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by: Shanel Mertz


Shanel Mertz
GPA 3.89

Demetra Andrews

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Demetra Andrews
Class Notes
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanel Mertz on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MAR 3503 at Florida State University taught by Demetra Andrews in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/205377/mar-3503-florida-state-university in Marketing at Florida State University.




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Date Created: 09/17/15
MAR3503 Consumer Behavior Test 2 Chapter 3 ExposureI Attentionl and Perception 0 Exposure the process by which people come into contact with or the presence of stimulus 0 Marketing Stimuli information about offerings communicated either by the marketer via ads salespeople brand symbols packages signs prices and so on or by nonmarketing sources eg he media or word of mouth 0 Stimulus product message ads prices signs website etc that marketers use to communicate 0 Exposed at the buying using or disposing stage 0 Must portray offering in a positive light 0 Marketingimplication I Start the process by gaining exposure media radio I Will not use the TV when targeting wealthy consumers because they usually zip through commercials 0 Position ofan ad within a medium can affect exposure 0 Perception the process of registering a stimulus via one of the five senses o Strongest is smell I We have the best memory for it o Perception is automatic 0 We pick up senses and then we dump it It can take milliseconds 0 Attention the process by which an individual allocates part of his or her mental activity to a stimulus o tuning in to the stimulus may be conscious or unconscious 0 has three characteristics I selective we decide on what we want to focus I divisible This way we can multitask I and limited even though we can do the two above we can t do them if they are not practiced 0 Le important conversation vs TV 0 Can consciously attend to or unconsciously Stimulus Response Process 0 Exposure9perception attention consumerresponse 0 Attention can preceded perception o This is a repetitive process 0 You have to add some attention in order to perceive o Psychologists disagree with this 0 You need to allocate resources 0 Attention is when you are tuned in 0 It s cognitive resources the one valid contradiction is the cocktail party o It is personally relevant 0 Exposure Factors Impeding Exposure 0 Physical location 0 Too high or too low on store shelf 0 You want it from eye to waist o Placed in the wrong publication or medium or timeslot o Billboard 0 Volume of auditory announcement too low to be heard 0 Delays in arrival of the target audience 0 Marketing Implications o Kellogg s used to display their commercials in WalMart TV Network 0 Was viewed in 130 WalMart stores 0 Advertising in media such as airlines inflight entertainment programs shopping carts hot air balloons increases exposure 0 Some are being placed on public buses with the permission of government 0 Zipping and Zapping o Zipping fast 0 Fast forwarding through a commercial 0 People try to avoid online ads by placing pop up blocker o Zapping changing 0 Changing the station through commercial 0 Men zap more than women do 0 Marketing Implications 0 Getting products noticed without alienating consumers 0 They test media not yet saturated like cell phones 0 Third screen cell phone I TV and computer are the other two 0 Measuring exposure 0 They are interested in which media will stimulate the market 0 Factors Influencing Perception o Certainty exposure 0 Vividness o Stimulus strengthintensity 0 Contrast with surroundings or norms Subliminal Perception 0 Def presentation of stimulus below the threshold of conscious awareness o 2000 campaign quotRatsquot o Inconsistent evidence that this tactic can actually alter consumer preference or recall 0 May affect object recognition 0 Can not proven depend on our perception Focal and NonFocal Attention O The three characteristics Selective divided and limited can we still process the information adjacent to what we are focusing on Pre attentive processing the no conscious processing of stimuli in peripheral vision 0 We usually only devote enough attention to process something about the object Hemispheric Lateralization O Depends on I Whether the stimulus in peripheral vision is a picture or a word I Whether it is placed in the right or left visual field to the right or left side of the object I The two sides of the brain are better at processing different types of stimuli 0 Right side processes music visual and spatial information forming inferences and drawing conclusions 0 Left side processes units that can be combined counting processing unfamiliar words and forming sentences Marketing implication 0 Will have more impact if consumer can attend to it completely I Needs to be 0 Personally relevant make it appear to their needs values emotions 0 Pleasant use attractive model use music use humor 0 Surprising make it unique 0 easy to process prominent stimuli 0 Make it stand out o Prominence the intensity of stimuli that causes them to stand out relative to the environment 0 Concreteness defined as the extent to which we can imagine a stimulus Customer segments defined by attention 0 If we can determine who s stimulus gets affected we can determine who is interested in what Habituation the process