Criminology 1 CRIJ 3313
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Beatrice Garcia on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CRIJ 3313 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Egbert Zavala in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Criminology 3313 in Criminal Justice at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Criminology Chapter 1 gtwhat is criminology gt the scientific approach to studying criminal behavior gtimportance areas of interest crime as a social phenomenon social factors are the root cause of crime gt the process of making laws the breaking of the laws the reading toward taking the laws VVVV gtcriminology amp criminal justice gt there are major differences between them gt criminology gt explains the origins of crime Explains the extent and nature of crime in society gt criminal justice gt the study of the agencies of social controllt gt policecourts corrections gtcriminology and deviance gt deviance behavior that departs from social norms values beliefs but is not alwayscriminal gta crime gt an act deemed as socially harmful or dangerous that is specifically defined prohibited amp punished under criminal law gt criminologists are concerned with the concept of deviance and its relationship to criminality lt gt shifting definitions of deviant behavior are closely associated with our concept of crime gtwhat criminologist do gt the criminological enterprise devoted to the study of crime and criminal behavior gt use scientific methods to study the nature extent cause amp control of criminal behavior gt the in uence of the media leads to an increase of fear of crime gttrained in diverse fields gt sociology gt biologypsychology internal forces gt law gtcriminal statistics and crime measurement gt devise accurate methods of collecting crime data gt measure the amount and trends of criminal activity gt determine who commits crime and where gt measure the effects of social policy and social trends on crime rate changes gt design crime prevention programs and measure their effectiveness gt goal is to create valid and reliable measurements of behavior 00E0E30E00E30E00E30E0E0E30E00E30E0E0E30E00EEEEEEOEOEOMOEOEOEEOEEEOEMOMJ sociology of law law and society sociologist studies gt the role social forces play in shaping criminal law lt gt the history of legal thought lt gt how social forces shape the definition and content of the law lt gt the impact of legal change on society lt gt the relationship between law and social control lt gt the effects of criminalization and legalization on behaviors gtdeveloping theories of crime causation gt a systematic set of interrelated statements or principles that explains some aspect of social life gt constructed theories are based on social fact and tested by constructing hypotheses and then assessing the hypotheses using empirical research gtUnderstanding and describing criminal behavior gt researching specific criminal and patterns violent crime theft crime public order crime and organized crime gt Marvin Wolfgangs 1958 pattern in criminal homicide gt found what is called quotvictim precipitated homicidequot gtpunishment penology and social control gt penology involves creating effective crime policies developing methods of social control and the correction and control known criminal offenders victimology gt victims and victimization lt gt measuring the nature and extent of criminal victimization lt gt calculating the costs of victimization lt gt meaning the factors that increase the likelihood of becoming a victim lt gt studying the victims role in precipitation crime lt gt designing services for victims of crimes A brief history of criminology classical criminology gtCaesar Baccaria 17341794 gt one of the first scholars to understand why people commit crime gt quotpeople have free willquot gtarchive pleasure and avoid pain gt quotlet the punishment fit the crimequot Positivist criminology Cesare Lombroso considered quotfather of criminologyquot gt offenders are born criminals gt Sociological criminology gt the role of socialization gt individuals interact with various people organization institutions amp social norms gtthe Chicago school structural perspective gt the role 0 neighborhood conditions and poverty levels gt people are a product of their environment ecological forces 000E30E0E0E30E00E300E30E0E0E30E0Kbbbbbbbb obb obbbbb obbb gt people are a product of their environment ecological forces gtconflict critical criminology gt karl Marx 18181883 gt fault the economic system for producing the conditions that lead to high crime rates gt Sociological criminology gt The role of socialization gt Individuals interact with various people organization institutions and social norms gtThe Chicago school structural perspective gt The role of neighborhood conditions and poverty levels gt People are a product of their environment ecological forces gtConflict critical criminology gt Karl Marx 18181883 gt Faults the economic How criminologists define crime gtConsensus view gt Crimes are behaviors believed to be repugnant to all elements of society and cause social harm gtConflict view gt The con ict view depicts society as a collection of diverse groups who are in constant and continuing con ict lnteractionist view gt Theinteractionist view holds that people institutions and events are viewed subjectively and labeled either good or evil according to the interpretation of the evaluator gt Ex Harry anslinger and the criminalization of marijuana gtDefining crime gt Because of all these views of crime we need a general integrated definition of which crime is gt A violation of societal rules of behavior as interpreted and expressed by a criminal legal code created by people holding social and political power gt A deviant act becomes a crime