Seminar in Plant Systematics and Evolution
Seminar in Plant Systematics and Evolution BOTANY 940
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Ongm Chapter Four a moderator Andy Gardner 1 quotHOW WILL THE struggle for exlstence brlefly dlscussed In the last chapter act In regard to varlatlongt Can the pnnclple of selectlon whlch we have seen so potent m the hands Ofman app1y under nature Its easy to read thebegmmng of this book as a sort ofheavlly supported proofofnatural selectlon He at the start ofthe summary of the chapter If under Changmg condmons ofllfe begms to lay out 1115 proof A and 1f h Fl 7 I o differences In ahn t t part to rat ofmcrease season or year I paraphrase then lnleldualS Wlth useful Vanatlons W111 tend to survwe and pass these characters to the offsprlng Inhentable Vanablllty Strugg1e for Exlstence Natura1 Selectlon Is It thls slmplegt promded the antecedents mlrror reahty Dld Darwm thlnk It IS 1115 slmplegt What IS the weakest element ofDarwln s argumentgt Dld Darwm conslder thls elementgt d so much tlme dlSCuSSmg the resul hfegt Is 1115 further support for natural Selectlon 2 tant effects 11 has on the patterns and complexlty exhlblted by gt Is the com plex ramlfled tree ofllfe whlch Darwm portrays so fully and e1aborate1y snnp1y a resultant effect ofnatural that of lquot m an t t iwhy dld n choose to allow the hneages to go extlnct Contlnue evolvmg In a llnea fashlon orblfurcategt Do gt D l hneages always spht Into twogt Is there any part of 1115 theory that doesn t allow a polytomy 3 Throughout 1115 chapter Darwm suggests many now male elds Wlthln evo utlonary blology Although 15013111011 15 of great lmportance In the productlon of new Specles on the whole I am mCllned to belleve that largeness ofarea IS Stlll more lmportant Coevolutlon I can understand how a a u come he modl ed and adapted to each other m the mostperfect manner Dlverglng versus Stablllzmg Selectlon Natural selection might be effectlve m gmng theproper eo1or to each kmd ofgrouse and m keepmg that color when once acqulred true and constant These Inference certzmly seem lmpresslve But how Impressive are theygt How much of thls was tru1y novel and how much came before Ongm but t well mto 1115 theoretlcal frameworkgt APPENDIX J Guidelines No1 GUIDELINES V Guidelines on Cf la Biological Nomenclature Brazil edition Modi ed from Chapman et a 2002 Prepared by Arthur D Chapman 17 June 2003 1 Introduction Biological nomenclature is a tool that enables people to communicate about plants and animal without confusion For example a Magpie in Europe is different from a Magpie in Australia but Gymnorhina tibicen refers to just one of them and is unambiguous On the other hand there is no difference between a Magpielark a Murray Magpie or a Peewee 7 they all refer to the same bird The terms taxonomy and nomenclature are often confused but have quite distinct meanings Taxonomy is the science of class39 in describin and characterisin different groups taxa of living organisms Nomenclature on the other hand is about giving names to those different entities or groups Most common names including English Portuguese indigenous colloquial and trivial names are not governed by rules For some groups such as birds and mamals guidelines and recommended English names are available see Christidis amp Boles 1994 for birds and Wilson and Coles 2000 for mammals Similar guidelines and recommended Portuguese common names exist for birds in Brazil Willis and Oniki 1991 Unfortunately similar guidelines do not appear to exist for Spanish names Where possible in the interests of consistency it is recommended that basic guidelines be followed for common names See Section 4 below for more details 2 Scienti c names Scienti c names of plants animals fungi etc follow internationally agreed rules which are published as their respective Codes of Nomenclature see list under Technical References below These rules are largely the same for the different groups of organisms but there are some differences Where these are signi cant they are mentioned below Each scientific name is tied to a type specimen see glossary for de nition and thus its application can always be traced Scienti c names are essentially binomials consisting of the name of a genus followed by the name of the species which for plants is called the speci c epithet This system of naming plants and animals has remained largely unchanged since Linnaeus developed it in the mid 18 11 Century The convention is that scienti c names are written in italics with an initial uppercase letter for the genus and all lower case letters for the species name The rank is not italicised Species names are essentially adjectival in nature and thus must agree with the gender of the generic name to which they are attached This is re ected in the endings of the names When a species is transferred from one genus to another the ending of the species name may also have to be altered to agree with the new genus name For example see the Arthur Chapman Jl 17 Jun 2003 APPENDIX J