Survey of Radio Television and Film as Mass Media
Survey of Radio Television and Film as Mass Media COM ARTS 250
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COM ARTS 250
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bernadette White on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM ARTS 250 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Megan Biddinger in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/205318/com-arts-250-university-of-wisconsin-madison in Communication Studies at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Com Arts Review Guide Key Terms and Concepts Early Cinema The Integrated Approach to Media Study The way to study media by looking at four spheres The Cultural Artifact Social and Historical Context Production and Reception Protocinema A term that refers to early developments before movies that emphasized the desire for people to project and enlarge images Mass communication technology developments was somewhat unsettling and upset people s conception of space and time PeepshowsKinetoscope Depictions viewed through a small hole or magnifying glass viewed by one individual at a time appeared like a ipbook The Brothers Lumiere developed the Cinematograph which combined the camera printer and projection device George Melies A French filmmaker who developed many technical and narrative techniques especially special effects in early cinema Edwin Porter An early American filmmaker who enhanced narrative with shooting in multiple locations documentation caught on screen Film Style Miseenscene quotSetting the stage or all of the stylistic elements interacting to produce what you see in a particular shot Shot scale Using different focus for different shots that force the viewer to look at something in particular Camera Angles The position of the camera is key and it often connects with the power of a character in relation to the viewer Low key is more shadowed connected with film noir high key lighting is more normal happy lighting in musicals and comedy Camera movement Pan The camera is rotating on a fixed axis Tilt Camera is on a fixed axis butlooks up and down Dollytracking Camera physically moves everything else is fixed Crane Camera is on a crane moving in space vertically 0 Zoom inout Lens moves from a wide angle to telephoto or visa versa Editing Can be within a scene or from scene to scene 0 Cut Basic technique in joining shots quick transition with no effect 0 Fade Gradual brightening or darkening as a transition 0 Wipe Scene transitions out and is wiped out by scene coming in o Dissolve Fading from one scene to the next 0 O O O O O Iris inout Technique to widen or close down shot in silent film Superimposition Laying one shot on top of another a partial dissolve Nickelodeon Era Shift from private to public or mass viewing of movies Cheaper urban environments allowed the workinglower class to attend Had appeal in being family friendly silent films had no language barrier Shorter programs because they stood alone less time commitment Era ended because of desire for more sophistication of movie experience Early Radio Development Radio was an important cultural force and originated broadcasting in media Marconi and Deforest were both key in technology of radio their challenge acknowledged limits to the amount of radio waves available for transmitting Early radio used for commercial and shipping interests Male amateur quotHamquot operators messed around with radio DXing Some saw the need to regulate early on for public safety and because it was a finite resource Navy emerged as first leader of radio development The number of radio stations and the number of receivers increased dramatically in the 1920s Network Links groups of broadcast stations that share programs made in a central location Once ATampT broke away from RCA in 1922 they established Toll Broadcasting to get revenue advertisers could buy up time on radio directly so more direct control of content and production After the establishment ofnetworks in the early 1920s concerns about monopolies brought the return of regulation Audion Tube Developed by Deforest glass bulb detector that amplifies and generates radio waves Marconi made the black box and essentially invented the wireless radio Frank Conrad set up one of first commercial radio stations in 1916 KDKA United Fruit used crystal detectors which turned radio waves into electric currents on east coast Hertz developed the measurement of the radio wave William Paley developed option time with CBS where they would regional affiliates to broadcast their stuff so they could control programming 19205 Hollywood and Studio System More respectability bourgeois middle class leisure appeal Consolidation