History 101, Notes on the Ancient Anasazi Civlization
History 101, Notes on the Ancient Anasazi Civlization HIS 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Catie Naylor on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 101 at a university taught by Dr. Chambers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
PUEBLO/ANASAZI CIVILIZATION Anasazi means “ancient ones” Located in the south west region of North America o This region is the high desert o Very dry region o Just enough rain to support a short farming season o Water shortage was a problem Only rained June-September The Four Corners: where New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, and Colorado meet. o This is where the Anasazi civilization was located o People lived there for a thousands of years o 700-1200 CE the Anasazi lived here o ½ of the area of the Four Corners is Navajo reservations (today) The archaeological proof of the Anasazi lies there Hopi: a group of people who claim to be the direct descendants of the Anasazi o They believed that they had always lived there (Four Corners). They believed that they had come out of a hole in the Grand Canyon (which is extremely sacred to them) Old Oraibi: the oldest pueblo of the Anasazi o Pueblo: Spanish for town o Oldest continuous town in North America o Built on the edge of a mesa Chaco Canyon o Located in New Mexico o Anasazi created a new civilization o Sparked their golden age o 6000 ft above sea level, 18 miles long, 30-100 ft high o Threatening rock: a portion of the canyon where the canyon wall looks like it is about to fall 97 ft high, 140ft long, 34 ft thick They created their town underneath it They built their first Great House here o Great house: the temple or religious center for the Anasazi Not designed for defense, designed to welcome people in They built a small wall around the great house From above it looks like a D The great house was built next to a road They had a very advanced network of roads connecting the great houses and pueblos The roads were perfectly straight Made travel easy It had 3 story high apartments More for storing things, no one really lived in the great house Then it was filled with 20 ft perfectly circular holes in the ground called Kivas These were the actual temples They performed a ritual to keep the threatening rock from falling They would bury prayer sticks to hopefully keep the wall from falling o Their civilization was based on the belief that the gods favored them Their prayer caused the rain Every June before the summer solstice the priests gathered into the kivas and perform a ritual They came out masked in Kachinas Carved figures and masks Distribute seed corn and then it would rain 3 symbols of the Anasazi Civilization o The sacred water wave Drawn on the caves They were a dry region so water was important to them o Hand prints Also on the cave walls They were saying and leaving proof that they were there o Kokopelli Greatest symbol of the Anasazi Golden Age Usually represented as a hunchback with a flute Actually was not a hunchback, he was carrying a bag He was traveler and would play his flute while he travelled He tells us that it was safe for the Anasazi to travel Pueblo Bonito: the biggest Great House o “beautiful town” o Very few people lived there (50-100 lived there) o Had around 700 rooms and was 4 stories high o Built out of stone and adobe (hardened clay) o Had 40 Kivas 1100-1130s the Anasazi were facing a drought o 1130s the drought was the worst one in a 1000 yrs o Priests did the rituals, but the rain never came for years They were starving and began to eat the seeds They thought they had lost favor with the gods o For 10 yrs they had no rain at all (1130s) o People abandoned the towns (they thought they were cursed) They believed everything happened for a reason They believed they had done something to curse the land They still needed a place to live They built their towns on the edges of the mesas and on the cliff wall itself (cliff dwellings) o Mesa Verde: one of the best preserved cliff dwellings o These were designed to keep people out and protect the Anasazi 1200s people began to move back into Chaco Canyon but on the opposite side of Threatening Rock o They began building new settlements along the west side of the Rio Grande they had gone east searching for water 1300s new people migrated into the region o Dine’ were nomads. They became the Navajo people. o Believed each family should live alone o Began in Michigan but had found their way to the south west o They found the abandoned towns and named the past inhabitants “the ancient ones” aka Anasazi Hopi still believe that they are in favor with gods today o Since 1945 they have been going to Old Oraibi to perform a ceremony to keep the world safe Because of the nuclear weapons that had been developed
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