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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mason Notetaker on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to history 1020 at Auburn University taught by Michael B. Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.
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Date Created: 03/08/16
Lecture 019: Medieval Europe: The Franks (Pgs. 288-297) Barbarian Invasions: Various groups of Germanic & Asiatic invaders Broke through Rome frontiers Too much for the Roman Empire, ended the Old Roman Order Started the ‘Dark Ages’ / ‘Middle Ages’ Can be said to be the first adopters of Christianity Roman Church: Survived the barbarian invasions Provided the only social order *Clovis & The Franks:* Franks were one of many Germanic groups living within the Roman Empire They lived in the Roman Province of Gaul, which became known as Francia & which we now know as France Frankish King Clovis adopted Roman Catholic Christianity (as opposed to Arian Christianity) Developed ties between the popes of the Roman Catholic Church by adopting Roman Catholic Christianity In turn, started the alliance between France and Roman Popes Clovis inherited the control over the Roman social organization *The Franks & Merovingian Kings:* The Merovingian dynasty ruled most of Western Europe. They were Christian, but that did not stop them from violence The Pattern: Princes fought each other to expand their kingdoms. Occasionally, someone like Clovis would unite them for a short time. Mayors of the palace: The Carolingians: Rose to power in mid-late 600s as mayors of the palace under Merovingians Replaced Merovingians & made themselves kings Notable Carolingians: Charles “The Hammer” Martel, Pepin “The Short” III, Charlemegne Continued tradition of close ties between Frankish kings & papacy Brought more centralized rule to Europe than at any time since Romans Charles “The Hammer” Martel: Pepin “The Short” III: Disposed the last Merovingian King, and made himself the King of the Franks Charlemagne: Successful warrior king Kept kingdom together & built a small empire Fought Muslims in west & Avar pagans in east Patron of scholarship & art Became emperor of Romans in 800 CE (Emperor of all Christian people in Western Europe) 2 Imperium christianum = Christian power or roughly Christian Empire Crusades: “Crusades” is a 16th century invention, in the crusades era talked of “taking up the cross” or “putting on the cross” “Crusade” can be just as threatening as the word “jihad” to some people Fatimids: Established a massive Empire Shi’it Muslims Quite the force to be reckoned with Controlled Jerusalem Played a role in inspiring the Crusades The Saljuq Empire: Originally Turkic people from Central Asia Adopted Islam, and served in the militaries of various Muslim rulers, eventually took power for themselves The leader of the Saljuqs took title of sultan Were not caliphs but maintained the Abbasid caliphs Center of power was Iran, they acquired control over Iraq and parts of Syria and Anatolia, but Iran was their focus Most significant Saljuq Sultan was Turghril Beg Events Leading up to the Crusade: 3 Fatimid Imam/Caliph al-Hakam destroyed the Church of Holy Sepulchre, banned women from wearing shoes, banned working during the day, and did not fast he would eat which is against Islamic behavior Saljuqs smashed Byzantines at Manzikert Saljuqs took Jerusalem from Fatimids Alexius Comnenus began ascent to Byzantine throne Saljuq power fragmented when vizier Nizam al-Mulk & sultan Mlikshah died in the same year; Pope Urban II preached crusade at Clermont Fatimids took Jerusalem back from Saljuqs The First Crusade: 1095: Pope Urban II issued call to take up the cross at Clermont 1096: Crusaders gathered and moved eastward 1097: Established County of Edessa 1097: Established County of Antioch 1099: Jerusalem fell to Crusaders; established Kingdom of Jerusalem Most people lost everything they had when they went on crusades People knew this but still did it because of their religious belief Crusader Knights were in bad shape when they reached Jerusalem The Crusader States of the Latin East: Edessa 4 Antioch Jerusalem Tripoli There were also many smaller vassal states and fiefs e.g. Kerak, Tiberius, & Acre. The Second Crusade (1144-1148): Edessa fell to Muslim forces prompting new massive crusade Bernard of Clairvaux (St. Bernard) was the main propagandist Ended in failure High-point and beginning of end of Europeans in Mid East Imad al-Din Zangi captured Edessa Bernard of Clairvaux & others called for new Crusade Louis VII of France & Conrad III of Holy Roman Empire (Germany) took the cross Relations between Eastern & Western Christian powers complicated by truces with Muslims Oct. 25 1147: Germans were wiped out at Dorylaeum July 28 1148: Failed Crusader siege of Damascus Thought the failure of Second Crusade was God coming into play Muslim Resurgence: Jihād fī sabīl Allāh ‘Imād al-Dīn Zangi o Not a very good Muslim o Drank a lot 5 Nur al-Din Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi Ayyubid Dynasty Mamluk Sultanate Salah al-Din al-Ayyūbī (Saladin): Thanks to Ridley Scott, best known medieval Muslim in Western lit, legend, and lore Ended up in control of Egypt kind of by accident Used his position there to build coalition of Muslim forces to fight Crusaders 1074-1086: Took control of most of Syria & NW Iraq 1087: Opened offensive against Crusaders The Battle of Hattin & the Muslim Re-conquest of Jerusalem th 4 of July 1187, all of crusader army defeated The Third Crusade 1187-1193: Fall of Jerusalem promoted new crusade This one included major European kings: Philip II of France, Richard Lionheart of England, Frederick I Barbossa of Germany They failed to regain Jerusalem but they saved the crusader states… for a time. Richard the Lionheart: King of England, but also kind of parts of France Fought against father and brothers Went on Crusade right after claiming English throne Fought other Christians in Sicily & Cyprus on the way 6 Took Acre in July 1191 & defeated Saladin at Arsuf in September 1191 Came close to Jerusalem but never attacked Made 3-year truce with Saladin Returned to Europe; captured in Vienna & handed over to German King Henry IV Forced to give kingdom & 150,00 gold marks to Henry IV Finally got back to England but left just after arriving, he left and spent the rest of his life fighting in France Killed in battle in 6 April 1199 The Fourth Crusade 1202-1204: 3 Crusaded failed to retake Jerusalem = new call to Crusade Many promised, few showed up, and fewer paid To offset the debt, the Crusders served as mercenaries for Venice Crusaders sacked Constantinople & established Latin Kingdom there & in Greece Most of these Crusaders never reached the Holy Land & never fought against Muslims Fredrick II & 6 thCrusade: Holy Roman Emperor Wars in Europe kept him from Crusade Finally went to Holy Land in 1225 Brokered surrender of Jerusalem to Christians Christian fundamentalists & local elites 7 Took Jerusalem by threatening to attack, never actually attacked Not many people liked him, because they didn’t like that he was the one that took control of Jerusalem Louis IX (St. Louis) & the 7 thCrusade: Louis, IX, King of France Apparently man of genuine religious convictions Took up Richard III’s idea of invading Egypt to take Jerusalem Almost successful in reaching Cairo & taking Egypt but lost after Battle of al-Mansurah Was ransomed & stayed in Holy Land until 1254 Launched Tunisian Crusade in 1270 and died there The Rise of the Mamluks: “Mamluk” means “owned” Slave soldiers first deployed in 1200s Mamluks spent lives in military training Survival of the fittest political environment Violent & chaotic but evicted Crusaders from Holy Land & stayed in power for 250 years 8
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