by which a stimulus loses its attentiongetting abilities by virtue of its familiarity Market implication habituation poses a problem for marketers because people become adjusted to ads packages and other marketing stimuli I They find different ways to covey the same message Perception I Size and shape I Lettering I Color 0 Effects and color on physiological responses and moods 0 Color and liking Marketing Implication I Colors strongly affect attention to and liking of a product I Marketers rely on llcolor forecasters o This determines what colors to use in packaging 0 They are different in social class 0 Hot colors for lower income 0 Rich colors have historically appealed to higher end market o Perceiving Through hearing I Sonic identityusing music or particular voices to support a brands image I Sound symbolism infer product attributes and form evaluations using information gleaned from hearing brand s sounds I Marketing implications Fast sic tend to energize this can affect shopping behavior Can influence moods o Perceiving through taste I Taste tests I Low calories and must still taste good I Marketing implications Marketers use tastes test Many are taste tested before being introduced 0 Perceive through smell I Effects physiological responses and moods Produces physiological and emotional responses Can revive memories I Smells and product trials Having smells in magazines coffee shops Can backfire if offensive I Smell and liking Air fragrances through the air in stores I Smells and buying Positive smelling environment can lead to happy shopping I Marketing implications Some consumers value products because they have no smell Spices commonly used it one culture could actually make another sick I Perceiving through touch We can feel stimulated or relaxed I When do we perceive stimuli To perceive each one is extremely difficult Many don t enter our stimuli awareness Absolute threshold the minimal level of stimulus intensity needed to detect a stimulus Differential Threshold the intensity difference needed between two stimuli before they are perceived to be different Weber s Law the stronger the initial stimulus the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different 0 Change in ssk Marketing implications o If words are too small in a commercial views can t see them 0 Sometimes marketers don t want consumers to notice the difference between two stimuli Changing the quantity but not the price Subliminal perception messages shown for only a fraction of a second The activation of sensory receptors by stimuli presented below the perceptual threshold 00 o Marketingimplications o Subliminal stimulus has created controversy 0 Marketers brainwashing consumers 0 Does it affect cb I Has limited effects on consumers I But it still registers o How do consumers perceive stimulus o Perceptual organization the process by which stimuli are organized into meaningful units 0 Figure and ground according to this principle people interpret stimuli in the context of a background 0 Closure according to this principle individuals have a need to organize perceptions so that they form a meaningful whole 0 Grouping the tendency to group stimuli to form a unified picture or impression Bias for the whole the tendency to perceive more value in a whole that in the combined parts that make up a whole 0 Chapter4quot 39 39 andl39 39 quot 0 Content and structure are the two domains of prior knowledge 0 Knowledge to know something is to hold information i 0 Memory what you know makes up the content of your knowledge I Is organized or structured in some fashion 0 Knowledge structure information we already have in memory 0 The two aspects of knowledge I Content I Structure 0 Knowledge is static I Stored info I Organized info 0 Consumer understanding I Categorization o Involves identifying labeling and classifying the stimulus o The perceived stimulus is classified stimulus is classified according to prior knowledge 0 Understanding is the process of Le making sense of it 0 So that you are able to label it and categorize the stimulus properly 0 Aspects of understanding I Comprehension I Categorization 0 Understanding is active I Process of comprehending information I Process of categorizing information I Process of giving meaning to the presented info I Sounds like Ll quot o Comprehension o Involves extracting meaning from the stimulus O 0 Understanding exactly what is said or written objective comprehension Interpreting elaborating and attaching personal meaning to presented information subjective comprehension Knowledge and understanding are also related 0 Prior knowledge facilitates understanding 0 Understanding leads to the development of new knowledge 0 Knowledge increases mental ability specifically ability to process information via comprehension and categorization Schemas 0 Def the set of associations linked to a concept I Separated into several dimensions 0 Types of association leads to scheme chart 0 Favorability what good traits make it attractive o Uniqueness traits that make it stand out o Salience how east do they come to mind 0 Abstractness abstract or concrete 0 We don t know the tracesor how the info is related I You need the structure not just the association 0 Product based scheme pop tarts I Pop tartsdeath I Her information is structure and the info is organized or structured 0 Scheme suggest suggests price 0 Thing you don t like product development 0 Scripts own