Melaleuca nervosa Callistemon nervosus example below A genus name may be used on its own Species names however cannot and must always follow a genus name or its initial A genus name should be spelt out in full the rst time it is used and then may be abbreviated to an initial letter and full stop when it is unambiguous to do so For example Eucalyptus min iata may be abbreviated to E miniata A third level or rank can be applied to further delineate taxa into subspecies varieties etc In animals only one level or rank is formally recognised 7 that of subspecies and is often written without indication of rank as a Trinomial Stipiturus malachurus parimeala Stipiturus malachurus subsp parimeala In plants there are several levels below species that may be used These infraspeci c ranks are subspecies variety subvuriety formu and subformu The last three are seldom used In spite of there being a hierarchy any taxon can be characterised by just using the trinomial genus species and infraspecies with indication of the rank Names must be unique within a species that is one cannot have a subspecies and variety in the same species with the same name but with different circumscriptions With plants the rank must always be cited 7 usually as an abbreviation and is not italicised Eucalyptus globulus subsp bicostata Eucalyptus globulus var compacta Occasionally the hierarchy is included but this is unnecessary to unambiguously de ne the taxon Leucochrysum albicans subsp albicans var tricolor Leucochrysum albicans var tricolor The authors of u species name may be included but more often than not their inclusion can lead to error as they are seldom thoroughly checked before inclusion They are only really necessary where the same name may have inadvertently have been given to two different taxa homonyms within the same genus The inclusion of the author s name following the species or infraspecies name can then distinguish the two names With animal names the author name is always followed by a year with plants the author name or abbreviation is given alone Animals Emyalura signata Ahl 1932 Macrotis lagotis Reid 1937 the bracket indicates that Reid ascribed the species to a different genus Plants Melaleuca nervosa Lindley Cheel synonym Callistemon nervosus Lindley Lindley originally described it as a Call istemon Cheel later transferred it to the genus Melaleuca With plants occasionally the terms ex or in may be found in author names The author in front of the ex the pre ex39 author is one who supplied the name but did not ful l the requirements for valid publication or who published the name before the nomenclatural starting date for the group concerned A post39in author is one in whose work a description or diagnosis supplied by another author is published For a further explanation of pre ex39 and Arthur Chapman J2 17 Jun 2003 APPENDIX J post39in authors and their use see Arts 462 and 463 of the International Code of botanical Nomenclature 2000 If author names are used within databases but see above where I recommend this not be done it is recommended that neither the pre ex nor the post in authors be cited Green 1985 ascribed the new combination T ersonia cyathi ora to quotFenzl AS Georgequot since Green nowhere mentioned that George had contributed in any way the combining author must be cited as ASGeorge ex JWGreen or preferably as just JWGreen T ersonia cyathz ora Fenzl JWGreen In WTAiton s 2 01 edition of Harms Kewensis 1813 many of the descriptions are signed Robert Brown and thus it can be assumed that Brown described the species The author of the names is often cited as RBr in Ait It is recommended however that the author be cited as just RBr Acacia acuicularis RBr With plants 7 for the type subspecies or variety etc where the infraspeci c name is the same as the species name autonym the author of the species name is used and follows the speci c epithet Leucochrysum albicans ACunn Paul GWilson subsp albicans For plants abbreviation of authors names follows an international standard Brummitt amp Powell 1992 ACunn Allan Cunningham L Linnaeus Lf Linnaeus filius son of Sometimes a space is given between Initial and Surname others not It is a matter of preference I recommend that the space be omitted in abbreviations 3 Unpublished names Unpublished names can take many forms In the interests of conservation management threatened species often have to be listed long before they have a formal name Sometimes these are listed as manuscript names e g Genoplesium vernalis DLJones ms if they are about to be published Alas in some cases these manuscripts names remain unpublished for years or even decades In the 1980s in Australia botanists agreed on a formula Croft 1989 Conn 2000 for use with unpublished names to avoid the confusion that was arising through the use of such things as Verticordia sp 1 Verticordia sp2 etc There was no guarantee that what was called sp 1 in one institution was identical to sp 1 in a second The agreed formula is in the form of Genus sp ltcolloquial name or