of movie industry monopoly pooling ofpatents The Trust Adolph Zuker sought to bypass The Trust with Paramount Blind bidding Theaters had to pay for movie or group of movies without knowing what they were getting Block booking Films of unknown quality are grouped with a successful film Vertical Integration Controlling production distribution and exhibition Thomas Ince and the Triangle Company Contracts selfcontained industry and hierarchy Rise of star system case of Mary Pickford helped create United Artists Hollywood was trying to move away from crazy lifestyle to transition to industry of respectability Fatty Arbuckle Rudolph Valentino and Clara Bow were important sex symbols Edison s original goal was to incorporate sound into film Social norm of quiet theaters Dialogue in movies lead to more complex films and themes Film and Censorship Genre 0 Concerns about film 1915 Supreme Court protected state s decision to censor films In uence of Roman Catholics Concerns about sexuality and gender roles Payne Fund Studies linked moviegoers to bad traits proved effective in pro censorship movement MPPDA is formed in response to push for censorship Hays as first president he was mainline protestant American appeal and offered a list of dos and don ts of films Breen brought in to strengthen and enforce the code Movies cut off from important social issues Development in 1930s and 1940s Sound was a factor Current events led to the development of genres Sound and dance often not narratively motivated Entertainment value gave people an escape Backstage musicals show within a film performers as actors Screwball comedies thwarted romance and had sexual tensions Anarchic comedy Marx Bros was more of a social critique and a critical portrayal of society Hollywood At War Frank Capra and Walt Disney led movements to create movie propaganda humanized Soviets dehumanized Germans Iapanese etc Movement toward more active entertainment lessens movie audience Paramount Decision in 1948 put an end to vertical integration studios had to separate operations HUAC Conducted and probed into Hollywood pressure to name names and isolate yourself from communism ideal Hollywood Ten were blacklisted prevented them from working in the industry McCarthy escalated anticommunism with Congressional Hearings Television Cathode Ray Tube Heated filament that allowed electrons to bounce around to create pictures Nipkow Disc Rotating disk with perforations arranged in a spiral pattern Ionoscope First TV camera that manipulates light and sound in 1927 Farnsworth won out in patent showdown with RCA NTSC was a trade organization that represented the major producers The Freeze 19481952 too much overlap of stations and no new licenses were issued VHF had 3 dominant networks while UHF had more possibilities for stations TV programming had strong ties to films Film s loss of audience to directly attributed to the rise of TV Movie studios responds to TV with crazy technology Cinerama was 3 cameras much more costly curved screen sense of depth 3D was not as in uential two images laid over one another Cinemascope was Fox s response to Cinerama one projector that projected a panoramic picture anamorphic lens ToddAO created similar effect as cinemascope with a big curved screen reserved for certain premium theaters and higher ticket prices 75 mm Panavision is the contemporary style ofmovies shown in theaters widescreen at projection that developed out of ToddAO Timeline 1837 Invention of the telegraph 18261839 Development ofphotography 1860s and 1880s quotDiscoveringquot the Electromagnetic Spectrum 1876 Invention of the telephone 1878 Invention of the phonograph 1890s Wireless Telegraph and Wireless Telephony 1894 The opening of the 1St Kinetoscope parlor 18951905 The beginning of early narrative film 1903 The Life of an American Fireman The Great Train Robbery d Edwin Porter 19051910 Nickelodeon Era 1906 Reginald Fessenden carried out the 1st voice broadcast on radio 1908 Edison establishes Motion Picture Patent Company 1909 The Lonely Villa d DW Griffith 1910 Wireless Ship Act declared that any ship with passengers to or from the US had to be equipped with wireless radio 1912 Radio Act was connected with the Titanic and made it necessary to have a license for broadcasting formally adopted the SOS code 1916 The Rink d Charlie Chaplin 1917 The Trust is broken up in part by Fox 1918 Following WWI the Navy proposes a monopoly on radio 1919 The Radio Corporation ofAmerica RCA is established 1920 High and Dizzy d Hal Roach 1921 US Commerce Department licenses 5 radio stations 1922 ATampT creates Toll Broadcasting as the first radio network 1922 Cops d Edward Cline and Buster Keaton 1925 Government intervenes to break up