to use the product 0 Similarities like a doughnuttoast o Nostalgic ad 0 Focusing on brand 0 Brand image or personality 0 product development and promotional strategies Brand image a subset of salient and feeling related associations stored in a brand scheme Brand personality 0 O O The personification of the brand I People relate better at looking at other people Look at ppt table Ican t violate copy right I Fun not on table 0 light hearted o entertaining o colorful o friendly if the schema contains surprising information on usage I segment the market and brand extensions 0 Do you talk to them as two markets I And important component f targeting strategies is consideration of how our H 7 7 among the competitive offerings 0 A different market is going to see your product differently o How does the consumer see my product Marketing implications o What consumers know and understand an offering helps marketers to determine which strategies to put into place I We re trying to influence their response 0 By creating 0 Brand extension 0 Licensing sells the rights to the brand name to another company 0 A brand alliance two brand names appear I If the schema is incompletenovice consumer we educate them 0 Teach about offering 0 Establish brand image 0 Establish offerings 0 Associate the offering with desirable elements 0 If the schema contains undesirable associations 0 Disconnect our offering from the undesirable I Introduce llless sugar I Change nutritional value I Things 3 0 Categories and their structure Taxonomic category a group of objects that are classified in an orderly and often hierarchically based scheme based on their similarity to one another I They have similar features than from objects in other categories ie diet coke o Graded structure the fact that category members vary in how well they represent a category 0 Prototype the best example ofa cognitive mental category I Affected by shared associations with products in the same category 0 Correlated associations the extent to which two or more associations linked to a schema go together 0 Hierarchicalstructure I Superordinate level the broadest level of category organization containing different objects that share few associations but are still members of the category I Basic level a level of caterorganization below the superordinate category that contains objects in more refined categories 0 Goalderived Category things that are viewed as belonging in the same category because they serve the same goals 0 Why consumers differ in knowledge in their offerings because of culture I Different associations linked to a concept 0 Europe links Phillip brands to electronics as Americans links them to light bulbs I Different category members 0 They vary with ideals with what to have for breakfast ie I Different category prototypes o Imported beer is differently regarded in different countries 0 You need two different plans to work in both markets I Different correlated associations O 0 In US larger stores often have discounts in other countries such as India large stores are more expensive because they have to pay over head costs 0 Expertise I Consumers vary in their ability to process information based onhow much prior knowledge they have I Experts have their prior knowledge is well developed 0 Lots of experience and familiarity 0 Their overall category structures are more organized than other people 0 They learn which brands might be appropriate than others for the given situation 0 Organize information by product categories 0 Are less willing to learn about new products 0 Have more subordinate level categories I Make finer distinctions Fault sometimes they think they know more than they actually do 0 They form expectations when presented with market messages Using knowledge to understand 0 Categorization I First step is to categorize a subject 0 Use prior knowledge to label identify and classify something new 0 We then know what it is what it s like and what it s similar to Consumers exposed to brand extensions can more quickly categorize the parent brand correctly The faster that consumers can categorize the better it is for marketers 0 Consumers don t always categorize things correctly 0 They might not be able to change their categorization 0 Marketing Implication I nferences I Elaboration I Evaluation I Consideration I Satisfaction O Comprehension o Reflects whether the consumer accurately understands the message I Often misunderstood because of lack of prior knowledge 0 quotquot39 r 39 39 39 39 quot Uofa message 0 Effect of MAO I Many don t understand the marketing message because they have low motivation o Perceptual fluency the ease with which information is processed Subjective Comprehension describes the meanings consumers generate from a communication whether or not these meanings were actually intended 0 Some people take away the wrong message from the ad than the marketers wanted 0 Marketing Implications I Consumer inferences 0 Brand names and brand symbols things linked to have a certain message associated with the product 0 Misleading names and labels some companies aren t always honest some create false inferences about their product companies need to find a name that lets them stand out but sometimes they don t catch that they have inappropriate names meaning different things 0 nferences based on inappropriate or similar namessome brand names are too similar and they create legal battles I