Week 4 Notes
Week 4 Notes Art 275, Cjs 307, Geo 207, Mat 113, Phi 101
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Alexandra Lord on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Art 275, Cjs 307, Geo 207, Mat 113, Phi 101 at Illinois State University taught by M. Duncan-Flowers, S. Kethineni, A. Bloom, J. Cier, D. O'Connell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see World Arts:Visual in Art at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Art 275 Visual Arts Week 4 Notes Great Seljuq Empire was part of the Turkish Dynasty which had new rulers of the eastern Islamic Lands by 1038 1035 in Baghdad had new protectors of Sunni Islam 9 This was the end to the Abbasid Dynasty The main branch was the Great Seljuq Turks 9 Sunnis The capital is in Isfahan They built mosques throughout Damasus The was built in Iran in the 10th century 9 Hypostyle Plan 9 1120Violent tension between Sunni and Shia o Burned the Mosque to the ground 0 Burning of the mosque made a new plan called the Four Iwan complex plan 9 Iran architects used new materials when building the mosque 0 Small baked bricks o Developed new aesthetic to conceal structures with ornaments I Made the buildings more intricate and colorful The new plan of the 9 Four Iwan Courtyard Mosque Complex ST 39 V J f 17 39P39 V o The Iwans are tied together i l with 2 Pishtaqs and 2 story porticoes 9 Dome became distinction of the prayer niche 9 South Iwan has a domed chamber 9 The other Iwans served as religious colleges 9 The dome is unadorned left plain 9 The domes start to get decoration later 9 The Safavid Dynasty was in the 17th Century 9 The pishtaq of the Great Mosque of Isfahan on the south Iwan o Qibla Iwan Direction of prayer 0 Has twin minarets O Muqarnas entrance 0 Makes smoot transitions from one form to another 0 Used as ornamental motif 0 Arabesque plant design 9 Portal pistaq Facades 0 Plain and glazed brick o Glazed tile 0 Calligraphy is the dominant motif in the early 11th century to the 13th century 9 Metalwork enters a new innovative phase 0 Influenced other arts 0 Used precious and base metals 0 Bronze and brass predominatealloys of copper and tin or zinc sometimes lead 0 New techniques developed especially important inlay of precious metals 9 Imaginative themes and forms 9 Gold and silver become scarce 9 Metal inlay Gold silver and copper 9 Encrusting surface with metalwork Inlaid Brass Candlestick with animals in combat 9 Made in Herat Afghanistan in the late 12th century 9 12 inch diameter at the base 9 Made with the Repousse technique o Hammering from the inside out 9 Relief decoration 9 Chasing techniques 0 Worked on from outside with grinding polishing and engraving 9 Surface is broken into geometric designs 9 Friezes on body 0 Kufic and Naskh scripts 9 Animals in the designs 9 Figures are set against arabesque grounds Fritware Mina l Bowl with rider and seated figures 9 Made in Iran in the 1213th century 9 White body 0 Made the tin glaze unnecessary 9 Very close to porcelain 9 Fritware is made of frit Kaolin clay and potash 9 Colors overglaze applied over the transparent glaze underglaze 9 Decoration features figural imagery 0 Favorite activities and animals of the rich 9 Exterior has inscription from Persian language but written in Arabic Naskh script 9 Inner rim is framed by a turquoise band 9 Outer rim has repetitive Kufic letters Mongols invaded Iran in Central Asia under the command of Genghis Khan 9 It was an extremely violent invasion of the Islamic Empire in the Persian world 9 In 1258 there was a ransacking of Baghdad 9 A new Mongol political order arose o Ilkhanid Empire Rule by the Ilkhans 9 The city of Tabriz by the Caspian Sea became their capital 9 The Mongol population was converted to Islam 9 The Ilkhans greatest