome fought in Macedonia 0 Macedonia became Roman province in 146 BCE 0 Major step on the road to empire Civil Wars amp Militarization o Patricians getting wealthier and wealthier while plebians were becoming poorer and poorer o Plebians could join the Roman Army 0 Roman Army was a 20year commitment o Promised pensions money or land after their service in the army 0 Veterans were not getting what they were being promised o Rivalries between Generals and Veterans eventually turned into civil wars Julius Caesar o Marched on Rome with his troops to save Rome 0 Acting for the majority of the Romans 0 Patricians thoughtJulius Caesar was taking all the power so he could eventually become King 0 Patricians killed Julius Caesar Octavian aka Augustus Caesar d 14 CE o Kept the Senate but rendered them powerless 0 Was able to usher in an age of peace 0 200 years of peace known as Pax Romana 0 Very popular among Patricians anol Plebians Roman Empire 0 Consisted of Spain France North Africa Egypt Greece Judea etc Judaism in General 0 Monotheistic 0 Sacred scripture Tanakh aka Hebrew Bible Old Testament 0 Homeland in Canaan between Mediterranean Sea amp Jordan River 0 Religion evolved in stages History of HaTanakh 0 Mostly oral tradition until Babylonian Exile 0 Writing down and editing Tanakh became more urgent during the exile 0 Ca 250 BCE Hellenized Jews in Egypt compile Septuagint which formed the basis of the Tanakh for Greekspeaking Jews amp later early Christians 0 Ca 90 BCE Council of Yavneh at which nal canon of Hebrew version of Tanakh established historically debated o No later than 200 CE Tanakh in Hebrew reached canonical form o 1800 BCE traditional date for Abraham 0 1250 BCE traditional date for Hebrew exodus from Egypt 0 1000 BCE King David est Jerusalem as capital of Israel amp built First Temple 0 ca 930 BCE Assyrians destroyed Kingdom of Israel but Kingdom ofJudah survived 0 586539 BCE Judah fell to NeoBabylonians Babylonian Exile destruction of 1st Temple 0 515 BCE Dedication of Second Temple 0 ca 539143 BCE Achaemenid Persians then Alexander the Great then GrecoEgyptian Ptolemies amp Greco Persian Seleucids ruled overJewish homeland Roman Judaea 0 ca 143 Hasmonean Dynasty Maccabees rebelled against Seleucids amp est kingdom ofJudaea o 63 BCE Romans intervened to quell Hasmonean con ict 0 47 BCE Julius Caesar makes Herodian Dynasty power in Judaea o 37 BCE Herod the Great became king ofJudaea with Roman support 0 6670 CE Jewish Revolt against Rome destruction of second temple 0 73 CE Last Jewish resistance at Masada 0 132135 CE Bar Kokhba Revolt Roman victory Judaea devastated Jews exiled amp barred from Jerusalem o Rabbinic Judaism replaced templebased Judaism 0 Politics 0 Jewish Kings under Roman rule 0 Hasmoneans o Herod amp the Herodian Dynasty 0 Some Jewish Groups 0 Phansees o Sadducees o Essenes The Historical Jesus 0 ca BCE born in Roman Judaea Jewish family line of David Prophet amp miracle worker His message drew crowds of poor His message upset the established order in Palestine 30 CE died in Jerusalem OOOOOO Christians believe he rose again after three days and ascended to Heaven Paul of Tarsus d ca 64 CE 0 No record that Paul metJesus but he believed in him 0 Brought Jesus s word to other people throughout the world 0 Paul de ned Christianity 0 Paul was a Roman citizen so he was able to pass borders with ease making it easier for him to spread the word of Jesus Christianity in the Roman Empire to 250 0 Slow steady growth in Roman cities 0 Intermittent persecution 64250 BCE 0 Christianity was quotunpatrioticquot 0 Christianity was mysterious amp held its meetings behind closed doors High Point of Persecution 0 249251 Decian Persecution 0 257259 Valerian continues persecutions 0 30311 Diocleatian amp Galerius resumed persecutions o 313 Constantine issued Edict of Milan putting an end to persecutions Emperor Constantine 0 304324 Fought civil wars for control of empire 0 312 ascribed victory at Milvian Bridge to Christian God 0 313 Edict of Milan legalized Christianity 0 325 Council of Nicaea o Moved capital from Rome to Byzantium later named Constantinople o Deathbed baptism The Council of Nicaea 325 CE 0 1St Ecumenical Council 0 About 220 bishops present 0 Condemned teaching of Arius of Alexandria but failed to destroy Arianism o Crafted rst drafts of what is now known as the Nicene Creed 0 Est close relationship between church amp state that would last for centuries To learn more and get OneNote visit www0nenotecom Lecture 012 Ancient Persia 9182015 Cyrus the Great r 559530 BCE O O O O O Took Achaemenids from kingdom to empire United Medes amp Persians Religiously tolerant Mentioned in bible Ezra 114 because be freed Jews from Babylonian Exile Praised by friend and foe alike as ideal emperor Major cultural gure in PersiaIran to the present quotCyrus Cylinderquot some say it is the 1st declaration of human rights in history Cambyses ll r 530522 BCE O O O OntheJob training as a satrap of Babylonian Added Egypt to Achaemenid Empire Greeks said he committed atrocities in Egypt but archaeology suggests otherwise Darius I r 521486 BCE o Distant relative of Cambyses o Won civil war and took the throne o Expanded to Indus River Valley in east Central Asia and Caucasus in north Took control of Black Sea grain trade con icts with Greeks lnvaded mainland Greece but was defeated in Marathon in 490 BCE Also religiously tolerant gave money to Egypt to rebuild temples allowed Jews to rebuild Temple in Jerusalem Xerxes I r 486465 BCE O 0 00 0 Satrap of Babylonia became shah at 35 Revolts in Egypt and Babylonia early in his reign Broke with Achaemenid policy of religious tolerance eg destroyed statue of Marduk at Babylon Favored Zoroastrianism lnvaded Greece in 480 Retired to Persepolis after his defeat at Salamis Assassinated at Persepolis in 465 BCE Zoroastrianism GOOD 0 Monotheistic Founded by the prophet Zoroaster Ahura Mazda was the one god Eternal struggle between good amp evil Gathas are sacred scripture and are part of larger Avesta In uenced other West AsianMiddle Eastern religions Alexander The Great d 323 BCE O 0 Son of Philip ll became King after Phillip ll died Never made it back to Greece Alexander39s Heirs Seleucid Empire 0 Proponents of Hellenism o Helped spread Greek culture language art amp architecture throughout Persia Mesopotamia amp Greater Syria 0 Could be a little too aggressive in their Hellenizing o Hellenism best of Greek Persian and Egyptian culture39s Seleucid Dynasty in Persia 31264 BCE o Selucus l Nicator d 281 BCE o Antiochus Ill The Great r 223187 BCE Parthian Dynasty 247 BCE224 CE 0 Gradually chipped away at Seleucids o By 141 BCE they controlled Mesopotamia east of the Euphrates o Equals of Roman Empire 0 One of the great world