Week 3 of Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Francy on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 190 at Towson University taught by Joseph Velenovsky in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro Biology for Health Professions in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Week 3 of Notes Active Transport: ● Against concentration gradient ● Needs energyATP ● ***Bind to specific sites ○ Solute binding ○ Phosphate attaching ATPADP ○ Transport ○ Protein reversion ○ Phosphate detaches and returns to original shape Cell Organelles: Exocytosis: ● Export bulky materials(proteins and polysaccharides) ● Pancreas and insulin Endocytosis: ● Import of large molecules ● Cellular eating ● ***Wraps extensions calleseudopodia and “eats it” ● Lysosome breaks things down ● ex: amoeba Pinocytosis: ● Cellular drinking ● Gulps droplets of fluid ● Nonspecific all solutes taken in that are present within a gulp ● Cell that lines small blood vessels **ReceptorMediated Endocytosis: ● Highly selective ● Gets what it wants through receptor proteins ● Binds only to specific proteins ● Coat proteins How it works: ● Coat proteins (aka clathrin) form a coated vesicle ● Coated pit has coated proteins on the outside of it ● Will eventually form a coated vesicle LDL receptor Low density lipoproteins (cholesterol) Command Center of Cell: ● DNAmaster plans ● Control center activities through direction of protein synthesis ● DNA and histones ● ***When not dividing the complex of proteins and DNA is chromatin ● ***Nuclear envelope is made up of two phospholipid bilayers ● This is because it controls the flow of materials in and out of cells and protects the nucleus from things coming in and things going out ● Nuclear pores import and export substances Nucleolus: ● ***Where rRNA is made and also ribosomes (ribosomal subunits) ● mRNA is made in the nucleus Ribosomes: ● Machines where commands are carried out ● Cells that make many proteins have lots of ribosomes ● Pancreas cell digestive enzymes ● ***Have very important nucleoli regions ● Free cytosolic ribosomes ○ float around in cytoplasm ● Bound on the outside of Rough ER or nuclear envelope ● Can move between determining where protein synthesis needs to occur ● Structurally identical ● Cytosolic proteins made on free ribosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER): ● Infrastructure and many different departments ● Separate but related functions ● Internal membraneseukaryotic cells ● ***Endomembrane system ○ Some membranes are physically connected, others rely on vesicles (sacs made of membrane) ○ Nuclear envelope (beginning of the process) ○ Endoplasmic Reticulum (smooth or rough) ○ Golgi Apparatus ○ Lysosomes ○ Vacuoles ○ Plasma Membrane ● ER=continuous ● Flattened Smooth ER: ● ***Synthesis of lipids, phospholipids, steroids, etc. by enzymes ● Ovaries and testes cells rich in smooth ER ● Sex hormones ● Detoxify drugs, alcohol, etc. ● Smooth ER and associated enzymes increase, better at detoxing, tolerance, can increase tolerance to other drugs ● ***Stores calcium ions, muscle, and nerve cells Rough ER: ● Make phospholipids ● Made by enzymes in the rough ER ● Inserted and grow ● Transferred through vesicles ● ***Proteins made by bound ribosomes either are ○ Inserted into ER membrane ○ Transported to other organelles ○ Secreted (exported) by the cell ● Insulin is a secreted protein ● Lumen”inside of something” ● Protein translated ● Folded ● Sugar chains added ● Transport vesiclebuds off and heads to golgi apparatus Golgi Apparatus: ● Stack of flattened sacs ● Up to hundreds ● Number correlates to how actively proteins are secreted 1. Transport vesicle from ER binds to receiving side of Golgi Apparatus 2. Adds membrane and contents 3. ***Modification certain substances are added to protein a. Glycosylation adding (some are removed) b. Phosphorylation tell protein where to go next 4. Travel to plasma membrane or lysosomal Lysosome: ● Membranous sac of digestive enzymes ● Enzymes and membranes made in rough ER ● Acidic environment isolated from the rest of cell theme of compartmentalization ● ex: white blood cells engulf bacteria ● Recycling center for animal cells Peroxisomes: ● ***Break down fatty acids for energy Mitochondria: ● Cellular respiration ● Chemical energy of food to ATP ● Two membranes Chloroplasts: ● Involved in photosynthesis
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