Plant Anatomy BOTANY 300
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Etha Kassulke on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BOTANY 300 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Marisa Otegui in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see /class/205322/botany-300-university-of-wisconsin-madison in Botany at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Plant Anatomy Final Review 12182012 53800 PM Roots o Exarch tissues protoxylem grows toward the outside of tissue 0 o Closedtype has a vascular cylinder cortex and root cap 0 Opentype has all regions or at least the cortex and cap are given rise from the mass of meristematic cells o Quiescent center 0 It divides much more slowly 0 Provides new initials for meristems o Inhibits differentiation of meristematic cells o Root cap 0 Protects RAM 0 Secretes mucilage lubricates root path 0 Senses gravity 0 Organization Peripheral cells mucilage secretion Columella cells gravity sensation n Amyloplasts act as statoliths o Lateral roots 0 Form from the pericycle Pericycle is one layer of cells One group of founder cells divide hormonally signaled n Periclinal parallel to organ development division o Monocot roots 0 Do not develop roots from the embryonic root 0 Can come from aerial parts or leaves etc These are called adventitious roots Arise from parenchyma or phloem Grow the same way lateral roots do Physical connection between xylem cells in root and in root lateral growth o Secondary vascular tissues 0 Vascular cambium development at outer points of xylem organ comes from pericyclic growth Periderm grows as endodermis is sloughedoff Pericycle also gives rise to cork cambium O O o Unusual growth 0 Sugar beet secondary growth Unusual coordination Several concentric layers of xylem phloem and parenchyma New vascular cambium forms in parenchyma This continues growth of parenchyma for sugar storage o Terms 0 Velamen multiseriate epidermis in aerial roots water loss prevention Root cylinder from outside in epidermis cortex pericycle endodermis Casparian strips band of cell wall material deposited on radial and transverse walls of endodermis suberins Root tip outside in top to bottom protoderm ground meristem procambium apical meristem root cap Closedtype RAM all RAM tissues have their own initials Opentype RAM shared by at least two tissues Root haustoria parasitic plant organ which produces xylem bridge Interfascicular region between vascular bundles narrow for secondary growth Bicollateral phloem grows on inner and outer sides of xylem Amphivasal primary xylem encloses primary phloem Amphicribal primary phloem encloses primary xylem Aerenchymatous pith spongy parenchyma with large intercellular air pockets similar to stellate sclerenchyma O O O O O O O O O O Shoots o Endarch tissue protoxylem grows toward inside of tissue SAM 0 Leaf primordial protect the terminal bud s SAM 0 Top of SAM is two layers of tunica cells which divide laterally o Beneath lies the corpus cells which divide in several planes o Interfascicular regions 0 Three types Narrow common in dicots and gymnosperms Wide common in dicots and gymnosperms Diffuse common in monocots o Stems o Vines and their stems Rays are extremely wide No continuous ring of secondary growth a Allows flexibility o Monocot stems Usually do not undergo secondary growth Initials are at SAM but there are a lot of primary meristems throughout the newest tissue at the top Secondary growth in monocot involves an unusual type of vascular cambium 0 Weird stemsadaptations Tubers n Underground stem enlarged for storage of starches n Has nodes unlike tuberous roots Rhizomes n Horizontal stems growing just beneath surface of soil n Often have buds which form new shoots vegetative dominance Stolon n Aboveground stem with buds that form new shoots vegetative propagation Phylloclade n Stems which resemble leaves o Leaves 0 Everything above axillary bud and petiole is part of single leaf 0 Tissues Mesophyll n Palisade upper part beneath epidermis n Spongy lower part beneath palisade Transfusion tissue n n n Gymnosperms only Lies between palisade and spongy mesophylls Arises from procambium Isolateral leaves palisade mesophyll on both sides as the leaves are vertical and both sides receive sun 0 Respiration Photo respiration n n 1 molecule of 3phosphoglycerate and 1 molecule of phosphoglycolate Reduces the efficiency of photosynthesis by half C4 Metabolism n In conditions favoring photorespiration C4 respiration is likely to have resulted ie High OzCOZ ratios high light high temps Phosphoenolpyruvate is carboxylated and loses a phosphate becomes oxaloacetate which moves to the bundle sheath to lose C02 and remaining pyruvate goes back to mesophyll C4 plant anatomy is indicated by mesophyll organization around bundle sheaths 0 Modifications Tendrils contain cells capable of sensing contact with other objects Carnivorous Plants Floral Whorls highly modified fertile leaves a n n n n 1 Flowers Gynoecium G carpels Androecium A stamens Corolla C petals perianth Calyx K sepals perianth Receptacle Pedicel 0 Highly modified shoots all floral parts derived from leaves 0 Sexual reproduction 0 Architecture Attraction of pollinators O O 0 Strategies to prevent selfpollination Strategies to favor crosspollination Phylogenetic background Variation Whorls verticils or spirals Fixed number or variable number Fusion n Same whorl connation apo or syn n Adjacent whorl adnation Complete KCAG or incomplete Perfect bisexual A and G or imperfect unisexual A or G Symmetry Radial 2 or more planes of symmetry Bilateral 1 plane of symmetry Asymmetrical no planes of symmetry Perianth Corolla and Calyx Functions n Protection n Attraction of pollinators Morphology n Sympetalous corolla all petals fused Androecium Stamen anther and filament n Anther o Anatomy connective