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Week 3 of Notes

by: Danielle Francy

Week 3 of Notes Bio 190

Marketplace > Towson University > Biology > Bio 190 > Week 3 of Notes
Danielle Francy

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About this Document

Last notes Professor went over in class on Monday before the exam
Intro Biology for Health Professions
Joseph Velenovsky
Class Notes
Bio 190
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Francy on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 190 at Towson University taught by Joseph Velenovsky in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro Biology for Health Professions in Biology at Towson University.


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Date Created: 03/08/16
Week 3 of Notes    Active Transport:  ● Against concentration gradient   ● Needs energy­ATP  ● ***Bind to specific sites  ○ Solute binding   ○ Phosphate attaching ATP­­ADP  ○ Transport  ○ Protein reversion  ○ Phosphate detaches and returns to original shape    Cell Organelles:  Exocytosis:  ● Export bulky materials(proteins and polysaccharides)  ● Pancreas and insulin    Endocytosis:  ● Import of large molecules  ● Cellular eating  ● ***Wraps extensions calle​seudopodia  ​and “eats it”  ● Lysosome­ breaks things down  ● ex: amoeba    Pinocytosis:  ● Cellular drinking  ● Gulps droplets of fluid  ● Non­specific ­ all solutes taken in that are present within a gulp  ● Cell that lines small blood vessels    **Receptor­Mediated Endocytosis:  ● Highly selective  ● Gets what it wants through receptor proteins  ● Binds only to specific proteins  ● Coat proteins  How it works:  ● Coat proteins (aka clathrin) form a coated vesicle  ● Coated pit has coated proteins on the outside of it  ● Will eventually form a coated vesicle    LDL receptor­ Low density lipoproteins (cholesterol)            Command Center of Cell:  ● DNA­master plans  ● Control center activities through direction of protein synthesis  ● DNA and histones  ● ***When not dividing the complex of proteins and DNA is chromatin  ● ***Nuclear envelope is made up of two phospholipid bilayers  ● This is because it controls the flow of materials in and out of cells and protects the  nucleus from things coming in and things going out  ● Nuclear pores­ import and export substances    Nucleolus:  ● ***Where rRNA is made and also ribosomes (ribosomal subunits)  ● mRNA is made in the nucleus    Ribosomes:  ● Machines where commands are carried out   ● Cells that make many proteins have lots of ribosomes  ● Pancreas cell digestive enzymes  ● ***Have very important nucleoli regions  ● Free­ cytosolic ribosomes  ○ float around in cytoplasm  ● Bound­ on the outside of Rough ER or nuclear envelope  ● Can move between determining where protein synthesis needs to occur  ● Structurally identical  ● Cytosolic proteins made on free ribosomes  Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER):  ● Infrastructure and many different departments  ● Separate but related functions  ● Internal membranes­eukaryotic cells  ● ***Endomembrane system  ○ Some membranes are physically connected, others rely on vesicles (sacs made  of membrane)  ○ Nuclear envelope (beginning of the process)  ○ Endoplasmic Reticulum (smooth or rough)  ○ Golgi Apparatus  ○ Lysosomes  ○ Vacuoles  ○ Plasma Membrane  ● ER=continuous  ● Flattened            Smooth ER:  ● ***Synthesis of lipids, phospholipids, steroids, etc. by enzymes  ● Ovaries and testes cells rich in smooth ER  ● Sex hormones  ● Detoxify drugs, alcohol, etc.  ● Smooth ER and associated enzymes increase, better at detoxing, tolerance, can  increase tolerance to other drugs  ● ***Stores calcium ions, muscle, and nerve cells    Rough ER:  ● Make phospholipids   ● Made by enzymes in the rough ER  ● Inserted and grow  ● Transferred through vesicles  ● ***Proteins made by bound ribosomes either are  ○ Inserted into ER membrane  ○ Transported to other organelles  ○ Secreted (exported) by the cell  ● Insulin is a secreted protein  ● Lumen­”inside of something”  ● Protein translated  ● Folded  ● Sugar chains added  ● Transport vesicle­­buds off and heads to golgi apparatus    Golgi Apparatus:  ● Stack of flattened sacs  ● Up to hundreds  ● Number correlates to how actively proteins are secreted  1. Transport vesicle from ER binds to receiving side of Golgi Apparatus  2. Adds membrane and contents  3. ***Modification­ certain substances are added to protein  a. Glycosylation­ adding (some are removed)  b. Phosphorylation­ tell protein where to go next  4. Travel to plasma membrane or lysosomal        Lysosome:  ● Membranous sac of digestive enzymes  ● Enzymes and membranes made in rough ER  ● Acidic environment isolated from the rest of cell­ theme of compartmentalization  ● ex: white blood cells engulf bacteria  ● Recycling center for animal cells    Peroxisomes:  ● ***Break down fatty acids for energy    Mitochondria:  ● Cellular respiration  ● Chemical energy of food to ATP  ● Two membranes    Chloroplasts:  ● Involved in photosynthesis   


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