contribution to art was their architecture and the illustrated book 9 2 succeeding dynasties o Timurids o Safavids Ardashir Captures Ardavan Great Mongol Shahnama Book of Kings 9 Author Firdawsi 9 Manuscript commissioned by Abu Said last Ilkhanid ruler 9 Made in a royal workshop in Tabriz in the 1330 s Abu s workshop 0 Known today as Great Mongol Shahnama 9 Has miniature paintings 9 Production of illustrated books ranked supreme of all arts in Persia 9 Favorite of the princes 0 Small portable pleasurable pocket sized 9 Begins with the last ruler of Ilkhanid Dynasty 0 Abu Said 9 Samarran Style painting 9 The original was composed around 1010 by Firdawsi 9 Traces history of Persian Kings 0 Ends with the conquest of Iran 9 Produced in 2 volumes with over 400 pages of text 0 Illustrated with 200 large pictures I New painting designs 0 Large paintings compared to Samarran style o More color Descendent from Mongols 9 Set on world conquests 9 Makes his way and takes control of Baghdad 9 Invaded Northern India 9 Started in China 9 He died and the conquest was over Timurids are patrons of artarchitecture 9 Built on a colossal scale 9 Followed in the footsteps of the Ilkhanids 9 They added a lot of color Timurids 9 take things a step further 9 Still exists in Samatcam Northeastern IranCentral Asia Uzbekistan 9 Project RegistanquotRoyal Square 3 sides built 9 Architects were very confident with their designs 0 They loved symmetry I Very clean and uniform 0 Use color to transform the exterior and interior 0 0 Use geometric motifs Registan Royal Square in Samarqand Uzbekistan 9 Fouriwan courtyard plan 9 Madrasas Madrasa of Ulughbeg in the Registan Samarqand 9 Courtyard complex with minarets 4 origianlly only 2 remain 9 Very high entrance arch 9 Attached minarets to portals 9 Geometric motif starburst interlaced 9 Blues greens turquoise 9 Square Kufic inscriptions 9 Domes covered with tile glazed brick 9 Cable molding The Seduction of Yusuf in the illustrated copy of Bustan Orchardfruit garden 9 One of the earliest books 9 Story line 0 Zulaykha tried to seduce Yusuf in a palace she made 0 Yusuf finally agrees to the tour of the palace I He becomes alarmed by the seducing paintings of the two of them I All of the doors locked behind them as they passed through each room I Yusuf finally is able to make his escape 9 Made in Herat in the 15th century 0 Herat was the capital city 9 Bihzad overlooked the planning 0 One of the greatest Persian painters 0 Jewel like pastel colors in paintings 0 Big impact on later paintings 0 He did 5 paintings for the book 9 Sultan Husayn Bayqara ordered a copy of Bustan 9 Sadi wrote Bustan o Sufi saint and teacher 9 Al Jami 0 15th century contemporary Sufi poet and saint o Wrote the book Seven Thrones I Seven different stories 9 Persian paintings are mostly asymmetrical 0 Patterns in paintings 9 Sufi 0 Created miniature paintings that were very detailed o Took profane stories and compared it to human souls 0 Great painters 9 Timurid princes loved books 9 Each book has its own history 0 Many were torn apart and sold in leaves 0 Some remain whole Bahram Gur in the Green Pavilion in the Story of the Seven Beauties in a manuscript of Khamsa Quintet 9 Great figure in the Book of Kings 9 Bahram Gur learns about love 9 Made in Herat in the 12th century and Tabriz in the 15th century 9 This book has 5 tales 0 One story is about the Seven Beauties I Bahram Gur conquers seven territories Princess in each I The princesses teach him about the different aspects of love I This makes him the ideal king 9 Shaykhi painted the images in the book 0 He was trained and worked in Herat o The work shop got discombobulated and he followed the Turkomans 0 His paintings had a water color style I Created bleeding pastel paintings o This had a huge