tissue vascular bundle pollen sacs o Dehiscence 0 Longitudinal from tip to filament o Poricidal one large pore o Valvate lid opens a Filament o Structural support o Directional growth for pollinator contact Gynoecium Carpels stigma style ovary locule n Variation o Apocarpous multiple individual carpels o Syncarpous unified carpels affects placentation n Placentation o Parietal ovules attached to placenta at ovary wall around perimeter o Mariginal placenta attached to one point due to infolding of fertile leaves o Central placenta attached to central cylinder due to infolding and loss of septa o Axile placenta attached to central point of septa coalescence o Apical placentation at the apex of ovule o Basal placentation at the base of ovule 0 Spore formation Microspore mother cell diploid undergoes meiosis n Microspores 4 haploid undergo mitosis and differentiation o Pollen grains undergo mitosis 0 Male gametes Microsporogenesis n Pollen sacs outsidein epidermis endothecium middle layers tapetum mother cells n Successive cytokinesis o Microspore mother cell duplicates in meiosis I callose deposits cell wall forms across middle meiosis II occurs duplicating nuclei second cell wall forms perpendicular to first isobilateral tetrad results a Simultaneous cytokinesis o Microspore mother cell duplicates in meiosis I callose deposits no cell wall formation meiosis II occurs duplicating nucleitetrahedral cell wall formation occurs tetrahedral tetrad results a Microspore cell walls o Exine sporopollenin outer layer o Intine cellulose inner layer o Tryphine deposited by tapetum on the exine proteins lipids and pigments which are important for prevention of selfing etc Pollen grain development a Microspore divides asymmetrically n Vegetative cell is larger component a Generative cell is smaller component o Divides again symmetrically o Pollen tube develops a Pollen aperature opening for tube o Porate circular o Colpate longitudinal o Colporate both a Anther wall maturation o Leads to pollen release o Tapetum becomes binuclear Tapetum collapses with middle layers Endothecium has developed striped secondary walls Anthers dehisce endothecium opens laterally o Tapetum nourishes microspores Megaspore mother cell diploid undergoes meiosis n Megaspores 4 haploid undergo mitosis and differentiation o Embryo sac undergoes mitosis o Polygonum Central cell binucleate fuse to form diploid nucleus Egg cell haploid Antipodals on chalazal end Synergids near egg cell on micropylar end hormonally attract pollen tube Megasporogenesis n Meiosis I may end in a binuclear cell as there is no cytokinesis a After meiosis II a tetraspore is formed also due to no cytokinesis o Pollination O 0 Bee pollination Bilateral symmetry Landing surface Vivid colors yellow blue Fresh odors Rewards pollen nectar Bird pollination No landing surface Vivid colors reds Reward nectar w high concentration of sucrose in deep corolla tubes or spurs No nectar guides No odors Butterfly pollination Vivid colors Reward nectar in narrow deep corolla tubes or spurs Nectar guides Weak odors Bat pollination Cream or white colors Rewards pollen very viscous highly sugary nectar Very strong odors Flowers open at night Strong flowers or inflorescences Deceptive flowers sexually deceptive No rewards Flowers mimic female bees Scents mimic female pheromones Pollen in pollinia contacted during attempted copulation o Deceptive flowers carrion Pollinated by flies Unpleasant scent resembles decaying flesh o Fruits o Berries True berries n Fleshy endocarp and mesocarp n Skinlike exocarp pericarp n One or many seeds Hesperidium n Axile placentation n Glandular endocarp fruit of orange lemon etc a Derived from superior ovary n Mesocarp is pith n Exocarp pericarp is skin has oil glands Pepo n Axile placentation n Derived from inferior ovary o Drupes Generally oneseeded Woody endocarp Fleshy mesocarp Skinlike pericarp o Pome Derived from inferior ovary Fleshy extracarpellary tissue 0 Follicle Derived from one carpel Dehiscent through placenta o Legume Derived from one carpel Dehiscence through placentamiddle vascular bundle o Silique Derived from two carpels Dehiscent through placenta o Fertilization o Stigma activity Pollen reception Initial recognition Pollen hydration a Water uptake from stigma rehydrates pollen n Pollen tube forms Sporophytic recognition of selfincompatibility Filiform apparatus secretes attractant for pollen tube 0 Pollen activity Pollen tube emerges through aperature Comes from the larger vegetative cell Pollen tube is tipgrowing like root hairs Follows transmitting tissue of style either solid or hollow provides a Nutrients n Guidance n Adhesion a Defense against pathogens Male gametes move with pollen tube toward egg cell Callose plug forms at base of pollen tube Pollen tube penetrates the stigma cuticle PT enters the transmitting tissue PT emerges near the ovule PT enters the micropyle n Anatropous position of micropyle allows micropyle to be close to emerging pollen tube a PT s are very good at sensing micropyle One male gamete fertilizes egg cell One male gamete fertilizes central cell 0 Embryogenesis Zygote forms embryo new plant body Endosperm mother cell forms endosperm nutrition Ovule integuments form seed coat protection Phases Proembryos embryo proper attached to suspensor Globular embryo cells divide suspensor enlarges and divides Heart Torpedo cotyledons emerge Late torpedo huge endosperm vacuole diminished by growing embryo n n n n Germination o Epigeous Radicle emerges and becomes root Hypocotyl grows and emerges as a loop from ground Cotyledons emerge and pop upward Leaves develop above cotyledons epicotyl between 0 Hypogeous Radicle emerges and becomes root Hypocotyl grows below ground Epicotyl emerges and forms leaves Cotyledons never emerge
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