empires of their age along with Rome amp Han China To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom Lecture 017 Confucianism Daoism amp Legalism Confucius 0000 Name Kongfuzi which got Latinized to Confucius Teacher philosopher moralist Intended audience was civil servants Founder of what West calls Confucianism which some describe as an atheistic or secular religion 0 Others describe it as an allencompassing philosophy 0 Basic teaching education can make people moral moral people can make a healthy society quotdo unto othersquot Some Confucian Concepts 0 Filial piety respect for and deference toward one s elders maintenance of preConfucian veneration of ancestors Reciprocity mutual exchange more speci cally mutually bene cial exchange 0 Junzi the humane man the gentleman a man who views the world amp behaves in a morally upright way 0 Ren kindness or humaneness toward others 0 Li observance of rules of decorum o Yi appropriate behavior by and toward all acc to all social rank Doaism 0 Traditional founder Loa Tzu or Laozi o Dao quotThe Wayquot neither metaphysical lst principle nor a creator god invisible inscrutable constant amp eternal force 0 Key text Daodejingalso Tao Te Ching o Wuwei action or inaction that is so perfect it leaves no trace or mark taking no unnatural Legalism o Shang Yang 0 Advisor in state of Qin 0 Book of lord Shang o Meritocracy rather than aristocracy amp extreme accountability o Strict application of law 0 Han Fei o Legalist think who promoted ideas of Lord Shang 0 Li 5 o Legalist advisor to Qin emperor 0 Fa laws strict application of widely publicized laws 0 Shu Statecraft application of law through officials amp armed force 0 Shi possession of authority manipulation of politics 0 Strong armies 0 Full granaries farming only useful occupation or moss To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom Lecture 018 The Qin the Han and the Sui Dynas es The Warring States 0 O O 0 Zhou decline had been long and slow Decentralization greater regional autonomy amp power Regional kings ignored Zhou and fought among themselves King of golden age for martial aristocrats but not so good for others The Qin Dynasty 0 O O O Began as small state in west 256 BCE nally ended Zhou There had been other dynasties but this was the rst empire in china Qin pronounced quotchinquot is the word that gives us quotChinaquot Legalism was guiding philosophy Qin Shi Huangdi 0 First and really only Qin Emperor was Ying Zheng or Cheng Became King when he was 13 years old Father died so mother and her alliesassociates ran the Kingdom of Qin until he was old enough Became King of Qin in 246 BCE had to ght to stay there 238 BCE Purge of older of cials rise of Li Si legalist chief advisor 230221 BCE conquest of most of what is today China o 221 BCE declared himself Qin Shi Huangdi quotFirst Sovereign Emperor of Qinquot a dynasty to last 10000 generations Toured around China in a carriage from 220 BCE to 209 BCE 0 Did this to keep an eye on everyone and everything 0 Broke power of feudal lords of Warring States divided empire into 36 military districts Promoted generals amp advisors based on ability amp merit rather than birth 0 Had laws standardized written amp enforced o Built amp improved roads amp canals with corv e amp slave labor Had massive 20 sq mi tomb complex built Terra Cotta Warriors Laid the foundation for the creation of the Great Wall of China 0 lndulged in book burnings 0 Wanted to get rid of history literature and music 0 A lot of ancient Chinese history culture literature The 00000 music etc was destroyed because of book burnings Qin Dynasty The rst quotrealquot empire that could be compared to the Roman Empire Standardized writing system Standardized measurements Brought law and order Built the Great Wall of China Set territorial boundaries of China for centuries 0 Later dynasties borrowed some of their ideas but applied them with more moderation The Han Dynasty 0 Modern Chinese refer to their ethnic group as quotHanquot o Borrowed administrative structure of Qin but applied Confucians rather than Legalist principles 0 Known for postQin cultural renaissance o Sinicized neighbors made them Chinese in culture Han Wu Di Name Liu Che Title Han Wu Di The Martial Han Emperor Han emperor 14187 BCE Encouraged Confucian revival 133 BCE Launched was ag nomadic Xiongnu By 128 BCE brought S China amp Vietnamn into empire reconquered Korea 0 104101 BCE Han armies reached Fergana in Central Asia OOOOOO Between Dynasties 0 220280 CE Three Dynasties Era 0 222589 Six Dynasties Era 0 317589 North amp South Dynasties Era The Sui Dynasties o uni ed china after 400 years of fragmentation really only 2 emperors Wen Di and Yang Di Reestablished Confucianism Also encouraged Buddhism Great Cana buit connected North amp South China 0 Set stage for the Tang Dynasty 0 Yang Di wanted to expand China s borders 0 Yang Di was eventually assassinated To learn more and get OneNote visit www0nenotecom 25th Paranoiac Dynasty HaJanakh Babylonian Exile Jewish Revolt Paul of Tarsus Lecture 015 History of India from the Nandas to the Gulpa Geography 5 Asia amp India 0 The 0000 S Asia includes Afghanistan Pakistan India Bangladesh amp other countries Home to more than 17 billion people about 14 world population Majority religions Hinduism amp Islam Nandas F Ca 343321 CE Mahapadama Nanda founder and greatest Nanda King 1st imperial Ganges R Kingdom Began in sudrashudra caste amp overthrew regional Kshatriyas Historical info comes in part from Hindu Puranas and Buddhist scripture amp religious writing Fearsome army of infantry cavalry and Chariots Mauryan Dynasty Founded by Chandagupdra Maurya Supplanted Nandas First Indian dynasty to unite most of northern and southern india under one ruler Known for efficient government Regular contact with Hellenistic world Chandragupta Maurya O Founded Mauryan Dynasty Claimed northern India Kautilya aka Chanakya was his chief master Arthashastra emphasized economy taxation and security forces It is said that Chandragupta talked Alexander the Great out of attacking lndia Ashoka Maurya O The 0000 The 00000 After a career of conquest by war her turned to quotconquest by dharmaquot Became Buddhist and spread Buddhist teachings throughout lndia Attempted to lead by Buddhist example Bactrians Descendants of Alexander the Great s Greek troops Founded Hellenistic kingdom in what is now Afghanistan Filled void left by Mauryan decline in NW lndia Culture was a blend of Greek Indian and Central Asian cultures Kushans Chinese sources refer to them as subset of Yuezhi of Central Asia Supplanted Bactrians Kanishka was the greatest Kushan King Tolerated other religions but supported Buddhism Considered major empire by Romans One of the 4 great empires of the 1st