impact on Persian paintings 9 Turkoman was the capital in Turbrisque 0 They take this manuscript and deposit it into a royal library I The texts are then completed 9 These paintings are slightly larger than those of Bihzad o The colors are also bolder 9 This image shows the tartar princess in her court Safavid Dynasty 1501 1722 9 Native Persian dynasty that reunited Iran in early 16th century 9 Timurids replaced by Safavids 9 Safavids 0 were Shiite 0 Based lefitimacy on being divinely ordained as Shah 0 Presented themselves as kings I quotShadow of God on Con d rmon erl Qoyunlu 39du annolr39duxv m s Ea rth Wmmbrmctvm a XVlimcs Established Shiite theocracy quot quotquots 39s 39 quot Empm0ttoman Claimed descent from family gymnmmm r1 mm as W MER D39OMAN xvmemu Of 1 mimwmmahrmv enu 0 wow v 9 Final decision rests on clerics 9 Power of Shahs Shah Mosque Isfahan 9 Safavid architecture 0 No structural innovations o Monumental elegant open designs 0 Excelled in urban planning I Large integrated multifunctional complexes 9 Isfahan became the new capital 0 Safer 9 The mosque had soaring portals with twin minarets attached 0 Colorful tiles 9 First renovation o Courtyard complex 9 Ilkhanids stepped up the color of buildings 9 Timurids introduced high portals and minarets 9 Safavids made commercial politicalreligious functions Shah Abbas I 9 Commissioned NaqshI Jahan Design of the World 9 Built a new civic center 0 Open space for ceremonialsports 9 Structures in the middle of each side 9 Two story shops connecting all monuments like a large mall 9 Tent vendors set up in the center 3 I W a e 201OGeoEye 9 This design makes it easy to stop and go 2quot 1 to prayer at the mosque Pishtaq South Qibla Iwan MasjidIShah Imam Isfahan 9 Tall thin portal with open muqarnas 9 High pointed arches with turquoise and inscriptions in Tuluth script around the arch 9 Designs like hung carpets on either side of the door Dome over Qibla Iwan MasjidIShah Imam 9 Love to color domes with turquoise color 9 Add yellow and white arabesque patterns 9 Kufic inscriptions 9 Surface decorations have really been stepped up The Court of Gayumars in a manuscript of the Shahnama Book of Kings 9 Made for Shah Tahmasp in Tabriz in the 16th century 9 Sultan Muhammad was a painter 9 Shah Tahmaspl 0 Very first legendary ruler of Iran 0 Loved the arts 0 Had a royal workshop I Wanted to recruit the best talents 9 Book of Kings Over 700 pages 0 228 Illustrations 0 Worked on for over a decade 0 Not all paintings are in the same style 9 King Gayumars 0 Located on top of the mountain I Looking down at his son Siyamak o Siyamak dies by the hands of a black demon 0 Prince Hushang avenges his death 0 Scene creates a circular shape I It is selfcontained o Breaks out of the frame Fragment of the Shroud of St Josse Rare survivor Silk textile Woven in Iran or Central Asia in the 10th century Made for Turkish commander Written in Kufic o Weaved inscriptions into the fabric Brought back to France Repeat pattern design 0 Elephants with griffins underneath them 9 Symmetrical designs with a geometric quality Two Physicians Byzantine copy 9 Miniature painting in a copy of an ancient Greek Herbal Treatise 9 Made of silk 0 Cool for summer 971 l 11L 0 Warm for winter 12 9 Image of Two Greek doctors in Arabic clothing 9 Luster sheen 112 9 Expensive to produce 9 Weaving silk was difficult o Took many people to operate on the draw loom I v Al 39 x refight w 7 P o Produced in state factories typically for fulers 9 Located on the shoulders of the 2 doctors o I I quot I l I I 4 I 39 I i 39 39 r v quot x 39 39 39 V I I J I V 39 2 I 39 39 a V I I l t 39 V 39l I I I o y c I I V 39 l I I I Ig L 3 1quot r l 1 39 quot39p 39 Q7 d l u quoti W I 39k V 39 39V I 39 H quot I a u I I 3 n 39 39 4 I V l 393 I I I 39 I l r 39I