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Notes Feb 19th - March 4th

by: Stacey Notetaker

Notes Feb 19th - March 4th HIST141

Marketplace > University of Evansville > History > HIST141 > Notes Feb 19th March 4th
Stacey Notetaker
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Notes for week 1 after the midterm Days are separated by ID terms
American History to 1865
Dr. Robin Sager
Class Notes
History 1865 Sager




Popular in American History to 1865

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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stacey Notetaker on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST141 at University of Evansville taught by Dr. Robin Sager in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see American History to 1865 in History at University of Evansville.


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Date Created: 03/08/16
Valley Forge Southern Strategy Yorktown Treaty of Paris Republican Motherhood Articles of Confederation Shay’s Rebellion Federalist’s/Antifederalists  Winter 1776-1777 o George Washington is in the New Jersey Area  GW launches surprise attacks against Hessians (mercenary soldiers paid for by Great Britain)  Turning point – GW’s men start behaving more seriously  1777 – battle – Saratoga – win  Valley Forge o Winter 1777-1778 o Fighting halts during winter o Both continental army and GB stationed outside of Philly  GW men are on the outskirts of the city  GB is in Philly, 20mins away from GW men o GW and men (11,000) stay outside the city and wait until fight begins  2,000 of 11,000 die, deserted or leave o No sanitation here:  Disease, smallpox, etc  GW enacts rules to stay alive o Will fire on any man not peeing in the volts – could pollute water sources o Smallpox inoculations o Army survives on “firecake” – made of flour, water, dirt o GW tries to keep their spirits up – writes letters to Congress for supplies  Becomes angry b/c Benedict Arnold and Congress refuse to send supplies o Significance – materials challenge them to see if the men survive  GW makes sure they are well fed  This is a time to train – formation, shooting, loading, powder dry, etc.  They survive and come out with a unified fighting force  1777 o France has been watching – still angry about 7 years war  Looking to ally and get land  Don’t want to get too involved – especially with the losing side  Open talks with Ben Franklin (primary diplomat to France)  1778 o France signs treaty of Amity and Commerce  France wants to be trading partners with the US  Recognize US as a separate country  Big deal, statement of allegiance  Provide military assistance  French navy used to focus on Caribbean, but agreed to send ships to counter GB blockade  Will loan money and supply weapons o Spain is cautious, later joins US against Britain  1780 – Southern Strategy o Despite assistance from France, US gov. is broke, continental army is losing people, but GW’s army is still well fed o GB shifts attention to the southern portion of the US  Men/resources are in S part  Loyalists are in the S waiting for liberation so GB goes S  GB’s hope: as cities are captured, cities are turned over to puppet loyalist’s rule  Loyalists – wealthy planters, will hold onto city until GB can take it o Nathanial Green – uses hit and run strategy  Inflicts casualties on GB army while still moving  Frustrating to GB commander  GB has issues getting to anterior  Patriots use waterways to their advantage against GB o Corn Wallace makes aggressive move in S  Fall of 1781 Southern Strategy o Tries to capture VA o Wallace moves to Yorktown o Hopes to be aided by GB army  Doesn’t happen in time o Quickly surrounded by GW’s army  7500 GB troops v. 16000 US troops o Cut out of Yorktown o Siege and Negotiations o France blocks off Wallace – American Victory  Corn Wallace’s resources are all blocked  GB’s forces are desperate and will eat anything  Due to environment, considers surrender o October 19, 1781 – Wallace surrenders Yorktown o Significance – major blow to GB army  This destroys support for war on the home front b/c of loss of men and resources  1783 Treaty of Paris o American delegation: John J. (lawyer, compromiser), Ben Franklin (flamboyant, politics fighting, unpredictable), John Adams (a controlled man)  3 men don’t get along o A GB an American agreement  GB recognizes US as a separate function  US gets east of Mississippi entity  American merchants have fishing waters on North Atlantic (New England wants this)  US won’t arrest loyalists and will returned seized property  People happy about treaty  One sided affair to get GB out of space and secure it for GB  Ben Franklin cuts France out of the treaty  Although France should be involved o Angers France  BF’s smooth talks France and gets US a loan  1783 home front NY o People evacuate  Dec 17 1783 o GW resigns commission as army general  People want GW to be military dictator  GW chooses not to  1776 Nation Building – declaration of independence o Colonists turn into state citizens o Colonies turn into states o States create constitutions  Who is allowed to vote?  