century Romans Parthians Han amp Kushans O O Founded by Chandragupta I no relation to Chandragupta Maurya Became largest most uni ed Indian State for centuries 0 Supported Hinduism but tolerated other religions o GOLDENAGE Samudragupta 0 Son of Chandragupta l o Fought against relatives 0 Conquered Ganges River Valley amp expanded empire from Bengal in east to Taxilia in west 0 Returned come defeated kings to power as Gupta vassals o Brahimin varna caste devotee of god Vishnu helped restore VedicHindu religion 0 O O O 0 Result of lndoAryan synthesis Varna amp jati Karma dharma brahman samsara mokhsha Provided religious amp cultural background for birth of other separate religions ie Jainism amp Buddhism Living religion now known as Hinduism Vardhamana Mahavira Great Hero Founder ofJainism OG Name Nigantha Nataputta aka Mahavira Born into Kshatriya varna in Bihar state near Gangers River Left life of comfort at age 30 Became an ascetic amp practiced life of extreme renunciation 0 After 12 years reached kevalajnana or 39absolute knowledgequot 0 Jina quotconquerorquot from which we getJain Jain Concepts 0 quotThree Gemsquot Proper Faith proper knowledge proper behavior 0 Jiva soul present in every object in material world 0 Karma negative atomic substance created when one jiva harms another should be avoided because it weighs down jiva and presents its return to freedom can be reduced through selfsacrafice o Ahisma nonviolence to all living creatures o Kevalajnana quotabsoulute knowledgequot highest state of perceptions moksha 0 Did not wear clothes because they were worried they would get small bugsmicrobes Jain Concepts Atheism 0 Depending on one s de nition of god one can say that Jainism is an atheistic religion 0 Tirthankaras orJinas 24 men who achieved kevala Mahavira was the last one o Scripture roughly 45 texts composed over the ages by Jain saints sages and scholars Jainism 0 Only ascetics monks can hope to practice perfect ahimsa o MostJains are lay people 0 The laity strive to live acc To 3 Gems amp ahimsa They provide the ascetics with their meager necessities o Vegetarians The 000000000 Do not eat at night Do not drink beer or wine Very challenging religion to follow have to be devoted Buddha aka Shakyamuni amp Bhagavat Name Siddhartha Guatama 6th4th century BCE Originally from Ganges region in Nepal Kshatriya varna warriorkineg caste Spent early life in extreme luxury Over drank and over ate left the palace at 29 Became ascetic at age 29 Spent 6 years wandering the forest Concluded he was doing the same thing in the palace extreme wealthy living to extreme poverty living Had revelation of 4 noble truths while meditating near Varanasi Benares India Spent next 45 years preaching teaching and debating o Renounced extreme asceticism 0 After a night of meditation under a tree he had his biggest revelation at the age of 80 he died achieved nirvana Buddhist Concepts The Four Noble Truths 1 2 3 Life is suffering Desire is the cause of suffering Eliminating desires eliminates suffering 4The way to eliminate desire is to follow the Eightfold Path Buddhist Concepts The Eightfold Path 0000000 0 Right belief Right resolve Right speech Right behavior Right occupation Right effort Right contemplation Right meditation Vedic Religion in the 6tquot4th O O O 0 Focus on barhmin varna rituals amp sacri ce Scriptures The Vedas especially the Rig Veda Sacred lit The Brahmanas which explained rituals amp the Upanishads which were commentaries on the Vedas Growing competition from Jainism amp Buddhism ReBirth of Hinduismquot O O O Lasted from ca 500 BCE ca 300 BCE Popular semiscriptural lit The Mahabharata which included The Bhagavad Gita New varieties of religious experience from the highly emotional to the highly abstract Religious experience that offered liberation moksha to all not just some Texts translated into languages other than Sanskrit The Bhagavad Gita 0 Part of The Mahabharata o Relates story of Arjuna and Krishna o Explains the importance of dharma 0 Its popularity was factor in revival of popular Hinduism roughly 2000 years ago The Trimurti The Hindu quotTrinityquot 0 Referring to them as 39the trinity is Eurocentric but is a convenient ya to explain them 0 Trimurti is not really like Christian Trinity because followers generally follow on of the many gods 0 Brahman The Creator 0 Vishnu The preserver o Shiva The Destroyer o Poet Kalidasa credited with popular articulation of idea of Trimurti Lecture 021 China The Sui Dynasty Uni ed China after 400 years of fragmentation Only 2 emperors Wen Di amp Yang Di Reestablished Confucianism Also encouraged Buddhism Great Canal built connected North amp South China Set stage for tang Dynasty Tang Dynasty Equal land distribution Est mints and copper coins State exams competent government of cials Greater exposure to outside world through trade contacts Great age for art and culture Examples Empress Wu Early Tang Emperors Li Yuan Gaozou 0 Equal eld system 0 Wanted to give land to the people 0 Very forward looking ideas 0 Wanted one set of laws for all 0 Laws had to be reviewed every 20 years 0 Li Shimin Tang Taizong 0 Public relations genius o Pushed father off the throne o Pleased the Historians Empress Wu 0 Historians very interested in her sex life 0 People say she is the reason the Tang fell Civil Service in Tang China Revived from Han tradition ln Tang era based on Confucian Daoist amp Buddhist texts Open to most males amp allowed for some social mobility Furthered pattern of education amp government that continued into the 20th century Tang Summary 0 Population centered shifted to center and south 0 New strains of rice 2 harvestsyear population growth urban growth amp increased trade 0 Islamic incursions into Central Asia ca 750s onward reversed trend of westward expansion 0 Large empire large centralized government expensive government high taxes poverty famine amp unhappy people rebellion Song Dynasty Drift away from Tang Buddhism amp toward Neo Confucianism Introduced paper money Introduced movable type 0 China saw massive population growth 5 cities with over 1 million people Genghis Khan Originally named Temujin United Mongols around 1206 Led them in invasions of China Central Asialt amp lran First invasion of China 12151219 Genghis Khan left generals in charge Mongol invasions were especially violent Yuan Dynasty Mongols were generally religiously tolerant Mongol religion was shamanistic with emphasis on the sky god Tengri Yuan relied on nonChinese foreigners for government Mongols conquered China military but were ultimately conquered by China culturally Yuan Dynasty amp Khubilai Khan Established Yuan Dynasty in 1280 Realized that China could be conquered on horseback but not ruled on horseback Mongols need to adapt