A I 5 a c quot 39 39 3 v 39 l a 19th century weaving trade 9 Carpets 0 Some of the most stunning 0 Domestic activity householdcommunity based 0 Revolution of rugscarpets I Crusades in the Holy Land 0 Took European warriors and they fell in love with Islamic artwork o Brought the rugs home to the west Set up factories all over to produce rugs O I Loom size teams of weavers men and a master weaver I Artist creates a pattern I Factories guaranteed their products 0 Homemade dyes 0 Special Fabrics 0 Set looms for precision Weaving structure of Textiles and carpets quota k 39 V I V j I It I y l r 1 0 Threads can be weighted 9 Types of Woven Rugs 0 or tapestry woven I TU rkiSh knOtS Sym mEtrical a Kilim weaving pattern used in at weaving o Bulky 0 Makes stronger more durable 0 Can not make intricate designs W I Persian knots asymmetrical 0 Not bulky 0 Can have more knots b mrkish knots used typically in Anatolia Turkey to make pile or knotted carpets i39blll 4 quot 31 o 39 o More designs 9 The four traditional fibers o Wool 63 quot139quot I knot I Most easy to work with Q I Easy to dye I Easy to produce I Strong I Used as a base for rugs and carpets 0 Cotton 0 Linen 0 Silk Ardabil Carpet 9 Commissioned by Shah Tahmasp 0 Artist 0 Ordered Shanhama o Ordered two carpets of this design I For the House of Paradise in Ardabil Iran 9 Made in Tabriz in the 16th century during the Safavid Period 9 Carpet has a medallion design 0 Most popular 0 Has an infinity repeat pattern 9 One carpet now located in LA Museum and One in a French museum 9 The rug is a flat design 0 Layers of designs 0 Four plains 9 The outer parts of the medallion are mosque lamps rather than another medallion Ottoman Empire 9 Ottoman golden age 16th century o Defeated Safavid in 1514 and took possession of Tabriz and all its treasures and craftsmen o Defeated Mamluks in Syria and Egypt o Flowering of the arts under Suleyman the Magnificent and his son Selim l Selimiye Camii Mosque of Selim 9 Edirne Turkey 15681574 9 Centralized domed plan dome on a square 9 Koca Sinan aka Mimar Sinan and Sinan Pasha 0 Worked for Ottoman rulers o Engineers and architects hypnslylc mosque fouriwan mosque contrabpr musun Null 1unn39 urilmm MaquI 3mm Isfnlmn blInnwl mlr ll39lnt39 Plan of Selimiye Camii 9 Prayer hall with central dome 9 Courtyard with domedbay porches and central ablution fountain 9 Porticoes covered with domes 0 Pass into prayer hall l P EL Enormous dome i r 39 up g g w n H3 L quot1 than I 39 quotl 511 quotg to 39M J 39 in 1 h J in 1 5g 511 x arm 4139 quotquot 1 4 1 iii rdquot 4 All mosques in Constantinople 9 Capital of Roman Empire 0 Made capital by Sultan Mehmed 9 Stabalizing the buildings always a challenge 9 Added buttresses and minarets 9 Hagia Sophia Church of Holy Wisdom 9 Byzantine EmperorJustinian 9 Cascading semidomes 9 Cascading nichescorners o Helps support the dome Selimiye Camii 9 Central core 0 Created octagonal core to support the dome I Used arches 9 Semi dome over entrance Gold and black medallion top Colors very subdued Decoration enhanced the dome Ablaq voussoirs Muqarnas OOOOO Penden ves The Siege of Belgrade right half in the Sulaymannama Topkapi Palace Istanbul 1558 9 Ottoman Period 9 Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent 15201566 9 Most famous Ottoman Manuscript 9 Up until now everyone painted in Persian Style 9 Written in Cursive and illustrated with 69 images 0 4 double pages a 7 A W 9 Added new sections to the book 399 399 in 9 More realistic style of paIntIng V is 39 new 39 Illuminated Tughra of Sultan Suleyman Topkapi Palace Istanbul 155560 9 Ottoman period 9 Monogram of the Ottoman Sultans 9 Created in the early 14th century 9 Calligraphic Emblem 9 First to develop the calligram
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