ATampT monopoly 1926 NBC founded and was split into Red phone and Blue radio founded by David Sarnoff 1927 CBS founded 1927 The Jazz Singer starring Al Iolson became the first film with sound 1927 Radio Act established that people don t own radio stations emphasized public interest convenience and necessity Federal Radio Commission established 1928 The Singing Fool popularized quottalkiesquot but legitimized Warner Bros as a major studio 1934 Federal Communications Act established the FCC 1934 It Happened One Night d Frank Capra 1950 Sunset Boulevard d Billy Wilder 1952 Singin in the Rain d Stanley Donen 1955 Rebel Without a Cause d Nicolas Ray CA 250 Fall 2009 Exam 2 Review Otto Preminger 1950 s lms The Moon is Blue distributed wo approval from Production Code Stringers Inde workers got news footage from around the world sold them to news agencies Magazine format sponsorship selling commercial space to different companies more control to network instead of sponsor Caused by quiz show scandal Formats 7 selling idea of show not show itself Ie Survivor format 7 reality TV Synergy Narrowcasting focused on speci c audiences target audiences Cable networks Socially relevant programming 1950 New Hollywood more educated audience film school generation Jiggle TV 1970 s Counterprogram against turn to relevance Quality TV 1980 s associated with style hour long dramas character development Boutique TV caters to speci c audiences like a boutique Least objectionable programming any remotely controversial pushed out of scripts bland Post or Neo Network Era diminished network control cable vs broadcast Film festival circuit 1980 s indie movies Situation comedy Sit com Anthology Drama live simple sets 3 cameras not recurring characters Marty Serial Drama Narratives continue weektoweek Calculated blockbuster Big budget summer release special effects Classic network system Vertical integration highly centralized network control 1968 Democratic National Convention Dan Rather punched antiwar protest whole world is watching Nixon Kennedy Debates TV in uenced voters Radio audience interpreted debate differently than TV audience Quiz show scandals advertisers rigged show winners Lead to magazine format sponsorship Vast wasteland speech Minnow concerned with violence on early 1960 s TV not living up to public responsibility mandate FCC Freeze 19481952 gives established major networks more control no new networks 1992 Cable Act Broadcast Networks had option to be Must Carry or to charge for programming on cable networks 1996 Telecommunications Act Cable under federal control allows for bundling no crossownership restrictions ended cable rate regulation Midwest Video Case decides that cable is not a common carrier but instead an Electronic publisher Burstyn v Wilson 7 1952 Supreme court decides lm is protected by lSt Ammendment l951MPAA rewrites code trigger Financial Interest and Syndication Rules FinSyn est 1970 s broadcast network no longer can claim pro ts from program once program goes into off network broadcasting Purpose supposed to break up production control from networks Cultural convergence Dawson s Creek Civil lights subject Vertical and horizontal integration Velt Controls production through distribution Horiz Conglomerates own multiple mediums to promote product Mike Nichols dir The Graduate Pat Weaver NBC president early 1950 s developed magazine format sponsorship Roger Corman Master of exploitation lm Produced and directed cheaply made horror lms Westerns and motorcycle and gangster pics for American International Pictures Mark Fowler FCC chairman 1980 s repealed Fairness Doctrine deregulated telecommunications Alan Freed DJ advocate for teenagers payola Wolfman Jack 7 DJ emulated blackness Edward R Murrow Newton Minnow Chairman of FCC under JFK Vast Wasteland speech Joseph Breen retirement in 1954 led to the decline of the production code Martin Scorcese lm school New Hollywood inspired by Corman Francis Ford Coppola lm school New Hollywood inspired by Corman Steven Spielberg lm school New Hollywood Dennis Hopper lm school New Hollywood Geroge Lucas lm school New Hollywood Easy Rider Bonnie and Clyde The Cosby Show Chico and the Man The Red Masque ofDeath 7 Roger Corman B movie from 1960 s Married With Children lowbrow T 0p Chef Charlie s Angels Example of Jiggle TV Star Wars Calculated blockbuster CATV Community Antenna cable before cable broadcast could not reach certain areas Telstar lst satellite to relay TV signals 1962 Reality TV Miramax New Line 1967 What were the major trends in audience habits and makeup What were the patterns of technology use and adoption What is the signi cance of each text from screening
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