if they wanted to rule China Tension between quotold schoolquot Mongols amp Sinicized Mongob Welcomed foreigners The Ming Dynasty War against Mongol Yuan Dynasty Perfected civil service with restoration of exams and heavy punishments Heavily centralized rule under powerful emperors civil servants eunuchs and spies lncessant war with Mongols and Jurchen Rebuilt Grand Canal Zheng He and the Chinese Navy 30000 men on a single voyage Forbidden City built Had spies to keep an eye out on their bureaucrats made sure the civil services were not corrupt Corrupt bureaucrats would be imprisoned if they were caught as well as physically punished with sticks of bamboo until the bamboo broke Lecture 023 Medieval Africa Christian Nubia 500s Nubia was a spiritual battleground for competing interpretations of Christianity Nubia successfully defended itself against early Muslim invasions in mid600s Political uni cation resulted in theological unity amp Nubia adopted Miaphysite Coptic Christianity 0 Muslim incursions chipped away at Christian Nubia until the independent kingdoms disappeared in the 15th century Ethiopia Under Zagwe Claimed to have married in Aksumite royal family 0 Capital at Adafa Stonecut churches of Emperor Lalibela Succumbed to rebellion ca 1270 Ethiopia under Solomonid Kings Overthrew Zagwe around 1270 Kebra Negast history explaining Solomonid descent from Queen Sheba amp King Solomon 0 Ethiopia as quotthe New Zionquot Spread Christianity via missionaries amp monasteries Survived until 1974 CE Swahili CityStates The Swahili coast of East Africa was a land of citystates They were the eastern terminus of trade across the Indian Ocean 0 They traded goods from India Arabia amp the Mediterranean world Citystate of Kilwa was best known of the Swahili states KmNa Medieval Kilwa not same as modern Kilwa International city of African Arabian Persian amp Indian in uence Perfect location for monsoon system trading Ancient Ghana Not exactly the same as modern Ghana Also named Wagadu Ghana means king Kumbi Saleh capital Extensive trade relations with Islamic North Africa Ghana traded gold for salt amp ivory War with Berber Almoravids in 1050s weakened Ghana Kings eventually adopted Islam as did many of their subjects Replaced Ghana as major regional power in 1200s Controlled western end of Saharan trade Controlled god trade Leaders were Muslim amp encouraged Islamic education Counted as one of the great world kingdoms Sund a Founder of Empire of Mall 1230 or 1235 defeated riva king Sumanguru 1240 destroyed Kumbi Ghana made Mali great merchant Empire Biography became subject of oral historyepic poem sung by griots Mansa Musa Ruled Mali at its height Made international impression during his hajj Spent so much money in Egypt that he destabilized the local economy for years On his return journey to Mali he collected many scholars whom he brought back to Timbuktu Sankore Mosque and University became major center for Islamic Learning in west Africa To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom Lecture 019 Medieval Europe The Franks Pgs 288297 Barbarian Invasions Various groups of Germanic amp Asiatic invaders Broke through Rome frontiers Too much for the Roman Empire ended the Old Roman Order Started the 39Dark Ages 39Middle Ages Can be said to be the rst adopters of Christianity Roman Church Survived the barbarian invasions Provided the only social order Clovis amp The Franks Franks were one of many Germanic groups living within the Roman Empire They lived in the Roman Province of Gaul which became known as Francia amp which we now know as France Frankish King Clovis adopted Roman Catholic Christianity as opposed to Arian Christianity Developed ties between the popes of the Roman Catholic Church by adopting Roman Catholic Christianity In turn started the alliance between France and Roman Popes Clovis inherited the control over the Roman social organization The Franks amp Merovingian Kings The Merovingian dynasty ruled most of Western Europe They were Christian but that did not stop them from violence The Pattern Princes fought each other to expand their kingdoms Occasionally someone like Clovis would unite them for a short time Mayors of the palace Carolingians Rose to power in midlate 600s as mayors of the palace under Merovingians Replaced Merovingians amp made themselves kings Notable Carolingians Charles quotThe Hammerquot Martel Pepin quotThe Shortquot lll Charlemegne Continued tradition of close ties between Frankish kings amp papacy Brought more centralized rule to Europe than at any time since Romans Charles quotThe Hammerquot Martel Pepin quotThe Shortquot Ill Disposed the last Merovingian King and made himself the King of the Franks Charlemagne Successful warrior king Kept kingdom together amp built a small empire Fought Muslims in west amp Avar pagans in east Patron of scholarship amp art Became emperor of Romans in 800 CE Emperor of all Christian people in Western Europe o lmperium christianum Christian power or roughly Christian Empire Crusades Crusades is a 16th century invention in the crusades era talked of quottaking up the cross or quotputting on the cross 0 Crusade can be just as threatening as the word jihad to some people Fatimids Established a massive Empire Shi it Muslims Quite the force to be reckoned with ControlledJerusalem Played a role in inspiring the Crusades The Saljuq Empire 0 Originally Turkic people from Central Asia 0 Adopted Islam and served in the militaries of various Muslim rulers eventually took power for themselves 0 The leader of the Saljuqs took title of sultan Were not caliphs but maintained the Abbasid caliphs Center of power was lran they acquired control over Iraq and parts of Syria and Anatolia but Iran was their focus 0 Most signi cant Saljuq Sultan was Turghril Beg Events Leading up to the Crusade Fatimid lmamCaliph alHakam destroyed the Church of Holy Sepulchre banned women from wearing shoes banned working during the day and did not fast he would eat which is against Islamic behavior Saljuqs smashed Byzantines at Manzikert Saljuqs tookJerusalem from Fatimids Alexius Comnenus began ascent to Byzantine throne Saljuq power fragmented when vizier Nizam alMulk amp sultan Mlikshah died in the same year Pope Urban ll preached crusade at Clermont Fatimids tookJerusalem back from Saljuqs First Crusade 1095 Pope Urban ll issued call to take up the cross at Clermont 1096 Crusaders gathered and moved eastward 1097 Established County of Edessa 1097 Established County of Antioch 1099 Jerusalem fell to Crusaders established Kingdom ofJerusalem Most people lost everything they had when they went on crusades People knew this but still did it because of their religious belief Crusader Knights were in bad shape when they reached Jerusalem