when it is defined prohibited and punished under criminal law Crime and the law gtA brief history of the law gt criminal behavior is tied to criminal law gt Code of Hammurabi gt First written Code developed around 2000 bcgt Based on retribution quotan eye for an eyequot gtMosaic code gt Was the foundation for judeo Christian moral teachings and the US legal system gtCommon law gt Early English law around 1 100s gtmen39s rea gt intent to commit the criminal act 000E30E0E0E30E00E30E0E0E30E0Ebb obbbbb obbbbb obbbmob gtMala In se gt Inherently evil and depraved consensus view of crime gtMala prohibitum gt Defined by statutory law statutory crimes gtThe law in contemporary society gt Substantive law gt Procedural criminal law gt Civil law gt Public or administrative law gtShaping the criminal law gt Today criminal behavior is defined primarily by statute gt the content of the law is also shaped by judicial discretion gt all laws must conform to the rules and dictates of the US constitution gtThe substantive criminal law 239 Social goals of the criminal law Enforcing social control Discouraging revenge expressing public opinion and morality gt deterring criminal behavior punishing wrongdoing maintaining Social order providing restoration VVVVVV gtThe evolution of criminal law gt Stalking laws prohibited assisted suicide gt registering sex offenders clarifying rape controlling technology protecting the environment gt legalizing marijuana responding to terrorism Ethical issues in criminology gt There are political and social consequences from results of criminological research gt Need to be aware of ethical issues gtdebates over gt What to study gt Whom to study gt How to conduct studies VVVVV What to study gt Criminologists select subject for study guided by their scholarly interests social needs or availability of data 9mmmmPmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmwmmwmwwmwmwmwmmmm Chapter 2 The nature and extent of crime gtwhy collect and analyze crime data gt measure the nature and extent of criminal behavior gt track changes in the crime rate gt measure the individual and social factors that may in uence criminality Primary sources of crime data gtofficial records gt the uniform crime report UCR fbi collects data on crimes reported to local police departments and number of arrests made by police agencies gtthe best known and most widely cited source of official criminal statistics Primary sources of crime data UCR part 1 offenses gtviolent crimes gt murder gt rape gt aggravated assault gt robbery gtproperty crimes gt larcenytheft gt burglary gt motor vehicle theft gt arson Primary sources of crime data gtcompiling the uniform crime report gt three methods to express crime data 1 the number of crimes reported and arrests made 2 crime rates per 100000 people 3 changes in rate of crime over time gtclearance rates gt crime cleared in two ways 1 when at least one person is arrested charged and turned over to courts for prosecuting 2 by exceptional means 3the offender dies gtare the uniform crime reports valid gt reporting practices gt crimes that are more serious are more likely to be reported gt violent crimes more likely to be solved more police resources gtlaw enforcement practices methodological issues gtnational incident based reporting system nibrs gt Program that collects data on each reported crime incident gt Ex Information on the victim and perpetrator gt survey research gt survey research involves samplingselecting a limited number of people for study as representative of a larger group gt surveys in which people are asked about sir attitudes beliefs values and characteristics as well as their experiences with crime and victimization Most focus of juvenile delinquency youth crime gtthe national crime victimization survey ncvs gt survey 40000 households to measure crime victimization gthow the ncvs is conducted gt ncvs collects information on crimes suffered by individuals and households regardless of whether the crimes were reported to police ncvs advantages and problems gt greatest advantage gt it can estimate the total amount of annual crimes not just those that are reported to the police gt It can also explain why crimes are not reported gt Addresses UCR39s shortcoming of nonreporting gt greatest disadvantage gt It has some methodological problems gt Interviewee has to be honest gt Victims may over report crime Secondary sources of crime data gtData mining gt Uses multiple advanced computing all methods to analyze large data sets from one or more data sources gtCrime mapping gt Graphic representations of the spatial geography of crime Raids online Crime trends gtchanges in crime trends over time gt 1830 post civil war gt significant increase for approximately fifteen years gt 1880 depression gt crime rates decreased until 1930 gt 1 930 1 960 gt Crime rates increased gradually homicide rate declined gt 19601970 gt sharp increase in homicide rate gt 1 99 1 today gt declines in all crime including juvenile crime gttrends in self reporting gt 201 1 monitoring the future survey crime problem is greater thanUCR and NCVS indicate 0180E303103131E30EOEJMOMDEUREEOMOEOMOEOMOEOWOEOMJBJ crime patterns gtEconomy and crime 1 Many research efforts fail to find a definitive relationships between unemployment and crime 2 Some crime experts believe a poor economy helps lower crime rates 3 The relationship between unemployment and crime rates is insignificant gtthe ecology of crime gt patterns in the crime rate seem to be linked to temporal and ecological factors season and climate gt crime rate increase with rising temperature July amp August gtuse of firearms gt play a dominant role in criminal activity Social class socioeconomic conditions and crime gtcrime is lower class phenomenon gtInstrumental crimes gt offenses