Product features and packaging o nferences based on the products attributes knowledge that two attributes tend to be correlated in a product category may lead consumers to infer that the presences of one attribute in a brand implies the presence of the other 0 nferences based on the country of origin knowledge about a products country of origin can affect the way consumers think about it 0 We stereotype products 0 nferences based on package design consumers may make inferences about one brand if its packaging looks much like that of the category prototype they do not necessarily react negatively to the copy cat brand 0 nferences based on color we have color categories based in prior knowledge Price rice and quality are correlated Retail atmospherics and display research indicates that an aesthetically pleasing retail atmosphere causes consumers to infer positive quality perceptions of socially communicative products as gifts but f utilitarian products such as household appliances Advertising and selling can be based on body language Pictures pictures may be more effective at generating inferences when consumers have sufficient opportunity to process their meaning Language which ways words are structured into sentences 0 Juxtaposed imperatives two sentences placed next to each other 0 Implied superiority equal performance benefits o I ads 39 provide a comparison but leave the object or basis of comparison either incomplete or ambiguous which can lead to incomplete inferences 0 Multiple comparisons someads make comparisons with multiple brands Objective comprehension the extent to which the receiver accurately understands the message a sender intended to communicate o Subjective comprehension reflects what we understand regardless of whether this understanding is accurate Construal level theory we can think about a product in high or low level construal Targeting and positioning I Positioning map 00 0 Axes represent characteristics that are important to the consumer 0 Axes do not represent characteristics important to the market 0 Product positioning represents how the consumer sees the competing options o Positioning does not represent how the markets seesor wants to see the competing I We ask 0 How are competitive offering positioned o How should our offering be positioned 0 Object 0 Person 0 Or action I Doesn t have to be about the focal object I May reflect the associations linked to that object I If attitudes reflect ie capture contact associations the attitudes ie evaluations are also captured in the consumer s 0 Characteristics of an attitude 0 Cognitive function how attitudes influence our thoughts Affective function how attitudes influence our feelings Connative function how attitudes influence our behavior Favorability the degree to which we like or dislike something Attitude accessibility how easily an attitude can be remembered Attitude confidence how strongly we hold an attitude Attitude persistence how long our attitude lasts Attitude resistance how difficult it is to change an attitude Ambivalence when our evaluations regarding a brand are mixed both positive and negative 0 Second approach suggest that attitudes are based on emotions 0 Central route processing the attitude formation and change process when effort is high 0 Peripheral route processing the attitude formation and change process when effort is low 0 Important to marketing 0 Because attitudes influence I Thoughts orcognitions I Feelings affect responses I Behavior connative response 0 And marketers want to influence I Consumer behavior I Via thoughts I And feelings about offering brands etc 0 So marketers learn about attitudes because they are a route via which marketers can influence consumer 00000000 I Thought I Behavior I Feelings 0 Cognitive responses thoughts we have in response to a communication 0 Important I The consumers attitude towards the brand I Attitude towards the ad 0 5 characteristics of attitudes o Favorability 0 Accessibility 0 Confidence o Persistence and endurance 0 Resistance to change 0 Key point 0 Attitudes are learned I They are formed and then stored I We can t change what is inherit but we can change what is learned 0 Some things are cognitive we can change I You store it in memory 0 How they are learned I Learning from I Learning from With the attitude I The relationship between attitudes and r be somewhat circular o Attitude info and perception of experience I It s circular I You need to give come congruent information 0 They influence each other 0 Look at exhibit 51 in the book I cannot violate copy right laws 0 Central route high effort 0 Cognitions thoughts I Direct image 0 Experience I Reasoning by analogy or category I Value driven attitude 0 Social identification based attention generation 0 Analytical attitude constant is believed to o Affects I Feelings and emotions I Emotional processing I Affective response I Attitude toward the ad 0 Two routes to attitude formation I Attitude can be based on cognitionsthoughts or beliefs 0 This is a proposal ofa lldual process 0 Dual process is a decryption of how a phenomena like attitude formations can happen in either of two different ways 0 Cognition based right one to buy 0 Affect based feels right I Attitudes can also be based on affectfeelings or emotions 0 Analytical Process I Counterarguments disagreements I Support argument 0 Thoughts that agree with the message I Source derogation o It would never