Intro to Art History 1: Week of 3/8
Intro to Art History 1: Week of 3/8 ARTS 1710
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by CathrynBayes on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTS 1710 at Auburn University taught by Karen Sonik in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Art History I in Art at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Crete 3/8/16: Minoan Culture Continued (A fresco is a type of 3D artwork made by applying wet plaster to a wall, then painting the plaster before it dries) Fresco Themes: Colorful, peaceful, natureoriented, detailed backgrounds, waspwaisted figures ● Toreador Fresco (BullLeaping): Late Minoan Period ca. 14501350 BCE. Discovered at Knossos ● La Parisienne Fresco: Late Minoan period ca 14501350, Knossos. Unclear if this woman was meant to be a priestess or a goddess. Based on positioning of her top, she is likely barebreasted as many Minoan women were in art ● Blue boy Fresco: Middle Minoan IIILate Minoan (17001520 BCE). Discovered and reconstructed by Sir Arthur Evans at Knossos site. Incorrectly reconstructed from fragments; should have been a monkey, not a boy ● Blue Monkeys Fresco from Akrotiri : Middle Minoan IIILate Minoan ● Ladies in Blue Fresco: Late Minoan ca. 15th century, Knossos Crete. Very few fragments were found for this reconstruction, but scholars are fairly certain this is an accurate depiction Religion ● No known religious practices, largely due to lack of written deciphered evidence ● Sites of worship found during the Middle Minoan period in caves and hills Cultic Paraphernalia ● Horns of consecration ● Double axe: related to labyrinth myth Human Sacrifice? ● Apparent evidence from Middle Minoan period of teen/adult sacrifice, and Late Minoan Period of child sacrifice ● Knife marks found on bones. Could be postmortem removal of flesh for other reasons, or could be evidence for sacrifices Deities/Priests/Priestesses? ● Most religious figures that have been identified are women ● “Snake Goddess”: New palace/Middle Minoan period at Knossos. Head is taken from another figure, and one of the arms was reconstructed at the behest of Arthur Evans Pottery ● Handmade and wheel made ● Elegant forms with natural elements; zoomorphic, floral, marine life ● Interest in “surface tension” Middle Minoan Period ● Kamares Ware : “eggshell” ware ○ Thin walls, possibly moldmade, with dense lightondark patterns usually of plants ○ Found mostly in Phaistos, but exported to other regions New Palace Period ● Marine Ware ○ Dark on light patterns ● Rhyton : ○ From palace or religious sites ○ Ritual vases often carved from stone (steatite or soapstone), occasionally gilded ○ Forms: traditional vase forms or zoomorphic shapes ○ Bull Rhyton: Knossos ca. 15501400 BCE Late Minoan/New Palace Period, steatite/serpentine with pink crystal eyes and gold gilded horns Review: specific artifacts/art work, where they’re from, and what period they were made in The Mycenaeans 3/10/16: Late Helladic Period 16001100 BCE Natural Resources: clay, limestone, timber, silver, olives, grapes South Greece (the Early Years) Neolithic Period (60003000 BCE) ● Society hasn’t truly formed, mostly everyone lives in small villages and subsistence farming is the main profession ● Domesticated sheeps/goats, wheat/lentil/barley ● Polished stone tools and pottery Early Helladic (30002000) ● ...not much happened ● 31002650 Eutresis Culture ● 26502300 Korakou Culture ● 2300 beginning of invasion of mainland Greece by Mycenaean Greeks Middle Helladic (20001550) ● Mycenaean Greeks invade mainland Greece, displace/intermingle with previous inhabitants and become the dominant culture ○ Mycenaean Greeks : spoke IndoEuropean languages and introduced traces of earlier inhabitants’ languages ○ Mainland Greeks: seen as backwater, contrasted with highly developed Crete. No stratification of wealth, no impressive architecture or grand burials ● Minyan Ware: monochrome polished pottery made to imitate the look of metal. Wheelmade from very fine clay in black/grey/red/yellow, very angular ● Named by Heinrich Schliemann for mythological figure King Minas of Orchomenos Late Helladic/Mycenaean Period (16001450) ● Rich graves at Mycenae. Not many archaeological remains, but an abundance of pottery remains which indicate widespread settlement ● Defeat and destruction of Minoan settlement ca 1450. Takeover and continued use of Knossos on Crete Mycenaean Kings ● Possible warlords, battleoriented society ● Massive fortifications of palace sites, art focuses on hunting/warfare ● Huge accumulation of wealth at palaces, more evidence of stratification of wealth Language ● PreLinear A: Hieroglyphics ● Linear A: Untranslated and symbolic ● Linear B: translated, early form of Greek ○ Derived from Linear A (45 symbols in common) ○ Inscribed on unbaked clay tablets fired by the burning of the buildings they were stored in ○ Most commonly found at palatial sites like Knos os Heinrich Schliemann (18221890) ● German born business man that travelled extensively; lived in Russia, USA, and France ○ 1868 travelled to Greece and was inspired by mythological elements ○ 1870 began legal excavations in Anatolia at Hissarlik (Troy) ○ 1876 Schliemann at Mycenae (Mainland Greece); Royal Grave circles ○ 18781882 Troy excavations, 2nd campaign ○ 1882on Troy excavations, 3rd campaign ○ 1880 Discovery of “treasure of Minyans” at Orchomenos ○ 1884 Excavation at Tiryns and full excavation of Mycenaean palace Grave Circle B (16501520 BCE) ● Located outside citadel walls, never brought into the city during expansions ● 28 meter diameter, multiple cist and shaft graves with ● Cist grave: shallow/rectangular, 4 slabs of stone line the grave and one large stone caps the grave ● Shaft grave: deeper. Pebble floor, rubble/masonry walls, wood plank roof ○ Duck shaped vase: carved from a single piece of rock crystal ca 16th century. Cosmetic container/kimbe, possibly imported from Minoan Crete Grave Circle A (1600/15501450/1400 BCE) ● Double ring of limestone blocks create a circle that is filled in with rubble, capped by flatstones; eventually brought into the city ● Graves marked by stelae; 6 shaft graves, 19 burials, 25 people per shaft ● Graves filled with weapons, jewelry, death masks ○ Limestone Grave Stele Reli ca. 15501500 BCE limestone grave marker depicting 2 people (1 on a chariot, 1 on foot) hunting a lion; similar to Mesopotamian images ○ Lion Hunt Dagger: ca. 16001500 BCE bronze dagger with gold/silver/niello inlay. Waspwaisted figures similar to Minoan art style, Lion hunt theme from Mesopotamia ○ Mask of Agamemnon : ca. 1550 BCE wooden funerary mask with gold leaf. Schliemann claimed the mask belonged to Agamemnon, the leader of Greek forces and ruler of Mycenae in Homer’s Iliad. Clearly articulated facial hair, ears separated from the head, angular facial structure This mask looks almost nothing like the other death masks found, and it has been suggested that Schliemann tampered with the mask to make it reflect a more Victorian image of the perfect man Focus on: The different periods and their defining features, all artifacts and their specificities