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by: Shanel Mertz


Shanel Mertz
GPA 3.89

Victor Ranft

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Victor Ranft
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This 36 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanel Mertz on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MAR 4613 at Florida State University taught by Victor Ranft in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see /class/205383/mar-4613-florida-state-university in Marketing at Florida State University.




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Date Created: 09/17/15
Chapter 12 o generalization the act of estimating a population fact from a sample finding sample finding any analysis value that is computed with a sample s data population fact the true value when a census of a population is taken and the value is determined using all members of the population parameter 0 parameter estimation the estimation of population values confidence interval a range into which the researcher believes the population parameter falls with an associated degree of confidence how to estimate a population percentage categorical data D D population percentage estimation p 1 Zusp o p sample percentage 0 Zusp limit 0 25 Z value for associated level of confidence 95 Z 1196 most commonly used 99 Z 1258 0 SP standard error of the percentage 39 Sp fpqn o q 1p EX In a McDonald s survey 60 of 100 respondents were found to order an Egg McMuffin for breakfast What is the estimated population percentage for a 95 confidence interval 0 STEP 1 find sp p60 q40 n100 sp f6040100 49 0 STEP 2 find the limit 25 196 limit 19649 96 0 STEP 3 find the population percentage estimation lower boundary 6096 504 upper boundary 6096 696 how to estimate a population average metric data D D population average estimation Xbar 25s ar o Xbar sample average 0 sxbar standard error of the average 0 sxbar sfn s standard deviation EX In a New York Time s survey 100 readers were asked how many minutes per day they spend reading the newspaper The sample average was 45 minutes with a standard deviation of 20 minutes What is the estimated population average for a 95 confidence interval 0 STEP 1 find SHar s20 n100 sxbar 20100 2 0 STEP 2 find the limit 25 196 limit1962 39 STEP 3 find the population average estimation lower boundary 4539 411 minutes upper boundary 4539 489 minutes interpretation of a 95 confidence interval D I I standard error a measure of the variability in a population based on the variability found in the sample 0 dependant on variability pq and sample size n sampling distribution a theoretical concept that underlies confidence intervals 0 more variability andor smaller sample size wider sampling distribution 0 less variability andor larger sample size narrower sampling distribution A 95 confidence interval means that the research can be 95 confident that the population percentage falls within the limit 0 hypothesis testing a statistical procedure used to accept support or reject not support the hypothesis based on sample information O O I hypothesis a statement about the population parameter based on prior knowledge assumptions 39n uition intuitive hypothesis testing when someone uses something he has obsened to see if it agrees with or refutes his belief about that topic statistical hypothesis testing critical value zvalue of the associated confidence level 95 or 99 If the computed zscore falls within the acceptance region the hypothesis is supported If it alls within the rejection regions the hypothesis is rejected El 95 or die Normal Curve Rejection 39 Ac eplance Region 39 c Rejection Region Region No suppoit for Supporrfov No suppoit rm hypothesis iiypmnens hypothesis 7196 ii null hypothesis a formal statement that there is no null difference between the hypothesized 11 value and thep value directional hypothesis one that indicates the direction in which the researcher believes the population parameter falls relative to some hypothesized parameter E specifies a greater than or less than value using only one tail of the bellshaped distribution cune testing a hypothesis about a percentage categorical data D P39nH5igt 2 number of standard errors p sample percent 11H hypothesized population percentage sp standard error of the percentage D Egtlt Bill believes that 30 of drivers use seat belts A sample of 1000 drivers is taken 800 of which responded that they use seatbelts Using a 95 confidence intenal is Bill s hypothesis supported 0 STEP 1 identify 11H 11H 0 0 STEP 2 find sp p 80 q 20 n 1000 5 80201000 126 oooN z 8030126 397 0 STEP 4 compare 2 to the critical value 397gt196 The hypothesis is rejected I testing a hypothesis about an average metric data D 2 Xbar unsxbar o 2 number of standard errors 0 gtltbar sample avera 0 pH hypothesized population average 0 sxba standard error of the average D Egtlt Regtlt believes that the typical college agent will be able to earn 2750 in the first semester To test this hypothesis a suney of 100 current college agents is taken The sample average of the amount of money made in the first semester is determined to be 2800 and the standard deviation is 350 Using a 95 confidence intenal is Regtlt s hypothesis supported 0 STEP 1 identify uH uH S2 750 STEP 2 find SHar s 350 n100 sxbar 350f100 35 STEP 3 find 2 xbar 2800 2 2800275035 143 0 STEP 4 compare 2 to the critical value 196lt143lt196 The hypothesis is supported interpreting hypothesis tests D D D I Chapter 13 0 Analyzing for meaningful and useful differences in data leads to marketing segmentation 0 market segmentation within a product market there are different types of consumers who have different