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PSY 325 Week 7 Notes

by: Lauren Toomey

PSY 325 Week 7 Notes PSY 325

Lauren Toomey

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About this Document

These notes cover February 29th and March 2nd (we had a test on Friday, March 4th).
Psychology of Personality
Karla Gingerich
Class Notes
PSY 325, Psychology, personality
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Toomey on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 325 at Colorado State University taught by Karla Gingerich in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 03/08/16
Lecture 17: Ch. 7 (2/29/26) Wednesday, March 2, 2016 12:59 PM Test yourself • Convergent validation • Study where guys were shown a picture of an attractive woman and then talked on the phone to someone and described her as being warm on the phone • Primary criteria for personality judgment: interjudge agreement and behavioral prediction • Validity of first impressions: based on configural properties of faces may have some validity • How often did the more "competent" looking candidate w in in the senate race: • Self-monitoring - single trait approach • Two essential traits for jack and Jeanne block - ego control and ego resiliency • Cross-cultural research of big 5 suggests: central attributes were the same but there were some big differences o Openness wasn't found everywhere, honesty/humility 6th factor Chapter 7: Personality Stability, Development, and Change • Stability o "People show a strong tendency to maintain their distinctive patterns of behavior throughout life… The evidence for this kind of stability is widespread and impressive" - Funder o Temperament: Our earliest "personality" rooted in genes, and measurable in infancy • Age predicts B manifestation of personality (called heterotypic continuity) • Assessing temperament in early childhood: § Positive emotionality (exuberance) § Negative emotionality § Effortful control - ability to self soothe • Looks familiar to the three super factors of Tellegen • Is temperament stable in early childhood? § Experiment • Kids who were inhibited at 4 months were: • 44% sometimes were inhibited and sometimes weren't fearful • 42% were always fearful • 12% were positive every time • Kids who were positive (exuberant) at 4 months were: • 80% were positive every time after • 15% were variable (sometimes positive and sometimes not) • 5% fearful every later time • More likely to change if you started out fearful to begin with rather than if you were positive • Environment is pushing you to be happy • "Goodness of fit" § Patient and understanding parents • Does early temperament correlate strong ly with adult personality? § There is some predictive power § More extreme scores in infancy → much better predicitive power o Research consistently demonstrates remarkable rank order stability beginning in childhood • If you were the most inhibited kid in infancy you will probably still be the most inhibited kid in high school even if you have become less inhibited • Trait scores measure up to 10, 20 and more years apart show stability § Big Five trait retest co rrelations "are rarely lower than .50, and are often in the .80s" § Large 10-year study: For all Big Five traits, r= .6 -.9 § McCrae & Costa: 50 -year stability (ages 30-80) is at least .60 o Masten's Studies of resilience in children • High A and a mastery motivation predicts academic, vocational, and social outcomes 20 years later • Does birth order predict personality differences? § If so, the effect is small (r=-.18 for birth order and C, and that's the strongest effect) § Even weaker findings: Later -borns score higher on E, O and A • So not really much of an effect of birth order • But there may be expectancy effects Lecture 18: Stability (Ch. 7) Wednesday, March 2, 2016 12:59 PM • 3 types of person-environment transactions contribute to stability, • And probably magnify traits over time: o Reactive • Traits that react to a specific environment o Active • Person chooses their environment specific to their traits o Evocative • Create the environment with the people around them based on their traits • We change our environments based on who we are • Trait score correlations over 7 years o Meta analysis of 152 longitudinal studies o Indicates that as people age, their trait score increases • Stability • Psychological maturity o Self-control o Interpersonal sensitivity o Emotional stability • Social investment principle o The tasks and roles of adulthood require increases in certain traits o Life increases traits, which increase our stability • General Patterns of Change • Do mean levels of traits change over time? • Two types of studies: o Cross sectional analysis (the largest study) - lots of different people at the same time o Overall Conscientiousness: mean score increases between age 10 -60 (with a decrease in adolescence around age 15) • This makes sense based on the tasks we do throughout our lives as adults o Overall neuroticism: in females, it decreases more throughout life (after an increase around age 15) • For men, it decreases slightly, but not as much (from age 10 -60) • The other way to phrase this is that emotional stability increases o Overall agreeableness: agreeableness decreases in early adolescence, then increases throughout life o Overall openness: It only increases a tiny bit, not as much as conscientiousness o Extraversion: Stays steady throughout life • Meaning that introverts don't become exraverts, and vice versa o Longitudinal research o Same people in over time o Conscientiousness and agreeableness increase over time o Emotional stability does too (i.e. Neuroticism decreases ) o The assertiveness/dominance dimension of Extraversion increases, but overall Extraversion scores generally stay steady o C,E, and A may decline after mid -60s through, and the sociability aspect of Extraversion especially declines with very old age (after 8 0) • Stability • "Personality sets like plaster" after age 30. - William James • So, was he right? o Sort of, but not exactly. Not "plaster." • What contributes to mean level changes? o Physical changes o Changing demands and goals, related to age and the social clock (what we do based on if it's time to do it according to society) o The impact of specific events (ex. A death) • General patterns of change o The development of narrative identity reflects and shapes personality • Can we change on purpose? • Probably. Clinical perspective: o Changing personality is tough o How to do it depends on your theory o Changing the way we act in the world is challenging, but changing a specific behavior isn't as difficult • Funder's perspective: Yes o Change Behavior one at a time, slowly and stea dily, and the trait will follow o How does this perspective differ from clinical perspectives and methods?


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