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Introduction to Film

by: Bernadette White

Introduction to Film COM ARTS 350

Bernadette White
GPA 3.82

Colin Burnett

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Colin Burnett
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bernadette White on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM ARTS 350 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Colin Burnett in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see /class/205315/com-arts-350-university-of-wisconsin-madison in Communication Studies at University of Wisconsin - Madison.

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Date Created: 09/17/15
CA 350 Text Notes M1 Chapter 1 Film as Art Form the sum of all the parts ofthe lm uni ed and given shape by patterns repetition story lines character traits Style the way a film uses the techniques of filmmaking l MiseenScene ll Cinematography lll editing IV sound Technology and business shape lm as an art Humans apparent motion critical flicker fusion movie Film basics light from a reel past a lense and aperture to a teke up reel shutter admits light 24 fps standard negative emerges positive print must be made on a printer base emulsion sprockets holes sound track magnetic or optical mag almost obsolete width of film strip gauge monophonic or stereophonic sound 16 mono Much of the artistry in lmmaking comes from the technical decisions ie what to use Digital video vs lm Consumer level 8 mm Prosumer 16 mm HD above no compression 24 fps higher image quality and ease oftransfer to 35 mm CA 350 Text Mem Notes MAKING THE MOVIE FILM PRODUCTION Typically 3 phases 7 production distribution and exhibition Scriptwriting and funding 7 idea is developed screenplay written nancial support acquired Preparation for lming 7 after stuff is written and funding acquire the physical lm is planned Shooting 7 the lmmakers create the lm s images and sounds Assembly 7 the images and sounds are combined in their nal form cutting special effects etc phases can overlap N 4w 3 lives script performance and editing Scriptwriting and funding PRODUCER 7 chie y financial and organizational Sometimes acts as a liaison between money and makers Executive producer 7 person arranging the nancing for the project or obtained the literary property often the shiftless bum Line producer 7 oversees daytoday activities of director cast and crew Associate producer 7 acts as a liaison with laboratories or technical personel SCREENWRITER 7 prepares the screenplay or script Several stages Treatment 7 synopsis of the action One or more full length scripts One final shooting script CONSTANTLY modifiedrevamped Many Hollywood screenwriters rewrite each other s scripts Screen Writer s Guild Abovetheline costs costs of literary property screenwriter director and major cast Belowtheline costs costs of crew secondary cast shooting and assembly phases insurance and publicity SUM of both negative cost Compilation documentary 7 from existing footage make an outline to pitch and get funding before writing nal version Preparation phase Preproduction director plays central role set up production office planning scene locations casting roles etc set unit production design unit headed by production designer set design STORYBOARD usually for actionspecial effects sequences PREVISUALIZATION previz three dimension animation of certain sequences heavy special effects movies Shooting Phase production principal photography Director s crew o script supervisor script girl manages continuity first assistant director jackofalltrades manages each day s shooting schedule o second assistant director liaison between 1st AD and the camera crew and the electricians crew third assistant director messenger for director and staff o dialogue coach feeds performers lines says offscreen characters lines o second unit director films stunts location footage etc at a distance from the principal shooting cast stars supporting players minor players extras Other roles o grips carry equipment props elements of lightingsetting gaffer supervises placement and rigging of lights o third man places mikes cables controls ambient sound o slate identi es takes for future reference 0 master shot records the entire action and dialogue of a scene also called coverage Assembly phase postproduction fix it in the post after shooting is finished the editor often works with the director 0 receives daily footage dailies or rushes Terms o rough cut loosely structured wo sound effects or music spotting deciding where the music and effects will be placed o automated dialogue replacement ADR artificially replaces the dialogue sound o walla the babble of a crowd Nonsychronized dialogue sound editor routinely manufactures the sound effects FILMMAKERS ARE ALWAYS WORKING WITHIN CONSTRAINTS Large scale studio productions fazed out more about individual packages exploitation film focus on profit independent film less investment more creative freedom sometimes bought by major studios Smallscale the filmmaker does most everything and makes most decisions collective production multiple film workers participate equally Film Art Ch 1 7 Contd Notes Collective film productions create collective ownership Largescale 7 a hierarchy where a few main players make most decisions Most regard the director as the author The person with the most