requirements and these differences can be the bases of marketing strategies 0 3 types of differences analysis compare one group to another group ie men to women compare three or more groups ie single people married wo children married w children compare how important one service feature is compared to another ie rollover minutes vs family plans 0 testing for significant differences between 2 groups 0 the null hypothesis is stated so that there is no difference between one group and the other the difference between the population parameters is equal to zero 0 alternative hypothesis states that there is a true difference between the two group parameters mparing percentages categorical data Z P1 PZ5p1p2 OCO I D D D Interpretation of a hypothesis test is based on the sampling distribution concept If the hypothesis is true then 95 of the sample results will fall between 1196 standard errors of the hypothesized mean If the hypothesis is incorrect there is a strong likelihood that the sample findings will fall outside 1196 standard errors Therefore the further away the actual sample finding p or Xbar is from the hypothesized population value the more likely the computed 2 value will fall outside the critical range resulting in a failure to support the hypothesis p1 percent for sample 1 p2 percent for sample 2 sp1pz standard error of the difference between two percentages 5131132 fP1Q1n1quotPzQznz EX A movie rental store manager has found that 65 of a sample of 100 male customers buy food items while 40 of a sample of 300 female customers buy food items Using a 95 confidence interval determine if there is a significant difference between the purchasing habits of male and female customers D I D STEP 1 find sp1pz p165 q135 n1100 pz40 qz60 nz300 sp1pz f65351004060300 555 STEP 2 find z 2 6540555 45 STEP 3 compare 2 to the critical value to determine if the null hypothesis is supported 45gt196 The null hypothesis is rejected There is a significant difference between the two populations w men vldeomnm 3 sampling distribution a 39 sampling distribution The sampling distribution under consideration is the standard error of the r r II R quotI Li A difference between the I I I 45 I lw 39 I I two populations 7 Sunde 0 The difference is always ofrhezlifferenzz zero With a standard deviation of one amed supporting the null hypothesis 7253 496 0 156 253 45 o comparing averages metric data 2 x arr xbarzlsxsamixm D xbar average for sample 1 D xbarz average for sample 2 D sXbaXbaZ standard error of the difference between two averages erbarirxrbar2 512n522nz EX In a survey 100 males and 100 females were asked how many bottles of sports drinks they consume in a week The results were that males consume an average of 9 bottles a week and females consume an average of 75 bottles per week with respective standard deviations of 2 and 12 bottles Using a 95 confidence interval determine if there is a significant difference between the consumption habits of males and females D STEP 1 find sxbarxbaz s 2 n1 100 s2 12 n2 100 sxbaxbaz fZZ1001221000233 D STEP 2 find 2 xbar 9 xbarz 75 2 9750233 643 D STEP 3 compare 2 to the critical value to determine if the null hypothesis is supported 643gt196 The null hypothesis is reiected There is a significant difference between the two 0 statistical vs practical significance I statistical significance ex for a statistical significance level of 95 if the study were repeated over and over again 95 times out of 100 the difference that is observed now would repeat itself in the sample data D does not gauge the importance of the difference practical significance depends on whether or not there is a managerial application that uses the difference 0 testing for significant differences between more than 2 group averages 0 analysis of variance ANOVA an investigation of the differences between the group averages to ascertain whether sampling errors or true population differences explain their failure to be equal I an efficient way to compare more than two groups averages simultaneously null hypothesis is that none of all the possible grouptogroup averages is significantly different alternative hypothesis is that at least one pair is significantly different D when the null hypothesis is rejected follow up analysis must be applied to identify where the significant differences are found EX A department store conducts a survey asking At what department did you last make a purchase for over 250quot The four departments where significant numbers of respondents made these purchases are 1 Electronics 2 Home and Garden 3 Sporting Goods and 4 Automotive Another question is How likely are you to purchase another item for over 250 from that department the next time The respondents use a 7point scale where 1very unlikely and 7very likely The researcher decides to compare these averages statistically with ANOVA The r ult Home a Sportlng Goods Automotive Electromu Clrden 2 2 Si 33 36 Automotive Yes Yes Yes Electronics No No No Home 8a Garden Significant differences are noted by Yes This table indicates that there is a significant difference between the average of the Automotive department and the average of the other departments In other words there is a good indication that the patrons who bought an item for more than 250 from the Automotive department are not as likely to buy again as are patrons who bought from any of the three other departments D We are now dealing with 4 sampling distribution curves one for each department 0 The Electronics Home and Garden and Sporting Goods cunes would overlap a great deal while the Automotive curve would stand separately on the lower end of the scale Chapter 4 research designa set of advantage decisions