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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mason Notetaker on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to history 1020 at Auburn University taught by Michael B. Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Lecture 014: Ancient Rome 9/23/15 Roman Coliseum: o Held horse races o People would bet on sports/races o Played many other sports and performances in the Coliseum Rome & the Mediterranean: o Rome was not originally the main power house in the Mediterranean o The Etruscans were the first power house in the Mediterranean o Eventually the Romans drove the Etruscans out of the peninsula o Romans borrowed ideas from the Etruscans o Alphabet o War tactics, where troops would fight as a single group Last Kings of Rome and the Early Roman Public: o After being defeated by the Etruscans, instead of appointing a new king, the Romans developed a democracy o Developed a council named the Senate. The Senate ruled Rome. o Consoles: o Leaders of the Senate o Consoles were appointed by the Senate o Served for one year at a time o There were two consoles, and both had to agree on something for it to happen Patricians: o Passed wealth down through generations o Dominated the Senate o Had the money and time to educate themselves Plebeians: o All the people who were not born into a rich family = Plebeians o Farmers, craftsmen, merchants, etc. o Not educated, were too poor or did not have enough time o Not many images of Plebeians o Made up most of the army Early Roman Imperialism: o Italy invaded by barbarians, gals, from Germany and France o They defeated the Romans, but did not destroy Rome o The Roman Senate decided the best defense was a good offense o Romans started to expand, thought that if they extended their power far away from Rome they would have a good buffer between the barbarians and others who would try to invade Rome. Punic Wars (246-146 BCE): o Carthaginians vs. Romans in a series of wars o Carthaginians dominated North Africa and Spain 2 o Romans and Carthaginians butted heads in Southern France, Spain, and Sicily o When the Romans won they destroyed Carthage o Did not want Carthaginians to rebound o Wanted to turn Carthage into a wasteland Macedonian Wars (215-148): o Series of four wars that Rome fought in Macedonia o Macedonia became Roman province in 146 BCE o Major step on the road to empire Civil Wars & Militarization: o Patricians getting wealthier and wealthier, while plebians were becoming poorer and poorer o Plebians could join the Roman Army o Roman Army was a 20-year commitment o Promised pensions, money or land, after their service in the army o Veterans were not getting what they were being promised o Rivalries between Generals and Veterans eventually turned into civil wars Julius Caesar: o Marched on Rome with his troops, to save Rome o Acting for the majority of the Romans o Patricians thought Julius Caesar was taking all the power so he could eventually become King o Patricians killed Julius Caesar Octavian a.k.a. Augustus Caesar (d. 14 CE) 3 o Kept the Senate, but rendered them powerless o Was able to usher in an age of peace o 200 years of peace known as Pax Romana o Very popular among Patricians and Plebians Roman Empire: o Consisted of Spain, France, North Africa, Egypt, Greece, Judea, etc… Judaism in General: o Monotheistic o Sacred scripture: Tanakh (a.k.a. Hebrew Bible, Old Testament) o Homeland in Canaan between Mediterranean Sea & Jordan River o Religion evolved in stages History of Ha-Tanakh: o Mostly oral tradition until Babylonian Exile o Writing down and editing Tanakh became more urgent during the exile o Ca 250 BCE: Hellenized Jews in Egypt compile Septuagint, which formed the basis of the Tanakh for Greek-speaking Jews & later early Christians o Ca 90 BCE: Council of Yavneh at which final canon of Hebrew version of Tanakh established (historically debated) o No later than 200 CE: Tanakh in Hebrew reached canonical form Jewish History Timeline: 4 o 1800 BCE: traditional date for Abraham o 1250 BCE: traditional date for Hebrew exodus from Egypt o 1000 BCE: King David est. Jerusalem as capital of Israel & built First Temple o ca 930 BCE: Assyrians destroyed Kingdom of Israel, but Kingdom of Judah survived o 586-539 BCE: Judah felstto Neo-Babylonians; Babylonian Exile; destruction of 1 Temple o 515 BCE: Dedication of Second Temple o ca 539-143 BCE: Achaemenid Persians, then Alexander the Great, then Greco-Egyptian Ptolemies & Greco- Persian Seleucids ruled over Jewish homeland Roman Judaea: o ca 143: Hasmonean Dynasty (Maccabees) rebelled against Seleucids & est. kingdom of Judaea o 63 BCE: Romans intervened to quell Hasmonean conflict o 47 BCE: Julius Caesar makes Herodian Dynasty power in Judaea o 37 BCE: Herod the Great became king of Judaea with Roman support Rome & the Jew After Herod o 66-70 CE: Jewish Revolt against Rome; destruction of second temple o 73 CE: Last Jewish resistance at Masada o 132-135 CE: Bar Kokhba Revolt; Roman victory; Judaea devastated; Jews exiled & barred from Jerusalem o Rabbinic Judaism replaced temple-based Judaism Judaism & Judea o Politics 5 o Jewish Kings under Roman rule o Hasmoneans o Herod & the Herodian Dynasty o Some Jewish Groups o Pharisees o Sadducees o Essenes The Historical Jesus: o ca BCE: born in Roman Judaea o Jewish family; line of David o Prophet & miracle worker o His message drew crowds of poor o His message upset the established order in Palestine o 30 CE: died in Jerusalem o Christians believe he rose again after three days and ascended to Heaven Paul of Tarsus (d. ca. 64 CE) o No record that Paul met Jesus, but he believed in him o Brought Jesus’s word to other people throughout the world o Paul defined Christianity o Paul was a Roman citizen so he was able to pass borders with ease, making it easier for him to spread the word of Jesus Christianity in the Roman Empire to 250: 6 o Slow steady growth in Roman cities o Intermittent persecution 64-250 BCE o Christianity was “unpatriotic” o Christianity was mysterious & held its meetings behind closed doors High Point of Persecution: o 249-251: Decian Persecution o 257-259: Valerian continues persecutions o 303-11: Diocleatian & Galerius resumed persecutions o 313: Constantine issued Edict of Milan putting an end to persecutions Emperor Constantine: o 304-324: Fought civil wars for control of empire o 312: ascribed victory at Milvian Bridge to Christian God o 313: Edict of Milan legalized Christianity o 325: Council of Nicaea o Moved capital from Rome to Byzantium, (later named Constantinople) o Deathbed baptism The Council of Nicaea 325 CE: o 1 Ecumenical Council o About 220 bishops present o Condemned teaching of Arius of Alexandria (but failed to destroy Arianism) o Crafted first drafts of what is now known as the Nicene Creed 7 o Est. close relationship between church & state that would last for centuries To learn more and get OneNote, visit www.onenote.com. 8
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