descriptiongt ltVouchergt Prostanthera sp Somersbey BJConn 4024 Elseya sp nov AMS 7 R140984 Some zoologists use a similar convention but it is not done so universally Arthur Chapman J3 17 Jun 2003 APPENDIX J Where animal populations need to be identi ed they are often done by inclusion of a form or population identi er in brackets following the species name Rhinonicteris aurantius Pilbara form 4 Common names There are no hard and fast rules for common names In some groups for example birds see Christidis amp Boles 1994 Wilson and Coles 2000 agreed conventions and recommended English or Portuguese names have been developed In most groups and especially plants one taxon may have a number of common names with these often being region speci c A good example is the species Echium plantagineum which is known variously as Paterson s Curse in one State of Australia and Salvation Jane in another Many braZilian examples can be seen at httpwww rer nr nro 39 39 quot Vlantas quot html Where a taxon has more than one common name or the one common name may refer to more than one species it is usual to re ect this in the database Often what are called common names are in reality colloquial names especially in botany and may have just been coined from a translation from the scientific name The legal standing of common names is problematic as only the scientific name can unambiguously be de ned through its requirement to be tied to a voucher type specimen I don t recommend the use of Common names in legal instruments other than for clarification purposes In the Australian Environment Department guidelines for use of English common names have been developed to support consistency throughout its database A similar approach could be adopted elsewhere if thought appropriate These include beginning each word in the name with an initial capital Common names in Spanish can be made to follow a similar pattern Sunset Frog With generalised or grouped names a hyphen is recommended The word following the hyphen is generally not capitalised except for birds where the word following the hyphen is capitalised if it is a member of a larger group Yellow Spiderorchid Doubleeyed FigParrot Parrot has an initial capital as it is a member of the Parrot group In Portuguese however common names are given all in lower case generally with hyphens between all words if a noun or separated if a noun and adjective mamadecadela frutadecera cedro vermelho One explanation on the use of common names in Portuguese may be found at http www afarmaciahp g ig combrindexhtml For use in publications common names should be cited as above and not italicised Arthur Chapman J4 17 Jun 2003 APPENDIX J 5 Synonyms Synonyms are names that have previously been applied to a taxon but are now generally superseded They may be names originally ascribed to a different genus and have the same speci c epithet or name these are based on the same voucher or type specimen and are known as nomenclutnrnl synonym Melaleuca nervosa synonym Callistemon nervosus Alternatively they may have once been described as a separate taxon but later studies have determined them to be the same taxon these generally have different type specimens and are known as taxonomic synonym Dromaius ater synonym Dromaius minor It is the practise in some databases to link synonyms through an oldnamenewname convention with the old name or synonym called a junior synonym in zoology being marked as noncurrent and the new name the senior synonym in zoology being marked as the Current Name There may sometimes be a difference of opinion as to what should be regarded as the Current name In these cases one can only rely on an accepted recent revision or advice received through scientific peer review Previously listed unpublished names and manuscript names see Section 3 above can be included in the database in the same manner as other synonyms 6 Abbreviations and Contractions There are a number of important abbreviations and contractions used in nomenclature cf confer compare with cv cultivar f formforma fam family gen nov genus novus 7 a newly described genus ined ineditus unpublished ms manuscript unpublished manuscript name generally follows an author name pp pro parte in part sect sectionsectio s lat sensu am in the broad sense s str sensu stricto in the narrow or strict sense sp species sp aff species with affinity to or close to NB aff sp should not be used sp nov species novus 7 a newly described species NB nov sp should not be used spp species plural ssp not preferred see subsp subg subgenus subsp subspecies subspp subspecies plural syn synonym var variety Arthur Chapman J5 17 Jun 2003 APPENDIX J Abbreviations of italicised words may be italicised however they are often better not italicised in order to provide a contrast with the italicised genus and species names eg Eucalyptus smithii s lat Note that in cases where a generic name has been spelt out in full in a paper and it is unambiguous to do so it is acceptable to abbreviate the genus to its initial capital letter This