happen 0 SDsthoughts that discount or attack the source of the message 0 Eminem would never drive a Chrysler I Belief discrepancy when a message is different from what consumers believe 0 ExpectancyValue models I Expectancy value model a widely used model that explains how attitudes form and change 0 Theory of reasoned actions TRA I Basing attitudes on beliefs about links between actions and outcomes and the evaluations of those beliefs and outcomes I The beliefs about the links from the expectants TRA is an expectancy value modelof attitude 0 There is always the chance for an unanticipated behavior I Theory of planned behavior an extension of the TORA model that predicts behaviors over which consumers perceive have control I Credibility extent to which the source is trustworthy expert or has status I Sleeper effect consumers forget the source of a message more quickly than they forget the message I The message 0 Strong argument a presentation that features the best or central merits of an offering in a convincing manner I One sided vs two sided messages 0 One sided messages a marketing message that presents only positive information o Twosided message a marketing message that presents both positive and negative information I Comparative messages messages that make direct comparisons with competitors I Affective involvement expending emotional energy and heightened feelings regarding an offering or activity I Affective responses when consumers generate feelings and images in response to a message I Emotional appeals messages designed to elicit an emotional response 0 Measures are created for I Beliefs about the consequences I And evaluation of the consequences o If skydiving is fun this is I To add it up 0 Belief about consequences X evaluation counterpart o 3x39 O I Attitude toward the behavior or the quotactquot Aact SNsubjective norm B Utilitarianfunctional dimension when an ad provides information Hedonic dimension when an ad creates positive or negative feelings I Equivalently 0 To influence attitude toward a behavioraction change 0 Belief about the consequences 0 Evaluations of those consequences 0 Beliefs of those consequences 0 Beliefs about their expectations 0 Motivation to comply with those expectation 0 Alternative tactics routes 0 Change consequencesoutcomedeliverable 0 Change expectation 0 Source credibility 0 Company reputation Affective foundations I When affective response may precede or occur simultaneously with cognitive response Strong affective responses can inhibit cognitive function I Attractiveness a source characteristic that evokes favorable attitudes if a source is physically attractive likeable familiar or similar to ourselves I Matchup hypothesis the idea that the source must be appropriate for the productservice I Fear appeals messages that stress negative consequences I Terror management theoryTMT a theory which deals with how we cope with the threat of death by defending our world view of values and beliefs When do attitudes predict behavior 0 O O O Level of involvementelaboration attitudes are more likely to predictbeavior when cognitive involvement is high and consumers elaborate or think extensively about the information that gives rise to their attitudes Knowledge and experience attitudes are more likely to be strongly held and predictive of behavior when the consumer is knowledgeable about or experienced with the object of the attitude Accessibility of attitudes attitudes are more strongly related to behavior when they are accessible or lltop if mind Attitude confidence sometimes we are more certain about or evaluations than we are at other times Specificity if attitudes attitudes tend to be good predictors of behavior when we are very specific about the behavior that they are trying to predict Attitudebehavior relationship overtime when consumers are exposed to an advertising message but do not actually try the product their attitude confidence declines over time Emotional attachment the more emotionally attached consumers are to a brand the more they feel connected to it Situational factors interviewing situational factors can prevent a behavior from being performed and can thus weaken the attitudebehavior relationship o Normative factors according to the TORA model normative factors are likely to affect the attitudebehavior relationship 0 Personality variables certain personality types are more likely to exhibit Chapter 6 Low Effect Attitudes 0 Knowledge regarding existing attitudes helps marketers predict reactions to marcom and guide marketing strategy attitudes 0 Knowledge of factors that influence attitudes tell us what to include in marcom and experience to mold attitudes information experience 0 Peripheral routeaspectsother than key message arguments that are used to influence attitudes 0 Peripheral cues easily processed aspects of a message such as music an attractive source or picture or humor 0 When MAO is low 0 People do not spend a lot of time thinking about decision or stimuli 0 They are not highly aroused emotionally o M they can still form attitudes toward objects people and behaviors 0 Low effort attitude a low effort situation is one in which consumers are unwilling or unable to exert a lot of effort or devote a lot of 39 resources processing the central message of a marketing communication 0 Language barrier they have are larger heuristics to make purchases if they can t read 0 Time 0 Deep process 