Gender Race & Class Ch 3: The First Americans
Gender Race & Class Ch 3: The First Americans WS266
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anaya Curry on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to WS266 at Pace University taught by Jason Whitesel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Gender, Race, and Class in Women and Gender studies at Pace University.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Anaya Curry March 1, 2016 Gender Race and Class: The First American notes Removal Period: War broke out between France and Britain o The British pitted the Native Americans against these new white settlers The War of 1812 changed the way Indians and Americans related with one another (Anderson pg. 35) o Native American tribes were pressured to move to Louisiana Purchase territory (Anderson pg. 35) Election of Pres. Andrew Jackson marked beginning of harsher ways to removal (Anderson pg. 35) Indian Removal Act passed on 1830 (Anderson pg. 35) o An act that forced the migration of many Cherokee tribes to reservations(Anderson pg. 35) o Also became known as the “Trail of Tears” in 1838(Anderson pg.35) o Many Cherokees died due to freezing temp. and diseases(Anderson pg. 35) Terminology: Extinction/Assimilation- the loss of Native American culture, identity, and even their lives (Anderson pg. 36) Civilized- making Native Americans fit into American society(Anderson pg. 36) o Christianizing them (Anderson pg. 36) o Sending them to boarding school (Anderson pg. 36) o Giving them private property (Anderson pg. 36) o Giving them jobs as farmers (Anderson pg. 36) Allotments- 1887 came the General Allotments Act which mandated tribal land given to individual American Indians and extra land was to be put on the market (Anderson pg.36) Checker Boarding- presented Native American Reservations with problems when it came to developing land use management plans, zoning ordinances, or economic development projects (Anderson pg. 37) Indian New Deal (1934): after failed attempts to civilize and give land allotments, this allowed Native Americans to rule themselves and teach them about their own culture. Also, restore extra land back to the Native Americans. (Anderson pg. 37) Indian Reorganization Act (1934): this allowed the tribal gov. to reconstitute themselves to be in charge of their own affairs (Anderson pg. 37) Indian Raw Deal: the Indian New Deal turned out to be condescending and disrespectful. Power was vetoed over the native self-determination. It weakened traditional and kinship structure. (Anderson pg. 37) Termination & Relocation (Anderson pg. 37): After WWI the Indians Claims Commission in 1978 Native American legal claims were handled by the court in 1946 House Concurrent Resolutions were passed in 1953, they terminated any federal relationships with Native Americans The Bureau Of Indian Affairs gave Indians the chance to seek work in urban job markets b/w 1952-1972(Anderson pg. 38) They moved from reservations to cities for 2 reasons: o Better economic prospects(Anderson pg.38) o Got a chance to relieve the U.S. government from what they called “Indian Business” (Anderson pg.38) Commission started to dissolve in 1978 for Indians (Anderson pg. 38) President Nixon In 1969, Federalism transferred some powers from the United States government back to states The Education Assistance Act and The American Indian Self- Determination Act were passed in 1975 o It gave Native Americans the right to run governments The Supreme Court took away Native Americans right to arrest and prosecute “non-Indians” This caused many issues because the non-Indians lived on the reservations. Violation of Native Americans Many Native American woman on reservations were sexually assaulted and over half of the rape cases were not persecuted Statistics state that 1 in 3 Native American females in their lifetime Most of the sexual assaults are committed by non-Native Americans, more specifically 86% The Violence Against Women Act was passed in 1994 o In 2012 and 2013 provisions were added to the document Even with acts protecting Native Americans, there was still no jurisdiction over non-Native Americans committing crimes on reservations (Anderson pg. 39-40) Contemporary Challenges: The biggest contemporary challenge Native Americans faced is poverty Poverty took over 24% of Native Americans compared to 10% of white people Work Cited Andersen, Margaret. 2012. “The First Americans: Americans Indians” Pp. 34- 40 in Race, Class & Gender: An Anthology (9 ed.).
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