form of abbreviation should however be used sparingly and only where unambiguous and m in a database or spreadsheet eg M uncinata for Melaleuca uncinata 7 Pronunciation of Species Name This is a large topic too difficult to fully cover here In general scientific names are derived from Latin or Greek and strictly speaking their pronunciation should follow strict Latin or Greek pronunciation rules General usage has however often anglicised or corrupted true grammatical pronunciation and more and more names are being derived from languages other than Greek or Latin As stated by Steam 1983 How they are pronounced really matters little provided they sound pleasant and are understood by all concerned For further guidance we suggest consulting Strahan 1981 Steam 1983 and Sharr 1978 8 Looking for species names There are a number of places where species or common names may be found Be careful using these names uncritically as they may contain errors The following references may be of value in finding or checking such names Where possible online resources have been sited This list is by no means meant to be an exhaustive and is oriented toward World or South American resources I also nd that the Google search engine 1wwwgooglecom is a valuable tool when looking for unusual names General Species 2000 2002 Catalogue of Life Indexing the world s known species Year 2002 Annual Checklist httpwwwsp2000orgAnnualChecklisthtml Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Global Invasive Species Database httpwwwissgorgdatabasewelcome Accessed 27 Jan 2004 The Tree of Life httptolweborgtreephylogenyhtml Accessed 27 Jan 2004 IABIN Links to various databases for the Americas httpwwwiabinnetlinkshtm Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Animals Nature World Wide World Institute for Conservation and Environment WICE httpwwwbirdlistorgindeXhtm Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Biosis Index to Organisms httpwwwbiosisorgukionionhtml Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Mammals Mammal Species of the World Smithsonian Natural History Museum Division of Mammals httpwwwnmnhsiedumsw Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Animal Info 7 Brazil httpwww 39 quot f nro countrvbraZilhtm Accessed 24 Jan 2004 Eisenberg JF 1989 Mammals of the Neotropics The Northern Neotropics Panama 0 ombia Venezuala Guyana Suriname French Guiana Volume 1 Chicago University of Chicago Press Arthur Chapman J6 17 Jun 2003 APPENDIX J Redford KH and Eisenberg JF 1992 Mammals of the Neotropies The Southern Cone Chile Argentina Uruguay Paraguay Volume 2 Chicago University of Chicago Press Eisenberg IF and Redford KH 1999 Mammals of the Neotropies The Central Neotropies Ecuadore Peru Bolivia Brazil Volume 3 Chicago University of Chicago Press Warp Zone Mammals httpwwwfunet pubscibiolife Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Birds Clements J 2000Checklist of the Birds of the World Ibis Publishing httpwwwZoonomennetavtaxframehtml Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Zoonomen Zoological Nomenclature Resource httpwwwzoonomennet Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Ridgely RS and Tudor G 1989 The Birds of South America Volume 1 the Oscine Passerines Univerity of Texas Press and Oxford University Press Ridgely RS and Tudor G 1994 The Birds of South America Volume 2 the Suboscine Passerines Univerity of Texas Press and Oxford University Press Ridgely RS and Gwyne J 1992 A Field Guide to the Birds of Panama 2 edn Princeton Princeton University Reptiles The EMBL Reptile Database httpwwwreptiliaweborg Accessed 27 Jan 2004 King WF and Burke RL 1989 Crocodilian Tuatara and turtle species of the World An online taxonomic and geographic reference httpwww flmnh nfl 39 t quot t 39 t Herpscope Herp Field Guide for South America httpwww hemsr nne mun quot 39 39 39 39 quot america html Accessed 27 Jan 2004 VaHerper s International Directory Reptile and Amphibian Resources httpwwwVaherpercompagesworldhtm Accessed 27 Jan 2004 McDianmid RW Campbell JA and Toure TA 1999 Snake Species of the World A taxonomic and geographic reference Published by the herpetologists league quot Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Amphibians The American Museum of Natural History Department of Herpetology Amphibian Species ofthe World h n39 re earr h amnh 39 39 V39 ibia Accessed 27 Jan 2004 A 39 quot 39 39 httn39 elih m herkelev 39 39 39 html Accessed 27 Jan 2004 VaHerper s International Directory Reptile and Amphibian Resources httpwwwVaherpercompagesworldhtm Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Fish ICLARM s FishBase httpwww shbaseorghomehtm Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Mongabay a country index to Fishbase httpwwwmongabaycom shbiotope countrieshtm Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Crustacen World List of Marine Freshwater and Terrestrial Isopod Crustaceans httn39 rathbnn si ml 12 39 39 39 quot isulist search cfm Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Checklist of the