0 Low motivation peripheral route 0 Type of processing I Low elaboration or superficial processing focused on something other the quality of the central message or argument I Effort on attitude 0 Temporary change in attitudes that is susceptible to fading and counterattack I Low effort 0 Cognitive 0 simple beliefs 0 Unconscious influences o Affect o The more exposure affect o Classicalconditioning o Attitude towards 0 Peripheral cues o Aspects or a message that are easily processed but are not part of the central argument of the message I Background music I Colors in ad I Attractiveness I Pictures I Humorous elements I Sexual elements I Number of arguments made 0 These cues can provide the basis for attitude formation when MAO is low 0 Unconscious influences on Low effort attitude I Influence on attitudes that occur without the consumer being aware that an attitude is being formal 0 Body feedback associations between body feedback and evaluations you can feel confident about an attitude after obtaining only minimal information They are not motivated to seek more information 39 W or I Thinslice udgment evaluations made after being exposed to minimal info I Body feedback associations between body feedback and evaluations 0 Cognitive bases of low effort attitudes ie cognitive route to attitudes I Attitudes based on simple inferences desired from simple beliefs 0 Ain simple inference is a simple belief about an association 0 Beliefs based on peripheral cues 0 Simple inference came from peripheral cues in the marketing communication ie the message or package 0 Heuristics simple rule of thumb may be employed 0 Simple rules of thumb that are used to make judgments 0 Frequency heuristic belief based simply on the number of supporting arguments or amount of repetition Price and quality are positively correlated I Truth effect I ve heard this so many times it must be true I Accessibility bias the answer that comes to mind quickly must be correct 0 Truth effect when consumers believe a statement simply because it has been repeated a number of times 0 Country of origin influence Barilla Pasta I Inference making is a form of subjective comprehension I Inferences are based on presented39 39 and priorI 39 39 I Things that affect our attitudes low effort 0 Communication source is he credible o If not there will be source derogation O I Message 0 Consistency between what is in the marketing communication and my own beliefs 0 Category and scheme consistent information make inferences about quality based on price 0 Many arguments in favor ofan item are presented frequent heuristics 0 Message simplicity 0 Personal involvement with the message due to making it about quotmequot 0 Interesting or arousing message such as mystery ads I Mystery ad an ad in which the brand is not identified until the end of the message 0 Message context and repetition o Incidental learning from repeated exposure recirculation I Wear out may occur 0 Involving messages 0 Self referencing relating a message to one s own experience or self image Mere exposure effect when familiarity leads to a consumer s liking an object 0 Our attitudes change as we become more and more familiar with a new product 0 Classicalconditioning Def producing a response to a stimulus by repeatedly pairing it with another stimulus that automatically produces this response Palov conditioned a physiological response we d be interested in affective behavioral and possibly cognitive responses 0 Natural unconditioned stimulus 0 Then you associate the unconditioned stimulus as associated with the conditioned stimulus Other inferences of affect 0 Mood o Attractive o Likable 0 Celebrity 0 Message content 0 Pleasant pictures 0 Music 0 Humor 0 Color 0 Nostalgia 0 Messagecontext 0 Sex 0 Emotional content 0 Dualmediation hypothesis 0 Def explains how attitudes toward the ad influence brand attitudes o Attitude toward the brand 0 Attitude toward the ad 0 Purchase intentions 0 Advertising is the first things that get cut when the company goes bad 0 Takes people a while to forget I Communication source 0 Attractive source 0 Likable source 0 Celebrity source I The message 0 Pleasant pictures 0 Music 0 Humor 0 Sex 0 Emotional content 0 Transformational advertising ads that try to increase emotional involvement with the product 0 service 0 Dramas ads with characters a plot and a story 0 The dual mediation hypothesis propose two routes via when attitude toward the ad influences attitude toward the brand 0 Marketers care because ads helps determine purchase intentions o The ways which consumer respond cognitively or affectively to an adCad I Influence their attitude toward the ad Aad which directly affects attitude toward the brand Ab transfer of feeling I All Aad can indirectly attitude toward the ad by first influencing the consumers belief about the brand Cb remember the TRA o Cab Aab9Ab9 urchase intention Cb9between Aab and Ab Chapter 7 memory and retrieval 0 Memory components 0 Def stored knowledge procedure skills personal history 0 Memory ad ability to recall are directly related to how much people know about the I Price I Product I Place I Promotion 0 The alternative brands and products that people know and recall from memory I Alternatives get influenced in the consideration set I As they start to search 0 Memory relates more to ability I Ability the extent to which consumers have the resources necessary to make things happen 0 Forms of