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Date Created: 08/23/14
World War I MrFeder Class Notes How the war Began The first world war began in August 1914 It was directly triggered by the assassination of the Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife on 28th June 1914 by Bosnian revolutionary Gavrilo Princip This event was however simply the trigger that set off declarations of war The actual causes of the war are more complicated and are still debated by historians today The beginning of the Great War 1 Austria issued a waming to Serbia to let Austrian investigators examine the evidence If Serbia did not agree it would be war a Serbia backed by Russia b Austria backed by Germany eventually declared war on Serbia 2 3 4 Serbia initially refused to accept Austria s terms later agreed but Austria declared war anyway Germany declared war on Russia and France in early August Germany launched massive invasion of France through Belgium Schlieffen Plana Objective was to knock France out early so they could concentrate on Russia b Britain seeing its coastline jeopardized by invasion of Belgium allied with France declared war on Germany on August 4 1914 A year later Britain France amp Russia lured Italy on their side d Four long years of bloody trench warfare in the west would ensue while horri c fighting would occur in eastem Europe 10 million soldiers would die 20 million civilians mostly in Russia Central Powers AustriaHungary Germany Ottoman Empire Turks Bulgaria Allied Powers Great Britain Russia France Belgium Later Japan Montenegro Italy initially remained neutral felt AH and Germany had acted aggressively rather than defensively but later entered on the side of the allies US joins April 2 1917 Battles Battle of the Marne French and German troops collide in Mame NE France just outside of Paris French under Commander Joseph Jacques J offre push German s back 50 miles Results Battle of Tannenberg 1 Battle on the Eastem Front Russia attacks Germany quickly and force Germany to divert troops away from France to ght on the Eastem front End to Schlieffen Plan Russians defeated at Tannenberg 30K killed 92K imprisoned Signified the weakness of the Russian Army Russian advantage 151 ratio of Russian to German Soldiers 1 in 10 soldiers retum from war Russian weakness least industrialized lack of supplies weapons food Battle of Verdun German surprise attack on French under command of HenriPhillippe Petain at Verdun No clear winner One of the bloodiest battles of the War Both sides suffer casualties of more than 500K Battle of the Somme British and French surprise attack against Germany No clear winner Both sides suffer casualties of more than 500K Key leaders during the War Woodrow Wilson 28th President of the United States during World War 1 David Lloyd George He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 He pushed for a revengebased treaty at Versailles hampering the 14 points Georges Clemenceau French statesman who played a key role in negotiating the Treaty of Versailles 18411929 Vittorio Orlando He was the Italian representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 He pushed for a revengebased treaty at Versailles hampering the 14 points Militarism Militarism means that the army and military forces are given a high profile by the govemment The growing European divide had led to an arms race between the main countries The armies of both France and Germany had more than doubled between 1870 and 1914 and there was erce competition between Britain and Germany for mastery of the seas Nationalism Nationalism means being a strong supporter of the rights and interests of one39s country The Congress of Vienna held after Napoleon39s exile to Elba aimed to sort out problems in Europe Delegates from Britain Austria Prussia and Russia the winning allies decided upon a new Europe that left both Germany and Italy as divided states Strong nationalist elements led to the reunification of Italy in 1861 and Germany in 1871 US Entry into the Great War J anuary1917 Germany announced policy of unrestricted submarine warfare All ships would be sunk including American ships Used their Sussex pledge to justify policy as US had not persuaded Allies to stop quotillegalquot blockade Germans believed US would enter the war too late B Wilson broke diplomatic relations with Germany but refused to move toward war unless Germany attacked US lives and property 1 Asked Congress for authority to arm US merchant ships Midwestem Senators blocked the measure Illustrated isolationist sentiment in US 2 Wilson had held Zimmerman Note for a week and now used it to get congressional approval to arm merchant ships Treaty of Versailles the treaty was a RAW deal for Germany R Reparations were forced on Germany 0 German war reparations 33 B A Allies Punish Germany took German landlimit German military 0 German army reduced German weapons can t manufacture or buy weapons no airforce German to retum AlsaceLorraine to France France gets control of Saar Basin rich in coal deposits Occupation of the Rhineland Germany stripped of Colonies W War Guilt was forced on Germany 0 Germany must sign war blame clause OOOOO
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