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Biology:ecology and evolution

by: kyle dunham

Biology:ecology and evolution Biol12000-02

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Biology > Biol12000-02 > Biology ecology and evolution
kyle dunham
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

These notes discuss animal body plans and development
Fundamentals of Biology II:Ecology and Evolution
Nancy L. Jacobson
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by kyle dunham on Tuesday March 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol12000-02 at Ithaca College taught by Nancy L. Jacobson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology II:Ecology and Evolution in Biology at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 03/08/16
Animal Body plans and development Facts -The closest relatives of animals appear to be choanoflagellates -All animals are multicellular Question: How many animals are there? -over 1 million species described -33 phyla -15 phyla only live in water -1 phyla only lives in land -rest are found in water and on land BODY PLANS DIFFER IN: 1.Body symmetry 2.Types of gut 3.Presence or absence of coelom 4.Early development Sponges are weird: 1.Adults are asymmetrical 2.Digest food intracellularly - within amoebocytes 3.No true tissue Body plans: Two types: 1.Radial-cut anywhere and it will be symmetrical 2.Bilateral-cut in half and both sides are the same types of Guts: Gastro vascular cavity: One opening serves as both the mouth and the anus Complete digestive tract: 1. mouth and an anus 2. allows specialized organs in between Coelom: -The coelom is the body cavity between the gut and the body wall -The coelom helps protect organs from being injured Develoment of a gut: 1. cleavage-cell division(mitosis) 2. blastula-ball of cells hollowed out 3. gastrula-wall invaginates to form internal sac 4. internal sac becomes gut Endoderm(in all but sponges) 1. inner layer 2. forms inner lining of gut Mesoderm(in most animals) 1. forms muscles, peritoneum (lines coelom) 2. forms in two ways Ectoderm(in all but sponges) 1. Outer layer 2. Forms skin (and feathers, etc…), nervous system Forms of mesoderm: 1-way 1. One cell of the 64 cell-stage is destined to form mesoderm 2. This cell divides to form cell masses between endoderm and ectoderm in the gastrula 3. These masses may then hollow out to form a cavity that expands and becomes the coelom 2-way 1. Mesoderm forms from pouches off of the embryonic internal sac in the gastrula 2. These pouches pinch off and expand to form coelom


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