desired ability I Mental ability 0 Ability to process or retain information I Financial ability I Physical ability 0 Human memory system O I Sensory memory sensory experiences stored temporarily in memory 0 Echoic memory hearing 0 Iconic memory we see I Shortterm or Working memory the portion of memory where incoming information is encoded or interpreted in light of existing knowledge I LongTerm memory the part of memory where information is placed for later use permanently stored knowledge 0 Very short duration 0 Captures elements you pick up with your 5 senses I For self protection I Lasts milliseconds to seconds then you forget like perception o attentionis required to move information from Sensory Memory to Working or llShort term memory I the incoming information must be rehearsed in order to be remembered otherwise it is forgotten o What enhances opportunity I Freedom I Time I Exposure o Repetition of the message promotes recirculation of the message in short term or working memory 0 You have to be motivated o Affects how long this remains in working memory 0 Single message multiple ads 0 Rhetorical question Geico 0 People can generally remember seven items I Give or take two 0 Chunking is separating items into chunks o Prototypicality of stimulus First thing I Prototype the first of preliminary models of something o In marketing the pioneer brands are the first brands in a category 0 iPad o benefit no competition monopoly window the period of time in which they have the target markets full and undivided attention I This improves rehearsal recirculation and thereby memory for the prototype 0 Drill down on elaboration to generate additional thoughts about something to become elaborate in your thoughts on it OO O 0 Motivation and opportunity are required 0 Experts are better able to do this than are novices because they have better developed Discursive processing the processing of information as words 39 g the r 39 g of 39 f 39 in sensory form f 39 must be transferred to longterm memory in order to be Imagery r The incoming 39 remembered otherwise it is thrown out Short term memoryis 39 quot 39 by vividnessand strength to process 0 Working memory decisionsgoals O O 0 Recall from Chapter 2 what motivates consumers I Personal Relevance I Consistency with Selfconcept Values Needs Goals Perceived Risk Inconsistency with attitudes Recall from Chapter 2 what enhances opportunity I Freedom I Time I Exposure of the message in shortterm or working memory without the consumer actively rehearsing it I This affects how long the information stays in working memory which affects whether it gets into longterm memory 0 Elaboration O O O 0 To generate additional thoughts about something To become elaborate in your thoughts on it Motivation and opportunity are required Experts are better able to do this than are novices because they have betterdeveloped 0 Long term memory 0 0 Several types I Echoic hear I Declarative memory is about a facts I Episodic or autobiographical episodes in your life I Semantic memory that is not autobiographical and is about knowledge you have acquired Procedural memory that has affected skills O Encoded and the circumstances under which that information is encoded affects how information is stored long term memory as well as the associations between the what the new information is associated this is quotencoding specifically I The strength of the traces or associationsaffect what is recalled 0 Marketing implication O 0 Provide cues for recall that are the same as those present when the information was initially processed What is encoded and under what circumstances it is encoded affects how information is stored in LT memory and with what it is associated encoding specificity Strength of traces network associations affect what is recalled when a cue is provided or a related concept is activated 0 Schema O O 0 An organized knowledge structure that reflects an individual s knowledge experience and expectations about some aspect of the world Rules associations or scripts that help you interpret and understand the world I Your knowledge organized Product schema ie pop tart the closer we link the stronger Schema compatibility I Things that belong to or are congruent with your schema ie things you believe to be associated with each other are readily I Things that do not belong to and incongruent o Are heavily scrutinized 0 You will pay specific attention 0 Too high incongruencey becomes unable to understand 0 Memory Problems 0 o Distortions O Decay I We don t quotforgetquot memories stored in LongTerm Memory I Instead the path to the information quotdecaysquot I Forgetting implies that it is lost 0 Decay implies that we have difficulty retrieving or recollecting the stored memory 0 LT memories are believed to be permanent I This suggests that renewing or refreshing the path to the information can restore the memory w memories are not believed to be stored intact I Rather the I Thus recall depends on reconstructions of the actual facts events experiences I This opens the possibility for distortions and errors in recalled memories y are reconstructed as needed Interference I Prior information can inhibit learning of new information l v effect I This is a if 0 Recall I Requires m effort and knowledge than recognition 0 Recognition has cues I Has whether you have encountered the stimulus before


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