that makes up the master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information NOTE there are usually enough similarities among problems and objectives to allow us to make some decisions in advance about the best design appropriate design depends largely on the objectives of the research 0 3 basic research objectives to gain background information and to develop hypotheses to measure the state of a variable of interest to test hypotheses that specify the relationships between two or more variables 0 3 types of research designs exploratory researchmost commonly unstructured informal research that is undertaken to gain background information about the general nature of the research problem unstructureddoes not have a formalized set of objectives sample plan or questionnaire informalcan be accomplished by simple means such as reading a newspaper or observing a situation flexibleallows the research to investigate whatever sources he desires and to the extent he feels necessary uses gain background information define terms clarify problems and hypotheses establish research priorities methods secondary data analysisthe process of searching for an interpreting existing information relevant to the research objectives quotcorequot of exploratory research minimal costs experience surveysgathering information from those thought to be knowledgeable on the issues relevant to the research problem differ from descriptive research surveys in that there is usually no formal attempt to ensure that the survey results are representative of any defined group of subjects case analysisa review of available information about former situations that have some similarities to the present research problem Ex the rate of adoption for cell phones was forecasted by analyzing adoption rates of consumer electronics such as TVs focus groupssmall groups of people brought together and guided by a moderator through an unstructured spontaneous discussion for the purpose of gaining information relevant to the research problem qualitative researchcollecting analyzing and interpreting data by observing what people do and say focus groups are the most common form depth interviewsprobing questions posed oneonone to a subject by a trained interviewer so as to gain ideas as to what the respondent in thinking or why they behave in a certain way protocol analysisplacing a respondent in a decisionmaking setting and asking them to verbalize everything they consider when making a purchase decision N ethnographic researcha detailed descriptive of a group and its behavior characteristics culture etc projective techniques advantages of focus groups they generate fresh ideas they allow clients to observe their participants they many be directed at understanding a wide variety of issues such as reactions to a new food product food logo or television ad they allow fairly easy access to special respondent groups such as lawyers or doctors disadvantages of focus groups i focus groups do not constitute representative samples therefore caution must be exercised in generalizing findings from them ii it is sometimes difficult to interpret the results of focus groups the moderator39s report of the results is based on a subjective evaluation of what was said during the focus group iii the cost per participant is high though the total spent on focus group research is generally a fraction of what may be spent on quantitative research e projective techniquesexplore hidden consumer motives for buying goods and services by asking participants to project themselves into a situation and then to respond to specific questions regarding the situation least used method of exploratory research designed to take down participant defenses by allowing them to talk about quotothersquot and therefore divulge feelings about themselves ie sentence completion test cartoon test descriptive researchundertaken to describe answers to questions of who what where when and how classifications a crosssectional studiesmeasure units from a sample of the population at only one point in time quotsnapshotsquot of a population sample surveyscrosssectional studies whose samples are drawn in such a way as to be representative of a specific population b longitudinal studiesmeasure the same sample units of a population over a period of time quotmoviesquot of a population panelssample units who have agreed to answer questions at periodic intervals continuous panelsask panel members the same questions on each panel measurement Ex brandswitching studiesshow how members of the panel switched brands from one time period to the next discontinuous omnibus panelsvary questions from one panel measurement to the next represent a large group of persons who have made themselves available for research markettracking studiesmeasure some variables of interest that is market share or unit sales over time causal researchused to understand causality causalityunderstanding a phenomenon in terms of conditional statements of the form quotIf x then yquot causal relationships are determined by the use of experiments experimentmanipulating an independent variable to see how it affects a dependent variable while also controlling the effects of additional extraneous variables independent variablesvariables which the researcher has control over and wishes to manipulate ie level of advertising expenditure type of advertising appeal display location price type of product etc dependent variablesvariables which researchers have little or no direct control over yet we have a strong interest in ie sales market share level of customer satisfaction extraneous variablesvariables that may have an effect on a dependent variable but yet are