Introduction to Comparative Politics
Introduction to Comparative Politics POLI SCI 106
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chesley Kuhn on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLI SCI 106 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Nils Ringe in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see /class/205360/poli-sci-106-university-of-wisconsin-madison in Political Science at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Federal Republic of Germany Review Sheet Form of Government parliamentary democracy Executive head ofstate federal president chosen by federal convention quotnonpartisanquot signs treaties and laws largely ceremonial maX of 2 fiveyear terms can dissolve parliament if after a vote ofno confidence a viable candidate for chancellor is not produced Head ofgovernment chancellor elected by the bundestag leader of majority partycoalition in the bundestag heads the cabinet of ministers Constructive vote of no con dence government resigns new elections are held only if the opposition can produce a successor supported by the majority ofparliament Federal Convention assembly of all Bundestag members and an equal number of delegates elected by state legislatures that elects the president Cabinet chosen by chancellor responsible for policy issues Legislature Bicameral Members ofbundestag elected by MMP system 5 0 chosen by plurality votes in SM districts 50 by list vote 5 threshold Bundestag lower house in uence policylaws more than write laws elect the chancellor serve 4year terms Bundesrat upper house 69 members from 16 states representative of state governments members of each state vote as a bloc must approve lawsamendments only when they re ect state interestsmatters judiciary independent institution Constitutional court with power ofjudicial review composed of 16 members 8 elected by Bundestag and Bundesrat Protects individual rights and democratic constitutional order Federalism Divided into 16 states Lander more centralized than United States more power at the federal level Party System quot2 12 party system 2 major parties 1 CDUCSU Christian Democratic Social Union centerright party Angela Merkel different from quotconservativesquot because they support vast welfare state bc of Christian quotdutyquot to help the poor evolved from parties that supported HitlerWWI 2 SDP Social Democrat Party centerleft proud tradition of opposing WWIHitler 150 years old FDP Free Democratic Party historically allies with one of the two major parties to form a governing coalition Grand coalition coalition from 2005 to 2009 between CDUCSU and SPD Green party and Left party Constitution Basic Law In uenced by German history ensures dispersal ofpower to prevent antidemocrats and radicals taking over Federal Republic of Germany Review Sheet Idea increase number ofactors involved in making decision Chancellor cannot dissolve parliament constructive vote ofno confidence constitutional court Important historical information Became consolidated state in 1871 Otto von Bismark 18711918 Kaiserreich Ceases to be monarchy after WWI Weimar Republic 1918193 3 first attempt at democracy lacks legitimacy never stable Hitler appointed Chancellor 1933 19451949 Occupation Federal Republic of Germany West Germany vs GDR German Democratic Republic one state party East Germany socialist unity party Reunification 1989 Current Government Chancellor Angela Merkel President Christian Wulff Governing coalition between CDUCSU and FDP grand coalition ended because the SDP did faired poorly in the 2009 federal election Challenges to German Reunification East was lagging behind the West West had to transfer money into the East economy Unification strained the budget Planned economy was weaker and poorly organized had little to do with demand for goods and more on the mandates of the government Technology was decades behind in the east Unemployment soared in the East Political economy intersectioncombination of the economy and politics Both in uence each other stability Soviet System Command and planned economy factors of production controlled by the state set prices very inefficient isolated from international markets shortage of consumer goods 3 types ofideal political economies 1 Command economy soviet style State controls factors ofproduction State plans what will be produced fiveyear plans ofUSSR State sets prices State controls almost all factors of the economy Problems lack of efficiency and incentives production doesn t re ect wantsneeds of consumers in exible 2 Laissezfaire market economy Private actors control their own factors of production Private actors and market decides what is produced Equilibrium of supply and demand determines the price of goods Minimal role of the state only to prevent lawbreaking and Violence Production winners and losers inequality severe economic cycles focus on profit and not need 3 Mixedmarket economy modern liberaldemocracies Private factors and the state State may make some decisions mostly private actors State may set prices for some things in order to help disadvantaged but not usually State tries to find balance between the two extremes Problems same as other two depending on the degree of state intervention but problems are less severe Mixedmarket is the norm in modern times Instruments of state intervention 1 extraction of resources taxes tariff quotas 2 Distribution ofmoney and other resources to promote efficiency and equality 3 regulation of businesses employees and consumers including rules subsidies environmental issues worker s rights etc Economic tools 1 Fiscal policy government in uences economy through tax rates and government spending 2 Monetary policy central bank actions in uence the money supply Shock Therapy rapid release of controls privatization liberal trade Proponent Jeffery Sachs USA Attractive it s simple everything will fall into place if the price is right Opposition change takes time no established framework to rely on Used in Russia to transition between USSR and Federation as well as in many other CEE countries
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