Amphipods of the Southem Ocean httpwww 39 39 39 39 39 quot39 htm Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Cephnlopods CephBase A databasedriven web site on all liVing cephalopods octopus squid cuttle sh and nautilus httpwwwcephbaseutmbedu Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Gnstropods Arthur Chapman J7 17 Jun 2003 APPENDIX J Hardy s Internet Guide to Marine Gastropods httpwwwgastropodscom Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Arnchnids NIPlatnick The World Spider Catalog httn39 re earrh amnh 39 Jan 2004 39 39 talo 8187INTR03 html Accessed 27 Insects Iowa State Entomology Index Databases httpwwwentiastateedulistDatabaseshtml Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Warp Zone iInsects httpwwwfunet pubscibiolifeinsectaindexhtml Accessed 27 Jan 20 Thomas MC 2000 Preliminary Checklist of the Flat Bark Beetles of the World Checklist of the Collembola of the World httpwww quot 39 39 taxa quot 39 htm Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Hymenoptera Name Server httpatbibiosciohio stateedu8880hymenopteranomenclatorhome page Acceessed 27 Jan 2004 Beccaloni GW Scoble MJ Robinson GS amp Pitkin B Eds 2003 The Global Lepidoptera Names Index LepIndex httpwww nhm ac 39 39 39 39 39 Accessed 27 Jan 2004 List of Odonata of the World httpwwwups 39 quot 39 39 wul 39 39 html Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Michener CD 2000 The bees of the World Baltimore MD John Hopkins University Press Orthoptera Species File Online httpl40247 ll9l45Orthoptera Accessed 27 Jan 2004 A Preliminary checklist of Flat Bark Beetles of the World httpwwwfsca dpiorgColeopteraMikechklisthtm Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Amphipods The Subterranean Amphipod Database httpweb ndn 39 s 39 39 39 39 39 39 blisthtm Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Higher Plants International Plant Names Index httpwww inni 39 y ipnishtml Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Mabberley DJ 1997 The PlantBook A portable dictionary of the higher plants 2quot 1 edn Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press Families and Genera only Catalogue of the Flowering Plants of Peru httpmobotmobotorgW3TSearchperuhtml Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador httpwww mnbnt nro MOBOT 39 39 39 shtml Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Pereira BA da S and Silva MA da 2002 Lista de Nomes Populares de Plantas Nativas da Regiao Geoeconomica de Brasilia DF httpwww recor org 39 39 quot Vlantas nativashtml Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Masses A Checklist of the Mosses of Chile httpwwwmobotorgMOBOTmossChilelistshtml Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Mosses of the Andes httn39 mnbnt mnbnt nro W3T 39 39 39 39 html Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Biosis Index to Organisms httpwwwbiosisorgukionionhtml Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Arthur Chapman J8 17 Jun 2003 APPENDIX J Lichens Checklist of lichens and lichenicolous fungi of South America httpwwwbiologieuni hambnro 39 39 39 quot quot ica lhtm Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Algae Wynne MJ 1998 A checklist of benthic marine algae of the tropical and subtropical western Atlantic Nova Hedwigia Beihefte Beiheft ll6 Hoffmann A and B Santelices 1997 Flora Marina ale Chile Central Santiago Ediciones Universidad Catolica de Chile 434 pp Biosis Index to Organisms httpwwwbiosisorgukionionhtml Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Fungi Systematic Botany and Mycology Databases Fungal Databases httpntars grin o 1 quot 39 quot quotmucf 39 quot amecfm Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Biosis Index to Organisms httpwwwbiosisorgukionionhtml Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Microorganisms World Data Centre for Microorganisms httpwdcmnigacjp Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Arthur Chapman J9 17 Jun 2003 APPENDIX J 9 Glossary circumscription the characters and other information used to describe and de ne a given taxon and which separates that taxon from all other taxa class a major taxonomic rank between order and division division the major taxonomic rank within the Plant Kingdom Alternative name for phylum The major taxonomic rank below kingdom epithet the second or species portion of a binomial name consisting of generic name and a species epithet or the infraspecific portion of a trinomial consisting of a generic name a species epithet and an infraspeci c epithet etc genus a group of related species usually clearly separable from other such groups or a single species without close relatives the major taxonomic rank between species and family Plural genera family a group of one to many related genera usually clearly separable from other such groups the major taxonomic rank between genus and order With plants usually takes the ending faceae with animals iialae kingdom the highest rank in the taxonomic hierarchy nomenclature the science of giving a name to a taxonomic entity order