not independent variables NOTE researchers attempt to establish causal relationships in order to effect dependent variables by means of manipulating independent variables experimental designa procedure for devising an experimental setting such that a change in a dependent variable may be attributed solely to the change in an independent variable symbols O the measurement of a dependent variable pretestmeasurement of the dependent variable before changing the independent variable posttestmeasurement of the dependent variable after changing the independent variable X the manipulation or change of an independent variable R random assignment of subjects to experimental and control groups E experimental effectthe change in the dependent variable due to the independent variable quasiexperimental designsdesigns that do not properly control for the effects of extraneous variables on the dependent variable afteronly designachieved by changing the independent variable and after some period of time measuring the dependent variable X 01 X the change in the independent variable distance between X and 01 the passage of some time period O1 posttest of the dependent variable fails to determine causality because it does not determine pretest of the dependent variable nor does it control extraneous variables onegroup beforeafter designachieved by first measuring the dependent variable then changing the independent variable and taking a second measurement of the dependent variable 01 X 02 O1 pretest of the dependent variable 02 posttest of the dependent variable fails to determine causality because it does not control extraneous variables quottruequot experimental designone that truly isolates the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable while controlling for the effects of any extraneous variables beforeafter with control groupachieved by randomly dividing subjects of the experiment into two groups the control group and Experimental group R Control group R the experimental group control groupthe group that has not been exposed to the change in the independent variable experimental groupthe group that has been exposed to the change in the dependent variable NOTE both groups should be as similar as possible in order to isolate the independent variable 01 X 02 O3 04 where E 0201O4O3 R the two equal groups have been randomly assigned 01 and O3 pretest of the dependent variable in the control and experimental group 02 and O4 posttest of the dependent variable in the control and experimental group validity of experiments internal validitythe extent to which the change in the dependent variable was actually due to the independent variable external validitythe extent that the relationship observed between the independent and dependent variables during the experiment is generalizable to the quotreal worldquot ie How representative is the sample of the population types of experiments laboratory experimentsthose in which the independent variable is manipulated and measures of the dependent variable are taken in a contrived artificial setting for the purpose of controlling the many possible extraneous variables that may affect the dependent variable desirable when the intent of the experiment is to achieve high levels of internal validity field experimentsthose in which the independent variables are manipulated and the measurements of the dependent variable are made on test nits in their natural setting increases external validity time consuming and costly test marketingthe phrase commonly used to indicate an experiment study or test that is conducting in a field setting used to test the sales potential for a new product or to test variations in the marketing mix for a product 3 criteria for selecting test market cities iii representativeness companies strive to find cities that represent the marketing territory in which the product will ultimately be distributed degree of isolation companies want to reduce spillover ability to control distribution and promotion cooperation of city distributors and media advantages the most accurate method of forecasting future sales and pretest marketingmix variables disadvantages do not yield infallible results due mostly to the complexity and changeability of consumer behavior competitors will intentionally try to sabotage test markets expensive time consuming risk of exposure of new products to competitors Chapter 5 secondary data 0 internal secondary datadata that have been collected within the firm ie sales records purchase requisitions invoices etc database marketingthe process of building maintaining and using customer databases and other databases for the purpose of contacting transacting and building relationships databasea collection of data and information describing items of interest recordeach unit of information in a database ie a customer company etc fielda subcomponent of a record ie name address etc internal databasesdatabases consisting of information gathered by a company typically during the normal course of business transactions data miningsoftware that is used to help managers make sense out of masses of information contained in databases external secondary datadata obtained from outside the firm published sourcessources of information that are prepared for public distribution table 51 reference guides indexes bibliographies almanacs manuals and handbooks dictionaries encyclopedias directories statistical data biographical sources legal sources syndicated services dataprovided by firms that collect data in a standard format and make them available to subscribing firms external databasesdatabases supplied by organizations outside the firms advantages quick to obtain inexpensive