The Crusader States of the Latin East Edessa Antioch Jerusalem o Tripoli 0 There were also many smaller vassal states and efs eg Kerak Tiberius amp Acre The Second Crusade 11441148 Edessa fell to Muslim forces prompting new massive crusade Bernard of Clairvaux St Bernard was the main propagandist Ended in failure Highpoint and beginning of end of Europeans in Mid East lmad alDin Zangi captured Edessa Bernard of Clairvaux amp others called for new Crusade Louis VII of France amp Conrad III of Holy Roman Empire Germany took the cross Relations between Eastern amp Western Christian powers complicated by truces with Muslims Oct 25 1147 Germans were wiped out at Dorylaeum July 28 1148 Failed Crusader siege of Damascus Thought the failure of Second Crusade was God coming into play Muslim Resurgence Jihad fi sabil Allah 39lmad alDin Zangi 0 Not a very good Muslim o Drank a lot Nur aIDin Salah aIDin alAyyubi Ayyubid Dynasty Mamluk Sultanate Salah alDin alAyyubi Saladin 0 Thanks to Ridley Scott best known medieval Muslim in Western lit legend and lore o Ended up in control of Egypt kind of by accident 0 Used his position there to build coalition of Muslim forces to ght Crusaders 0 10741086 Took control of most of Syria amp NW Iraq 0 1087 Opened offensive against Crusaders The Battle of Hattin amp the Muslim Reconquest of Jerusalem 4th ofJuIy 1187 all of crusader army defeated The Third Crusade 11871193 0 Fall ofJerusaIem promoted new crusade This one included major European kings Philip ll of France Richard Lionheart of England Frederick l Barbossa of Germany 0 They failed to regain Jerusalem but they saved the crusader states for a time Richard the Lionheart King of England but also kind of parts of France Fought against father and brothers Went on Crusade right after claiming English throne Fought other Christians in Sicily amp Cyprus on the way Took Acre in July 1191 amp defeated Saladin at Arsuf in September 1191 Came close to Jerusalem but never attacked Made 3year truce with Saladin Returned to Europe captured in Vienna amp handed over to German King Henry IV Forced to give kingdom amp 15000 gold marks to Henry IV Finally got back to England but left just after arriving he left and spent the rest of his life ghting in France Killed in battle in 6 April 1199 Fourth Crusade 12021204 3rOI Crusaded failed to retake Jerusalem new call to Crusade Many promised few showed up and fewer paid To offset the debt the Crusders served as mercenaries for Venice Crusaders sacked Constantinople amp established Latin Kingdom there amp in Greece Most of these Crusaders never reached the Holy Land amp never fought against Muslims Fredrick ll amp 6th Crusade Holy Roman Emperor Wars in Europe kept him from Crusade Finally went to Holy Land in 1225 Brokered surrender ofJerusalem to Christians Christian fundamentalists amp local elites TookJerusalem by threatening to attack never actually attacked 0 Not many people liked him because they didn t like that he was the one that took control ofJerusalem Louis IX St Louis amp the 7th Crusade 0 Louis IX King of France Apparently man of genuine religious convictions 0 Took up Richard lll s idea of invading Egypt to take Jerusalem 0 Almost successful in reaching Cairo amp taking Egypt but lost after Battle of alMansurah 0 Was ransomed amp stayed in Holy Land until 1254 o Launched Tunisian Crusade in 1270 and died there The Rise of the Mamluks quotMamlukquot means quotownedquot Slave soldiers rst deployed in 1200s Mamluks spent lives in military training Survival of the ttest political environment Violent amp chaotic but evicted Crusaders from Holy Land amp stayed in power for 250 years Lecture 018 Early Islamic History Muhammad as Man amp Prophet Born in Arabia For Muslims he was the Prophet of Islam amp the Messenger of God Muslims regard him as a mortal a special mortal but a mortal nonetheless They do not worship him Muslims believe God chose him as His Messenger to lead humankind on the quotStraight Pathquot He related to the Quran to humankind but the Quran is word of God Muhammad The Jahiliyya Jahil means ignorant in Arabic jahiliyya refers to a time of ignorance of God s will Historically alJahiliyya refers to Arabia before Islam Theologically alJahiliyya refers to a human state of willful ignorance of God39s will Some modern lslamists use the term to the current state of the world Brief Biography of Muhammad Born in Hijaz region of western Arabia orphaned early grew up with relatives Began receiving revelation from God Preached publicly in Mecca Forced to ee Mecca settled in Yathrib which became Madinat alNabi orjust Medina 0 Fighting between Muhammad s followers the Muslims and his Arabian enemies Mecca surrendered to the Muslims Died in 632 CE Muslims and quotOther People of the Bookquot a The Quran refers to Jews Christians as quotPeople of the Bookquot 0 Recognizes Jews amp Christians as part of the same scriptural belief o The Quran refers to the Torah and the Gospels and acknowledges that those books contain parts of the divine truth C Says Jews and Christians are closer in faith to Muslims than any other people 0 People corrupted the scriptures by deleting what they found inconvenient and adding some thing that God had not 0 The Quran exhorts Muslims to allow Jews and Christians to keep their religion 0 Jews and Christians must submit humbly to Islam If they choose to keep their religion then you must pay a tax to the Muslims This tax is called jizya Muhammad and other Prophets 0 Islam acknowledges the prophethood and sanctity of manyJewish and Christian Figures including Adam Noah Abraham Moses Solomon David John the Baptist and Jesus 0 Also acknowledges a few prelslamic Arabian prophets who are otherwise unknown to Judaism and Christianity 0 Islam considers all of these prophets to have been Muslim Muhammad and Jesus Acc to Islam both were prophets o Muhammad and Jesus were both mortals Acc Islam humans corrupted message ofJesus and other prophets Acc to some Muslims Muhammad is the quotparacletequot mentioned in the New testament Acc to Islam Jesus was not cruci ed but he did ascend into Heaven 0 Jesus will return at the end of human time to ght amp defeat the false messiah End times will follow The Rashidun Caliphs o Muhammad died without naming a successor Abu Bakr alSadiq o Umar b alKhattab o Uthman b Affan Ali b Abi Talib 661 onward succession of different caliphal dynasties Conquests vs Openings 0 In English quotIslamic Conquestsquot Vs o In Arabic quotThe Openingsquot ArabMuslim 0 Highly mobile used horses and camels for transport Fought on horseback and on foot Main weapons lance sword bow amp arrow Tactics relied on high mobility used ambush amp surprise avoided pitched battles tried to avoid direct assaults amp sieges