designed to improve the financial or social position of the criminal ex Selling drugs gteXpressive crimes gt result out of anger and frustration against society a condition fueled by alcohol and drug abuse common in impoverished areas ex Rape amp assault Crime patterns gtage and crime gt aging out of crime gt people commit less crime as they age gtgender and crime gt differences in the crime rate gt emotional physical and psychological sociological differences to explain crime rate differences gtMasculinity hypothesis gt Lombroso 1985 quotmasculine femalesquot gtchivalry hypothesis gt Reluctant to take action against women gtRace and crime gt Minorities involved in a disproportionate share of criminal activity Minorities are arrested and prosecuted far more often than whites gtinstitutional racism gt racism threat theory gt racial profiling gt racial differences is due to cj bias rather than actual differences in criminal activity Crime patterns factors that in uence crime rates gtstructural racism gt economic and social disparity racial and ethnic differentials in crime rates may also be tied to gt economic and social disparity racial and ethnic differentials in crime rates may also be tied to economic and social gt family distortion gtimmigration and crime gt immigrants are far less likely than the average US native to commit crime Significantly lower rates of incarceration and institutionalization among foreign born adults Crime patterns gtchronic offenders criminal careers gt Wolfgang figlio and sellin 1972 study delinquency in a birth cohort gt quotchromic 6quot of total sample were responsible for 519 of all offenses gt arrest and court experience did little to deter the chronic offender gtchronic offenders criminal careers gt what causes chronicity gt Kids exposed to a variety of personal and social problems at an early age are the most at risk to repeat offending referred to as quotearly onsetquot gt chronic offender factors include problems in the home and school early history of arrest low intellectual development and parental drug involvement Chapter 3 victims amp victimization Problems of crime victims gtcriminologists who focus on victimization are named quotvictimologistsquot gtthe discovery that victims play an important role in the crime process prompted the scientific study of victims gteconomic loss gt taken together property and productivity losses run in the hundreds of billions of dollars gtsystem costs adding together the cost of the justice system legal costs and treatment costs the total monetary loss due to crime is about 450 million annually or about 1800 per US Citizen gtindividual costs victims may suffer losses in earnings and occupational attainment gtsuffering stress and PTSD gt victims may suffer stress and anxiety long after the incident lt gt ex Childhood trauma Post traumatic stress disorder PTSD gt a condition whose symptoms include depression anxiety ashbacks and recurring nightmares gtadolescent stress gt child abuse bullying etc gtblaming the victim gt reraped treatment of rape survivors Problems of crime victims gtfear gtfundamental life change gt view world more suspiciously gt some victims especially elderly develop a persistent and paralyzing fear that they will be revictimized 000E30E00E30E00E30EKMOMDEOMOWOEDEOMOEOMDWOEBJ gtvicarious fear gt those who observe or are exposed to violence on a routine basis become fearful gtantisocial behavior gt strong evidence that people who are crime victims seem more likely to commit crime themselves gt abused children increase the odds of being arrested gtcycle of violence abuse crime crime phenomenon gt both boys and girls are more likely to engage in violent behavior if they were the target of physical abuse and were exposed to violent behavior among the adults they knew or lived with or were exposed to weapons The nature of victimization gtthe social ecology of victimization gtpatterns of time and place victimization lt gt violent crime more likely to take place in a park street or field gtneighborhood characteristic gt rural vs city dwellers lt gt rural 50 lower for victimization gtcrime in schools gt populated by highrisk juvenile teenage males gtcarrying a weapon gt carrying a weapon emboldens a person and encourages them to become involved in risk taking behavior gtthe victim s household gt African American urban and western states homes are the most vulnerable tocrime gt most vulnerable to crime lt gt a rented urban home in the west gtVictim characteristics gt sex lt gt except for the crimes of rape and sexual assault males are more likely than females to be the victims of violent crime lt gt females are more often victimized by someone they know while males are more often victimized by strangers lt gt females are 10x more likely to be victims of rape and sexual assault lt gt economic inequality is significant related to female violent victimization gtVictims characteristics gt age lt gt younger people face a greater victimization risk than do older people 1224 yrs old gt victim risk diminishes after age 25 lt gt elderly victims are more susceptible to a narrow band of crimes such as frauds and scam gt live alone are lonely possess financial resources gtvictim characteristics gt social status lt gt the poorest Americans are the most likely victims of violent and property crime the wealthy are more likely to experience personal theft gt martial status lt gt never married people are victimized more than married people windows and widowers have the lowest victimization risk gtvictim characteristics gt race and ethnicity lt gt African Americans are more likely than whites to be victims of violent crime lt gt serious violent crime rates have declined in recent yrs for both blacks and whites
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