control of the film s formstyle auteur theory 7 French word for author 7 term for a well respected director Main Hollywood firms 7 account for 95 ofticketed sales in the US Best able to endure risks of filmmaking Very few films make a profit Thus the incentive to rape consumers with concession prices Blind bidding 7 renting a film wo seeing it Block booking 7 rent a package of films House nut 7 deduction of the cost of running a theater from the gross Rentals 7 distributor s share of the grosses split with the exhibitor Pro t participants 7 directors actors executives and investors of the film Film distributors can gain access to bank nancing stock issues and other sources of funding by belonging to multinational conglomerates hence the incentive Then comes the synergy Massmarket lmmaking practices Platforming 7 lm opens rst in a few big cities then gradually expands to other communities typically used for unusual lms Wide release 7 lm opens at the same time in many places mustsee big releases helps recoup costs faster Dayanddate 7 opening simultaneously on the same day in different countries reaction to piracy Trailer 7 short preview of lm regarded by many executives as the single most effective advertising tool Merchandising selling the rights to characterstitleimagesetc to a producer pays back money to distributer Crosspromotion 7 allows a lm and a product line to be advertised simultaneously Multiplexes Megaplexes 7 multiple screens centralized project rooms concessions Spread of DIGITAL projectors no more 35mm SLOW spread because of implementation costs Film festival 7 important alternative to commercial movie houses Carefully planned releases 7 Airline ights amp hotel systems PPV TV THEN DVDs The videocassettedvd did NOT hurt studios it actually helped Formats Shape Cinema Safe area 7 directors relying on a centralized area of the screen for putting key information because of cropping for other video formats Integration of product placement 7 Pepsi in BTTF Frame enlargements adjustments CHAPTER 2 Film Art Ch 2 notes Artistic form 7 the idea that humans are engaged by an overlyingx logical pattern to art forms such as paintings books music and lms Form as a system The mind seeks order and signi cance idea 7 the artwork CUES us to perform a speci c activity guides our imagination notice rhythms etc System 7 all the parts function together it will break down without one of them FORM vs CONTENT Or another view 7 every component functions as part of the overall pattern that engages the viewer ConventionsExperience 7 expectations of what cancan t happen Formal expectations 7 based on prior experience 7 AB ABA ABACA etc Emotional response 7 cue the audience to expect certain thingsmaterial Expectation spurs emotion 7 what happens next Delayed ful llment All is a matter of context Both the emotions onscreen and the audiences responses depend on the context created by form Meaning deeper signi cance of a lm Referential meaning 7 ex Dorothy s ight from the Depression to Oz and back 7 the lm refers to things or places already invested with signi cance Kansas sparse setting plays into the direct contrast between both settings Explicit meaning 7 ex a girl dreams ofleaving home to escape trouble and only later realizes how much she misses her family 7 openly asserted meaning HARD impossible to simply isolate one as the overall meaning of the lm each relies on the dynamic formal relation to one another Implicit meaning 7 ex an adolescent who must soon face the adult world yearns for a return to the simple world of childhood but eventually accepts the demands of growing up 7 meaning is not stated directly usually an INTERPRETATION of the lm abstract and general Interpretations 7 should be constantly tested by placing them within the context of the lm Symptomatic meaning 7 ex in a society in which human worth is measured by money the home and family seem to be the last refuge of human values economic crisis of 1930s relates implicitexplicit meanings to a wider set of social values set of social values ideology Such ideologies must be placed in the context of the lm s creation to understand them Evaluating a lm 7 making claims about its goodness or badness Note The difference between personal taste and evaluativejudgment Criterion 7 a standard that can be applied in the judgment of many works Realistic 7 historically accurate use of props dialogue etc Condemnation of coincidental encounters suck it up it s a common convention of comedy alliteration overload Moral 7 use of nudity violence profanity OTHER standards overall view of life willingness to show opposing points of view emotional range Assessing as a whole 7take into account the coherence or unity of the work also the intensity of effect 7 if the artwork is vivid emotionally engaging or striking Complexity 7 engaging interest on many levels multitude of relations of formal elements intriguing patterns of feelingsmeanings Originality 7 pointless by itself but if the artist takes atraditional convention and makes it a fresh experience maybe good aesthetics A7 OFTEN it is a giveandtake relationship between elements Five General Principles of Film Form 7function similarity amp repetition difference and variation development and unitydisunity Function every element ful ls a certain role within the whole system


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