Strategy force surrender rather than rely on battle eld victories But of course there were many sieges amp pitched battles These resembled Classical Roman sieges battles left right center amp rear vs the same on the enemy side Greater Syria Intermittent raids in time of Prophet amp Abu Bakr Battle of Ajnadayn Muslims take Damascus Battle of the Yarmuk river Muslims take Jerusalem Muslims take Caesarea major port end of effective Byzantine presence in Syria Egypt Amr b alAs led Muslim troops across Sinai into Egypt Muslims and Byzantines fought in the vicinity of Babylon Fayyum and Upper Egypt fell to Muslims Muslims took Alexandria Byzantines attempted to retake Alexandria in 645 and 654 but failed Muslims used Egypt as staging point for expansion into Nubia the Sahara amp North Africa Mesopotamia and Persia Initial raids into Sassanian territory Garrison city of Basra founded Battle of Qadisiyya Garrison city of Kufa founded Persian campaigns Battle of Nihavand Campaign on Persian coast Continued campaigns in Persia fall of Perseopolis Yazdagird lll murdered end of organized Sassanian resistance Armenian Campaign The Umayyad Caliphate Were a Dynasty 1st dynasty in Islam Abd alMalik amp alHajjaj Marwan and his allies defeated rebellious tribes at Marj Rahit Marwan killed Umayyad s Consolidated power in Syria fought to win Iraq Built Dome of the Rock AIHajjaj took Mecca Arabic coins Arabic diwan renewed war against Byzantines Abd alMalik39s Contributions Ended 2nOI Fitna and brought some measure of peace amp prosperity Held Empire together Expanded in North Africa Central Asia Built the Dome of the Rock Introduced Islamic coinage Made Arabic the of cial language of the diwan gov t which speeds Arabization and lsamization Arabic Coins Very trustworthy Close to 100 pure The Dome of the Rock An Islamic monument Dome has been covered in gold and silver since the beginning Sends message that they can build things just like the Romans and Persians Says they are the best in all of the land and we are here to stay Cannot visit it today To Summarize Rashidun Caliphate a golden age in the eyes of many Umayyad Caliphate rst dynasty in Islam Era saw early sectarian divisions Shi ites Kharijites Sunnis The Abbasid Caliphate Built Baghdad near Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Baghdad was the Capital of the Abbasid Caliphate Chronology o Abbasid Calipate quotgolden agequot Abbasid Caliphs became gureheads there were exceptions their power sometimes went beyond Baghdad amp environs o Mongol Invasion Abbasid Caliphate in Cairo little more than gureheads The Breakup of the Caliphate AlAndalus Umayyads North Africa Aghlabids ldrisids Rustamids Banu Midrar Fatimids Egypt Tulunids lkhshidids Syria Tulunids Hamdanids The East Tahirids Saffarids Samanids Reasons for Decline Empire too large Powerful generals and governors Religious and political dissent Ethinc divisions Weak caiphs Palace Intrigue Persian viziers and Turkish soldiers alMuqtadir Became caiph at 13 youngest caiph yet Placed and kept on throne by bureaucrats and generals who wanted a weak ruler Spent money on luxuries instead of building projects infrastructure or paying troops 0 Rebels heretics and the Byzantines attacked more or less at will 0 Only Iraq was under any kind of caliphal control AlMuqtadir was killed in battle in 932 there were four different caliphs between then and 946 Harun alRashid Biography hopelessly lost 0 1001 Nights image vs the historical accounts patron of the arts and religious study 0 the barmakids 802 seeds of discontent split caliphate between his sons alAmin amp alMamun Lecture 020 Medieval India Useful Vocab Sultan a Muslim ruler usually more powerful than a king malik Sultanate realm that a sultan rules Khan title used among central Asian and Middle Eastern peoples means leader can be anything from a local lord to an emperor Khanate real that a khan rules Things You Must Know Islam and Hinduism are two different religions Islam is monotheistic Hinduism is polytheistic Islam is part of the Abrahamic tradition and began in Arabia Hinduism is part of the Vedic religious traditions and began in India Buddhism is different from Hinduism Both came from India They have in uenced each other amp do have some things in common Neither is monotheistic in the Abrahamic sense Hinduism has many Gods amp a caste system Buddhism kind of faded away in India but Hinduism remained strong to the present Harsha Warrior King who united northern India under one king Rule was decentralized amp local leaders had power Encouraged good relations wTang China Supporter of arts Buddhist Kingdom fell apart Rajputs took over Regional Kingdoms of the South Chola Tanjore Thanjavur was capital Strongest in SE India along the coast Sometimes extended power to Malay Peninsula Rajaraja l Rajendrcola Deva l Early Muslim Invasions of India Conquered Sindh Current day Pakistan Mahmud of Ghazni lnvaded N lndia Fought in name of Islam ghazi warrior Spread lslam but did so at the expense of Buddhist temples Buddhism became much less in uential in North India after Mahmud Mahmud was common enemy of Hindus amp ironically united them to ght against Muslim invaders Muslim historiography has fond memories of him but Hindu historiography sees him as a villain Conquest in N India was not peaceful destroyed many Buddhist temple and ransacked many Hindu shrine Sultanate of Delhi Based in northern city of Delhi First large Muslim Indian Empire Several dynasties royal families ruled from Delhi Established lslam as a major religion throughout lndia Defended lndia against Mongol invasions Golden age in Muslim eyes but not always so in Hindu eyes Most of the time Muslims amp Hindus cooperated amp worked together at least among the political amp military elite lltutmish Slave who became sultan Established capital at Dehli Tolerant of other religions Defended lndia against the mongols Daughter Raziya became 1st quotsultanaquot Alauddin Khalji Introduced wage amp price controls to help common man Expanded in uence of Dehli farther than anyone before Dr M says he waged nonstop war and that Hindu history does not have good impression of him Muhammad b TughLug Man of great ideas but bad luck amp timing Promoted rationalist islam but was opposed by the religious scholars of court Attempted to spread islam to S India but planned city of Dawlatabad had tough start Agricultural reform but then drought amp famine hit 0 Lots of rebellions but he survived them all amp left Dehil strong Ghengis Khan Mongols were nomadic people of northeast central Asia 0 Always a threat to China Ghengis Khan united them in the 13th century 0 From the 13th to the 15th century they ruled much of Asia Mongol Hordes Used a Bow and Arrow Spent most of their time in