Don’t have to own property  Don’t have to pay taxes  Elite are suspicious of granting voting rights to everyone b/c they think it’s a privilege Republican Motherhood Articles of Confederation Shay’s Rebellion 3/5’s Compromise Federalists/Antifederalists Alien & Sedition Acts Louisiana Purchase Hartford Convention “Era of Good Feelings”  Women o Cross dressing, fighting o War effort: daughters of liberty – active  Anti-tea document  Emphasize on fundraising – want to give resources and money to men o Ladies association of Philly  Raise $, contact GW to give them the $  GW says no b/c he’s afraid men will spend $ on alcohol  Tells W to use $ to make men clothes  W make clothes for soldiers  GW tries to put W back into their sphere o During war:  W open businesses, work  M feminize by losing wars o Post war – want W to contribute without offending gender relations  Republican Motherhood o W have vital roles are mothers:  Educate children on citizen duties  Focus on boys b/c they vote and gov. positions go to them (boys = future)  Teach boys what it means to be an active citizen by reading, teaching them science, math, etc. o Significance: acknowledges that W have power in affecting the future generation  Post Rev: slaves present  1777 – 1804 o All from MD and up prohibits slavery  Emancipation in N is slow b/c of loopholes  Due to climate, etc. o States hesitant to free all states b/c of property rights  Some states: newborn blacks are free at adult o Gradual split b/w N and S b/c of slavery  Articles of Confederation o 1 national written constitution o Ratified in 1781, guiding doc since 1777, lasts until 1787 during the recession o Similar to state constitution o Set up:  Singe house legislative body  Each state has 1 delegate – 1 state = 1 vote  Lack chief executive – no judicial branch  No checks and balances  All 9 states must agree  Slow cautious, conservative gov.  Legislative body – declares war, creates treaties, issues $ o Downsides  Can’t tax or regulate trade via taxation  Problem with $ b/c fed gov. has no $  Congress in debt after war  Tries printing more $  1787 Economic Recession o Fed. Gov. asks states for $  States say no – states raise taxes for themselves  Taxing people into poverty  1786 – 1787 – Massachusetts farmers angry because taxes are so high o People push back against government intervention  1786 – 1787 Shay’s Rebellion o Taxation crisis, government is not stable o Daniel Shay  Gathers affect farmers (regulators) and occupy court houses armed  Pack court houses to prevent order  Collection of debt that court proceeds on is stopped  Will stop farmers from being forced into payment  Issues demands:  Secure paper $ and more of it  Relief from taxation and debt  No imprisonment of debters o Private army in Boston disperses the rebellion and it falls apart o Significance – danger of too much democracy  Relief from taxation = economic crisis  Weak gov. doesn’t respond well to this  Excess power of people = danger to liberty  GW thinks that more rebellions will happen b/c the AoC is failing  May 1787 Constitutional Convention o Philly state house o Tries to fix AoC o Ideas: 3 branches instead of 1 to diversify gov. (executive, judicial, legislative)  Levy taxes  Stronger property rights  July 1787 o Compromise so N and S happy o 2 hours legislative:  Senate – upper house – 2 members chosen by slate legislative body, 6 year terms  House of Repr – 2 year terms, elected by pop., will represent people  Executive will appoint Supreme Ct. members  Pres – Maj of votes nd  VP – 2 most votes o Delegates – trying to water down power of people  3/5 Compromise o Slavery is a topic of conversation – not mentioned directly o S states want slaves to count as property but count as people for the purpose of representation for the HoR seats b/c there are so many slaves  N doesn’t like this o Slaves count as 3/5 of a person for purpose of representation and election o Significance – S accumulates power b/c of this in HoR  Now have lawmaking that protects slavery o Congress doesn’t CONSIDER banning slave trade until 1808 at the earliest  As slave holder population grows, S usually wins o Fugitive slave law – illegal to house fugitive slaves o Ratified in 1788


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