usually readily available enhances primary data may achieve the research objective 0 disadvantages incompatible reporting units ie secondary information presents the demographics of a county but the researcher wishes to know the demographics of a zip code mismatch of the units of measurement ie secondary data provides information about business size in respect to profit level but the researcher needs the square footage differing definitions used to classify the data ie a yacht salesman could not use the effective buying income EBI reported in quotSurvey of Buying Powerquot which defines EBI in three classes 2000034999 through 50000 timeliness secondary data can be outdated lack of information needed to assess the credibility of the data reported researchers can determine the reliability of secondary information by answering the following questions What was the purpose of the study when studies are conducted to prove or disprove some position of those conducting the study the results can be biased or exaggerated Who collected the information some organizations are more competent than others because of the resources they command and their quality control determine competency by asking others who have more experience in a given industry examining the report for carefully written and detailed explanations of procedures and methods contacting previous clients of the firm What information was collected Ex A study was conducted to determine the number of riders on a bus line The study used the number of token collected This is not suitable information to determine the number of riders because a single rider may use multiple tokens resulting in an overestimation of bus riders How was the information obtained ie samples sample size response rate validity How consistent is the information with other information Chapter 6 standardized informationa type of secondary data in which the data collected andor the process of collecting the data are standardized for all users syndicated datadata that are collected in a standard format and made available to all subscribers ie Nielsen TV ratings advantages shared costs quality of the data collected is typically high data is normally disseminated very quickly and is more uptodate disadvantages buyers have little control over what information is collected buyer firms often must commit to longterm contracts there is no strategic advantage in purchasing syndicated data standardized servicesa standardized marketing research process that is used to generate information for a particular user ie mystery shoppers advantages experience of the research firm offering the service reduced cost speed of the research service disadvantages no ability to customize some projects the company providing the standardized service may nor know the idiosyncrasies of a particular industry leads to a greater burden on the client to ensure that the standardized service fits the intended situation application areas measuring consumer attitudes and opinion polls syndicated data The Yankelovich Monitor measures changing social values and how these changes affect consumers The Harris poll measures consumer attitudes and opinions on a wide variety of topics The Gallup poll surveys public opinion asking questions on domestic issues private issues and world affairs defining market segments providing information on members of the industrial market Standard Industrial Classification SIC and North American Industry Classification System NAICS both allow users to identify classify and monitor standard statistics about certain member firms NAICS which uses 6digit codes allows users to select more specific types of firms instead of the broad categories available through SIC codes which uses 4digit codes Dun39s Market Identifiers DMI provides information on over 17 million firms that it updates monthly uses 8digit codes to classify businesses providing information on members of the consumer market VALSa standardized service that offers a system for segmenting costumers by lifestyle geodemographicsthe classification of arbitrary usually small geographic areas in terms of the characteristics of their inhabitants geodemographic information systems GIScomputer programs that allow geodemographers to access huge databases and construct profiles of consumers residing in geographic areas determined by the geodemographer Claritas Inc is the firms that pioneered geodemographics PRIZM potential ratings index for ZIP4 marketsa standardized information service that defines every neighborhood in the US in terms of 66 demographically and behaviorally distinct clusters conducting market tracking tracking studiesstudies that monitor a variable over time market tracking at the retail level scanning datatracking data gathered from stores39 scanners Nielsen Scantrack service nfoScana syndicated data service that gathers data by scanners in supermarkets drugstores and mass merchandisers NOTE the primary advantage of scanning data is that the data are available very quickly the primary disadvantage is that a company may have products distributed through smaller stores that do not have scanners retail store auditsauditors record merchandising information needed for tracking studies sales are estimated using Beginning Inventory Purchases Ending Inventory Sales marketing tracking at the household level scanning devices T39s Consumer Network Panelmembers scan products they purchase and send the data back to IRI to be used in tracking studies Nielsen Homescan Panel diarypanel members complete diaries containing information such as the type of product name brand manufacturer or producer model number description purchase price store and information