the saddle Spent much of their time ghting against each other Tamerlane Muslim world conqueror Defeated Chagatai Khanate llkhanids amp Golden horde Conquered Central Asia Russia amp Iran 0 Also invaded lndia amp dealt serious blow to Sultanate of Delhi 0 Was planning on invading China when he died Founder of shortlived Timurid Dynasty Shankara amp Vedanta Vedanta Classical Indian school of thought that offered Hindus mystical experience and a belief in the underlying unity of all reality Shankara wrote commentary on and analysis of the Upanishads Stressed contemplative efforts to get to know Brahman instead of endless and pointless rituals 0 His message reached and appealed to intellectual and to other Hindu ascetics Founded Hindu monasteries based on the Buddhist model Ramanuja amp Bhakti Bhakti emphasizes a followers love of god and the god s love of the followers Bhakti practices included pilgrimages recitation of the names of the god hymns festivals amp sacri ces The goal was to establish a personal relationship with god Ramanuja taught that worship of a personal god and the soul s union with that god were essential for salvation Ramanuja was not opposed to Vedanta He just basically shifted the emphasis of worship from meditation to ritual Lecture 022 Korea and Japan Korea in 500 CE 3 Korean kingdoms Korguryo Paekche amp Silla 1 Japanese kingdom Kaya Sinicizication was greatest in north States fought each other and China Silla emerged as most powerful Korea Under the Koryo Dynasty Continued borrowing from Chinese Centralized government amp bureaucracy on Confucian model Usually good relations with China but usually at war with Manchus amp other northerners thus Korea s own quotGreat Wallquot Korean amp the Yi Choson Dynasty Korean General Yi Songgye allied with Ming China to overthrow Koryo Yi Dynasty ruled Korea for 500 years Capital city Chosen thus Yi sometimes called Choson Dynasty Used Confucian ideals to create strati ed hierarchical society Scholarship ourished amp Korea was home to one of the most developed printing industries in the world Mythical Origins of Empire Mythological origins claim to go back to 7th century BCE First mythical emperor Jimmu son of sun goddess Ameratsu Jimmu married daughter of storm god Susanoo Made province of Yamato center of power Yamato Era Japan Yamato kings uni ed Japan under one ruler King had both kingly amp priestly duties Relations with both China amp Korea Buddhism amp Confucianism enterJapan amp blend with native Shinto religion 552710 era of reform known as Asuka Era Soga family dominated political life from 587 onward Teno emperor quotSon of Heavenquot came into use around this time Prince Sh toku Member of Soga family Promoted Buddhism amp Confucianism in Japan Improved relations with Sui China amp increased borrowing of Chinese ideas and technology Assigned ranks to civil servants greater hierarchy amp standardization in government 17 Article Constitution outlined responsibilities amp rights of rulers amp ruled based on Confucianism amp Buddhism Taika Reform amp Taiho Code Together they set patterns of gov t in Japan that lasted 1200 years Taika Reform 0 Abolished private land ownership amp made emperor owner of all land 0 Established provinces amp officials 7 took responsibility for infrastructure 0 Conducted census amp redistributed land according to need 0 Rewrote tax codes Taiho Code established imperial advisory council as well as eight ministries amp outlined responsibilities of each one Nara Japan 0 City of Nara was 1st permanent capital Buddhism became more popular in Japan so popular that there were reactions against it 0 Last era of empresses after that time all emperors were male 0 Continued Sinicization Early Japanese written literature as well as lots of copying of Buddhist texts Heian Japan 0 Court moved to Kyoto Shogun quotbarbarian subduing generaquot originally title given to military leader who fought against Ainu Fujiwara family was power behind the throne Fujiwara daughters married emperors while Fujiwara men became Shogun Tale of Genji world s rst novel one ofjapan s literary classics Image the angry ghosts of Michizane the exiled scholar brings destruction to his enemies Kamakura Japan Samurai armored cavalry Bakufu tent government Shogun was center of real power emperor was revered gurehead Kamikaze typhoons 39divine wind defeats Mongol invasion twice Pure Land Zen amp Nichiren Buddhism developed in Japan lmage quotTaima Mandalaquot showing Amida Buddha Savior Buddha amp other Pure Land themes Ashikaga Japan Dates not universally agreed upon some push Ashikaga all the way to 1573 Onin War civil war that resulted in decline of Ashikaga power amp increase in regionally power Daimyo quotgreat namequot feudal lords who dominated this era Bushido warrior code followed by samurai lmage samurai armor allegedly belonging to Ashikaga Takauji founder of Ashikaga shogunate To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom SI Review Session November 3rd Yuan Dynasty Mongol conquering of China 0 Need to adapt if they want to rule successfully Tension between quotold schoolquot Mongols and Sinicized Mongols resettled in civil war Welcomed foreigners Nationalities Policy divided people based on ethnicity Nationalities Policy 0 Military Elite Mongols Foreigners everyone not Mongol or Chinese 0 Many people Euro traveled here to work bene t from trade took over as civil servants 0 Marco Polo Han Chinese Northern Chinese 0 Song Chinese Southern Chinese 0 Hard for both Chinese classes to get into civil service exams military or advance in society Marco Polo Rich from 4th Crusade and established business contacts in many areas 0 When in jail told a friend of his travels in China 0 The Travels of Marco Polo 0 European view of the far east became solely based on this ctional book and in uenced many political and economic decisions Ming Dynasty o The war against the Mongol Yuan Dynasty chased them back north and the Ming was established Perfected civil service restored civil service and heavy punishments Highly centralized increase in spies Rebuilt Grand Canal and Forbidden City Yang He Yang He 0 Chinese navy showed off power and ability but ended abruptly o In theory could have reached Americas 0 Admiral in Navy 0 Unic castrated male worked delicate tasks in government 0 No dynasty Lecture 22 Korea amp Japan 0 Korea in 500 CE 0 3 Korean Kingdoms o Korguryo Paekche amp Silla o 1 Japanese Kindom o Kaya Sinicization was greatest in the North 0 States fought each other Ko ryo Dynasty 0 First to unite Korea under one government 0 Continued to borrow from Chinese 0 Centralized government and bureaucracy on Confucian model 0 Usually good Chinese relations but usually had wars with Manchus amp other northerners 