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by: Caroline Wilderman Sr.


Caroline Wilderman Sr.
GPA 3.97


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About this Document

Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Wilderman Sr. on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to THE 2000 at Florida State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/205376/the-2000-florida-state-university in Theatre at Florida State University.




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Date Created: 09/17/15
HUMAN HEALTH PATHOLOGIES AND DIRECT HEALTH IMPACTS EFFECTS Hum an Ecological Health Rex SOCIETAL RESPONSE eve 5 Outcomes TYPE A TYPE B L 0 urpurs TYPE c Indicator Testicular Cancer Incidence and Mortality Cancer is a disease of increasing national concern While the development of cancer is likely multicausal and interactive research linking some types of cancer with chemical exposures has elicited a broad and significant regulatory response from the Environmental Protection Agmcy EPA Testicular cancer is part of a group of such cancers which have been identi ed by the US EPA as having a potential association with chemical exposure Cancer refers to a group of diseases in which cells continually divide to produce new cells when they are not needed Groups of extra cells are called tumors which can be eitha benign not cancer or malignant cancer Cancer cells can spread to and damage other parts of the body through the bloodstream r the lymphatic system in a process called metastasis Nationa C A malignant tumor s in one ofthe testicles a pair ofmale sex glands that produce sperm and hormones is called testicular cancer Symptoms of testicular cancer include pain swelling or a lump in either testicle and mild aching in the lower abdomen or groin NCI 2002a used to detect and diagnose testicular canca include blood tests ultrasounds and biopsies Treatments include surgery radiation therapy and chemothaapy They are highly effective at curing testicular cancer which m xplain the recent decrease in 39 er are not amin or personal of testicular cancer undescended or abnumally developed testicles low physical activity or are between the ages of 15 and 40 have an increased risk of developing the disease NCI 2001a However it is likely that some disorda other a the undescended testicles themselves is responsible fo increasing the testicular canca risk and causing the testicles not to descend American Cancer Society 2001 A risk factor that may additionally contribute to the recent increase in testicular canca incidence is exposure to diethylstilbestrol DES a symthetic form of estrogen that was d to prevent complications during pregnancy from the 1940s other hormonally active agents may also ar cancer Scientists have hypothesized a relationship between humonally active agents and testicular prostate and breast cancers birth defects Chemical and Pesticides Results Measures neurological disorders and other negative health effects Krimsky 2001 The endocrine stem guides the development growth reproduction and beha 39 39 Environmmtal Protection Agency Horrnonally active agents are a group of manmade terfering with human 0 ways including mimicking rrnones blocking the effects of hormones and stimulating or inhibiting the mdocrine system US EPA 2001 S 9 a quot 5 E 1 m E r 0 Further studies are needed to determine a causal relationship between human exposure to certain chemicals and endocrine disruption resulting in an adverse e ect on human health EPA 1997 In an effort to better understand the effect of certain chemicals 1 the mdocrine system the EPA has developed a screening program known as 39 Disruptor Screming Program EDSP This pr gram is designed to identify and evaluate the hazard potential of endocrine disrupting chemicals through a twotiered approach 39 screening will identify substances which have the potential to teract with the endocrine em 39 3 9 2000 The program s priority is to target 15000 highvolume chemicals for screening and testing including pesticides commercial chemicals and environmental contaminants US EPA 1997 Testicular cancer is the most common type of cancer in males between the ages of 15 and 35 NCI 2002a While the reason for the increase in testicular cancer incidence over the past thirty years is not et known it is suspected that sum testicular cancer incidence and mortality in the US as r orted by the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results SEER Incidmce and US Mortality Statistics 0 From 1973 to 1999 testicular cancer incidmce rates per 100000 people increased from 33 to 55 0 Mortality rates decreased from 09 to 03 mammal1cm MENmum Testicular Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates 19731999 Number of Cases per 100000 Males From 1973 to 1999 testicular cancer incidence rates per 100000 people increased in the overall population as well as in each age group except for men 55 and older The largest increase occurred in men aged 1544 The highest incidence rates were for men aged 1544 Testicular Cancer Incidence Rates by Age Group 19731999 Number of Cases per 100000 Males 3 ANNVI From 1969 to 1999 the highest testicular cancer mortality rates per 100000 people were seen in men aged 3039 and 2029 Testicular Cancer Mortality Rates by Age Group 19691999 4n Years quge Number of Cases per 100000 Males Note The year refers to the year of diagnosis for cancer incidence and the year of death for cancer mortality Source National Cancer Institute NCI Surveillance EpidemiOIOgy and End Results SEER Incidence and US Mortality Statistics 2002 httpseercancergovcanques 30 January 2003 S l The presented data is at the national level SEER Incidence and US Mortality Statistics data may also be viewed at the state level Data Characteristics and Limitations Data is collected from 11 population 39 39 and three supplemental registries which e a n E n 2 a 8 5 fact that it tends to be somewhat more urban and has a larger proportion of foreignbom persons than the general population Most types of cancer are more frequently seen in older people and the US population has aged over the past 30 years which means the country s a e distribution changes each year Therefore cancer incidence and mortality rates are ageadjusted to the 2000 US standard million population by 5year age groups to eliminate the confounding effect of age when comparing rates from ear to year An ageadjusted rate is a weighted average of the agespeci c rates where the weights are the proportions of persons in the corresponding age groups ofa standard million population Reporting delay and reporting error can temporarily produce downwardly biased er incidence trends until corrections of annual data made Reporting delay time refers to the time elapsed before a diagnosed cancer case is reported to the National Cancer Institute NCI Reporting error occurs when a reported case must be deleted due to incorrect reporting Clegg Feuer Midthune Fay amp Hankey 2002 References American Cancer Society 2001 Health information seekers 30 January 2003 Available online at httpWWWcancerorg Clegg LX Feuer EJ Midthune DN Fay MP ampHankey BF 2002 Impact ofreporting delay and reportin error on c ncer incidence rates and trends Journal oftheNational CancerInstitute 9420 15371545 Krimsky Sheldon 2001 Hormone disruptors A clue to understanding the environmental causes of disease Environment National Cancer Institute 2002a Testicular cancer home page 30 January 003 Available online a httpWWW 7 7 I 39 National Cancer Institute 2002b Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results incidence and US mortality statistics 30 January 2003 Available online at httpseercancergovcanques US Environmental Protection Agency Of ce of Science and Coordinated Policy 2001 Endocrine disruptor screeninng ram 30 January 2003 Available online at httpWWWepagovscipolyoscpendowhatishtm US Environmental Protection Agency 2000 Endocrine disruptor screening program re rt to congress 30 January 2003 Available online at httpWWWepagovscipolyoscpendoreporttocongress0800pdf US Environmental Protection Agency Of ce of Pollution Prevention and oxics 1997 quotquot 39 39 39 39 39 1 L J 39 indicators methodology Chemical and Pesticides Results Measures 9 quotvs n 3 a i ri i


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