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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mason Notetaker on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to history 1020 at Auburn University taught by Michael B. Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Lecture 012: Ancient Persia 9/18/2015 Cyrus the Great (r. 559-530 BCE) o Took Achaemenids from kingdom to empire o United Medes & Persians o Religiously tolerant o Mentioned in bible (Ezra 1:1-4) because he freed Jews from Babylonian Exile o Praised by friend and foe alike as ideal emperor o Major cultural figure in Persia/Iran to the present o “Cyrus Cylinder” some say it is the 1 declaration of human rights in history Cambyses II (r. 530-522 BCE) o On-the-job training as a satrap of Babylonian o Added Egypt to Achaemenid Empire o Greeks said he committed atrocities in Egypt, but archaeology suggests otherwise Darius I (r. 521-486 BCE) o Distant relative of Cambyses o Won civil war and took the throne o Expanded to Indus River Valley in east, Central Asia and Caucasus in north o Took control of Black Sea grain trade = conflicts with Greeks o Invaded mainland Greece, but was defeated in Marathon in 490 BCE o Also religiously tolerant: gave money to Egypt to rebuild temples; allowed Jews to rebuild Temple in Jerusalem Xerxes I (r. 486-465 BCE) o Satrap of Babylonia; became shah at 35 o Revolts in Egypt and Babylonia early in his reign o Broke with Achaemenid policy of religious tolerance; e.g. destroyed statue of Marduk at Babylon o Favored Zoroastrianism o Invaded Greece in 480 o Retired to Persepolis after his defeat at Salamis o Assassinated at Persepolis in 465 BCE Zoroastrianism o Monotheistic o Founded by the prophet, Zoroaster o Ahura Mazda was the one god o Eternal struggle between good & evil o Gathas are sacred scripture (and are part of larger Avesta) o Influenced other West Asian/Middle Eastern religions Alexander The Great (d. 323 BCE) o Son of Philip II, became King after Phillip II died o Never made it back to Greece Alexander’s Heirs: Seleucid Empire o Proponents of Hellenism 2 o Helped spread Greek culture (language, art, & architecture) throughout Persia, Mesopotamia, & Greater Syria o Could be a little too aggressive in their Hellenizing o Hellenism = best of Greek, Persian, and Egyptian culture’s Seleucid Dynasty in Persia (312-64 BCE) o Selucus I Nicator (d. 281 BCE) o Antiochus III The Great (r. 223-187 BCE) Parthian Dynasty (247 BCE-224 CE) o Gradually chipped away at Seleucids o By 141 BCE they controlled Mesopotamia east of the Euphrates o Equals of Roman Empire o One of the great world empires of their age (along with Rome & Han China) To learn more and get OneNote, visit www.onenote.com. 3
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