a taxonomic grouping of families believed to be closely related sometimes a single family with no apparent close relatives the major taxonomic rank between family and class phylum the major taxonomic rank within the Animal Kingdom Alternative name for division the major taxonomic rank below kingdom rank the position or level in the taxonomic hierarchy species a taxon comprising one or more populations of individuals capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring Plural species subspecies the main rank below species in plants and the only formal rank below species in animals taxon a group or category at any level in a system for classifying plants or animals e g an entity at a species level a genus level a family level etc all may be called a taxon Plural taxa taxonomy The science of classifying describing and characterising different taxa of plants animals and other organisms type a designated representative voucher for a plant or animal name Various classes of types exist including holotype isotype syntype lectotype neotype etc see Australian Museum 39 P quot39 at httpwww amnnline net an 39 39 Wpe P 39 1998 and definitions in the various International Codes of Nomencalture variety a taxonomic rank below the rank of subspecies used for plants 10 Technical References Francki RIB Fauquet CM Knudson DL Brown F 1990 Classi cation and Nomenclature of Viruses Archives of Virology Supplement 2 1445 see httpwww binsis 39 39 sicvcnhtm accessed 27 Jan 2004 International Code of Botanical Nomenclature 2000 International Code of Botanical Nomenclature St Louis Code Regnum Vegetabile 138 Konigstein Koeltz Scientific Books Electronic version httpwwwbgbmfu berlin 39 39 39 39 39 ouis 00011CSLContentshtm accessed 27 Jan 2004 International Code of Zoological Nomenclature 2000 International code of zoological nomenclature adopted by the International Union of Biological Resources International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 439h edn London International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature see httpwwwicznorgcodehtm accessed 27 Jan 2004 Arthur Chapman J 10 17 Jun 2003 APPENDIX J Sneath PHA ed 1992 International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria 1980 Revision Washington International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology ICSB see httpwww binsis 39 39 39 39 htm accessed 27 Jan 2004 Trehane P Brickell CD Baum BR Hetterscheid WLA Leslie AC McNeill J Spongberg SA amp Vrugtman F 1995 International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants Winboume UK Quarterjack Publishing see httpwwwishsorgsciicracpcohtm accessed 27 Jan 2004 11 Further Reading Australian Biological Resources Study 1981 Flora ofAustralia Volumes 1 especially Volume 1 Brummitt RK amp Powell CE eds 1992 Authors of plant names 39 a list of authors of scientific names of plants with recommended standard forms of their names including abbreviations Kew England Royal Botanic Gardens Bureau of Flora and Fauna 1985 Zoological Catalogue ofAustralia Notes for Compilers Canberra Bureau of Flora and Fauna Australian Biological Resources Study 1993 Flora of Australia Guide for Contributors Canberra ABRS Chapman AD 1991 Australian Plant Name Index pp 13053 Australian Flora and Fauna Series Nos 1215 Canberra AGPS Chapman AD et al 2002 Guidelines on Biological Nomenclature Canberra Environment Australia httpwww deb or an r39 39 quot 39 39 dnr Accessed 27 Jan 2004 Christidis L amp Boles WE 1994 Taxonomy and Species of Birds ofAustralia and its Territories Royal Australasian Omithologists Union Melbourne 112 pp Conn BJ ed 1996 HISPIDS Herbarium Information Standards and Protocols for Interchange of Data Version 3 Sydney Royal Botanic Gardens Conn BJ ed 2000 HISPID4 Herbarium Information Standards and Protocols for Interchange of Data Version 4 7 Internet only version Sydney Royal Botanic Gardens httpplantnetrbgsydnswgovauHispid4 Accessed 26 Jan 2004 Croft JR 1989 HISPID Herbarium Information Standards and Protocols for Interchange of Data Canberra Australian National Botanic Gardens Eschmeyer WN 1998 Catalog of F ishes Special Publication No 1 of the Centre of Biological Research and Information California Academy of Sciences Vols 13 pp 2905 Mabberley D 1997 The PlantBook A portable dictionary of the higher plants 2quot 1 edn Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press Ride WDL amp Younes T 1986 Biological Nomenclature Today A review of the present state and current issues of biological nomenclature of animals plants bacteria and viruses I UBS Monograph No 2 Sharr FA 1978 Western Australian plant names and their meanings 7A Glossary Perth University of Western Australia Press Steam WT 1983 Botanical Latin History Grammar Syntax and Vocabulary 3rd edn London David amp Charles Willis E0 and Oniki Y 1991 Nomes gerais para as aves Brasileiras Brazil Gra ca de egiao Americo Brasiliense Wilson DE and Cole FR 2000 Common names of mammals of the world Washington DC Smithsonian Institution Arthur Chapman Jll 17 Jun 2003