0 Led to the creation of their own quotGreat Wallquot Yi Choson Dynasty 0 Korean General Yi Songgye allied with Ming China to overthrow Koryo Yi ruled Korea for 500 years 0 Capital City Choson 0 Used Confucianism ideals to create strati ed hierarchical society 0 Scholarship and print making increased 0 Extensive libraries and book making Mythical Origins of japanese Empire 0 Mythological origins claim to go back to 7th Century BCE a First mythical Emperor Jimmu son of sun goddess Ameratsu Jimu married daughter of storm god Susanoo Made province of Yamato center of power Yamato Era Japan 0 Yamato kings uni ed Japan under one ruer o Kineg and Priestly duities 0 Relations with both China and Korea Buddhism and Confucianism enterJapan and ben with native Shinto religion 0 552710 Asuka Era of reform Soga family dominated political life from 587 onward Tennoemperor quotSon of Heavenquot came into use Prince Shotoku Member of Soga family Promoted Buddhism and Confucianism in Japan Improved relatons with sui China and increased borrowing of Chinese ideas and technology Assigned ranks to civil servants greater hierarchy and standardization in government 17 Article Constitution outlined responsibilities and rights of rulers and ruled Taika Reform amp Taiho Code Together set patterns of gov in Japan that lasted 1200 years Ta i ka reform Taiho Code established imperial advisory council as well as eight Ta i ka Reform Abolished private ownership amp made emperor owner of all land former landowners kept their land but now served at pleasure of Emperor Established provinces amp officials 7 took responsibility for infrastructure Conducted census amp redistributed land according to need Rewrote tax codes Nara Japan 1st permanent capital ofJapan Buddhism became more popular in Japan enough that there were reactuins against it antiBuddhust movement Last era of emperesses after that time were male Continued Sinicization land reform gov structure Hteratures EanyJapanese Heian japan Court moved to Kyoto Shogun quotbarbarian subduing generalquot 0 Originally title given to military leader who fought against Ainu Fujiwara family was power behind the throne daughters married emperors while men became shogun Tale of Genji world rst novel and one ofJapan39s literary classics Image The angry ghost of Michizane KamakuraJapan Samurai armored cavalry Bakufu tent government Shogun was center of real power emperor was revered gure head Kamikaze typhoons quotdivine windsquot defeates Mongol invastion twice Pure Land Zen and Nichiren Buddhism developed in Japan lmage quotTamia Mandlaquot showing Amida Buddha Ashikaga Japan 0 14671477 Onin War 0 Civil war that resulted in decline of Ashikaga power and increase in regional power Daimo quotGreat namequot feudal lords who dominated this era Bushido warrior code followed by samurai Image samurai armor allegedly worn by To learn more and get OneNote visit wwwonenotecom Take Notes First Crusade Pope Urban II 0 Established Edessa Antioch Jerusalem Second Crusade Muslim leader captures Edessa Zengi prompts 2nOI crusade Jerusalem still Christian 0 Bernard of Clairvaux biggest promoter 0 European gures Louis Vll Conrad ll Third Crusade Fall ofJerusalem prompts 3rOI Crusade Jersusalem in Muslim control 0 Philip ll Richard Lionheart Fredrick Barbossa Not successful in recapturing Jerusalem Fourth Crusade 3rOI Crusade failed prompted the 4th Crusade Many promised ffew showed worked as merchants for Venecian government 0 Christian on Christian war sacked Constantinople Established Latin kingdom in Constantinople Greece Sixth Crusade Fredrick ll captured JerusalemJerusalem surrendered without ghting Local elites left to rule lostJerusalem back to muslims Seventh Crusade 0 Louis IX of France 0 Planned to take Jerusalem by going through Egypt lost at battle of alMansurah Jerusalem in Muslim control 0 After 400 years uni ed Wen Di Yang Di 0 Great Canal Tang 0 Equal land distribution Largest empire in world Coins coin mints Civil Service exam Li Yuan Gaozou Small and simple government 0 Equal eld system 0 Updated laws every 20 years Li Shimin Tang Taizong Ruthless Confucian bureaucracy into education historians favored Empress Wu Female 0 no better worse than previous 0 because female speculation about sex life Rice Boom o 2 new strains 0 rebellion Song Dynasty drifting towards NeoConfucianism Paper Genghis Khan Mongol leader united and led invasion Yuan Dynasty Mongol led Nationalist property 0 Mongols o Foreigners 0 Chinese 0 Northern Han 0 Southern Song Ming Dynasty 0 Civil service exams punishments reinstated Zheng He Chinese Explorer Korea Korguryo Paekcha and Silla Fought with each other and china Silla was most powerful Korygo Dynasty 0 1st to unite under 1 government 0 quotGreat Wallquot Yi Choson Dynasty ruled for 500 years scholarship ourished libraries print making Japan Kaya To learn more and get OneNote visit www0nenotecom Lecture 024 The Aztecs and Incas Mesoamerica Olmecs Mayans Toltechs read about them in the book Aztecs aka quotMexicaquot Migrated from north Borrowed Olmec Maya amp Toltec ideas 0 Military aristocracy Moctezuma l was the greatest Aztec ruler Tenochtitlan was the capital 0 Most powerful in Mesoamerica Very good at irrigation Very successful in agriculture Aztec empire 0 Capital of MexicaAztecs was Tenochtitlan Aztecs ruled over as many as 6 million people in 4500 smaller citystatesprovinces Aztecs created empire through military power MexicaAztec Religion Polytheistic Included human sacri ce Operated on Mayan calendric system 0 Some of the gods were 0 Tlaloc o Huiztilopochtli human hearts 0 Quetzalcoatl But what we know of it comes mostly from hostile Christian sources Solar Calendar Religious Calendar These two calendars worked together the last calendar used was to connect the Solar and Religious calendars Moctezuma ll Montezuma Last longterm Aztec emperor Probably came from priestly elite rather than warrior elite Hostile expansion might have made Aztec enemies more likely to cooperate with Spanish Apparently did not know what to make of the Spanish or how to confront them Killed in 1520 Inca Empire Extended 2700 miles along the west coast of S America Roads linked town amp supply depots which made military Pachacuti amp Topa Tupac Kuzco Shaved off sides of mountains to allow for better agriculture 0 Made rivers deeper to allow for more people to get water Forced people they conquered to relocate to prevent these people from revolting Keeper Cords read about in book Atahualpa and Pizarro lnca were split by civil war Atahualpa defeated his brother Huascar to become emperor of the lnca War left lnca divided and weakened Spanish conquerors reached lnca empire at about the same time
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'