about the purchaser auditauditors are sent into homes to collect data There are various decision support systems data mining systems expert systems etc available to managers to help them attach meaning to the large amounts of information they receive from tracking studies IRI39s Builder Nielsen39s CBP Category Business Planner monitoring media usage and promotion effectiveness tracking downloaded music videos and recorded books Nielsen SoundScan VideoScan and BookScan television Nielsen Media Research people meteran electronic instrument that automatically measures when a TV set is on and who is watching which channel provides ratings and audience characteristic information ie gender age employment etc radio Arbitrona company that provides syndicated data on radio station listening traditionally has used diary keepers as a means of tracking Portable People Meter PPMa system that measures a panel of participants who carry a device the size of a cell phone that automatically records stations to which listeners are exposed measures multimedia including TV radio satellitle radio and online radio print GFK39s Starch Readership Servicemost widely used source for measuring the extent to which magazine ads are seen and read interviews a minimum sample of 100 readers of a given issue of a publication and then places them into readership levels Adnormsa syndicated data service that provides readership scores by type of ads chagter lo populationwthe ehtlre group under Ludy a peclfled by the reearch project arhpl a a ubet of the populatloh that hould repreeht that ehtlre group cehuah accouhtlhg of everyone m the populatloh ample frameome mater lut ofall the member of the populatroh a ample frame errorwany error m a amp rame exm m the form otrmy oyera or underrreprexentauon of the true popu m a urvey that h 4 a oppo latloh ed to a a cemu o calmed by 2 factor the lze of the ample ac uracy of a arhpleaathe ouht ofxarhple error due to the me of the ample h c decrlbed wlth a pluyorrmmu perce t ge decreae a ample lze mcreae large galn ln accuracy are eeh when the ample l ze l maller mmle maller gem are eeh vvlth hlgher lze Samlm size and Multan mm a samplr z or mm o more my llulagaln ln mum mum men wlm doubling the mmule m 2000 I Antwan 1250 mm Lssn mm msu moo 950 1 mo Szmpll le so zan aso sou su m con dence mterval formula for ample lze yarlabrllty o Mme qhow much reXDOndenL agree lh Lhelr amvver to a uemon etlrhated percentage m the populatloh level of con dence 2quotLandard error amoclated vvlth the chOXen level of cohho con dence level of95 F136 con dence level of 99 FZ5B dewed accuracy eamount of ample error amoclatedvvlth the urvey a e mcreae accuracyand ample lze mcreae admmngnmple lze to compen te formcldence and nonrepone rate adju ed ample lze hllrhcroehce ratelrepone ra e ln alm L all ca the accuracy ample error of a probabllltymmple r NOT lhdepehdeht of the me of the populatloh the method of ample electlon y u u of the population ha an equal chance of belhg elected into that arhple 0 simple random samplingthe probability of being selected into the sample 0 O O is quotknownquot and equal for all members of the population probability of selection sample sizepopulation size random numbers techniquean application of simple random sampling that uses the concept of a table of random numbers table of random numbersa listing of numbers who nonsystematic order is assured each member of the population is assigned a random number ie Social Security number and a number is randomly selected systematic samplinga way to select a simple random sample from a directory more efficient than simple random sampling a hard copy listing of the population is required but random numbers are not the researcher quotskipsquot through the list in a systematic way beginning at a random start point skip interval population list sizesample size random start pointa random number that decides the first name in the sample cluster samplingthe population is divided into subgroups clusters each of which represents the entire population area samplingthe population is divided into clusters that represent geographic areas onestep area sampleone cluster is used to represent the entire population twostep area samplemultiple clusters are selected then a probability method is used to chose individuals stratified samplingseparates the population into different subgroups strata and then samples all of these subgroups using a random sampling technique researchers take a skewed population and identify the strata within it based on their differences then use various probability sampling methods to draw a sample from each stratum surrogate measuresome observable or easily determined characteristic of each population member used to help partition the population members into their various strata provides accurate samples by allowing for explicit analysis of each stratum and allocating sample size based on the variability in each stratum using a weighted average for a stratified sample whose formula takes into consideration the sizes of the strata relative to the total population size and applies these proportions to the strata39s averages I averagepop averageAproporationAaverageBproportions proportionate stratified sampleoccurs when the strata sample sizes are faithful to their relative sizes in the population the weighted average formula is not needed disproportionate stratified sampleoccurs when the strata sample sizes do not reflect their proportions in the population the weighted average formula is needed nonprobability sampling methodsselection is not based on fairness equity or equal chance save time money and effort at the expense of representativeness O convenience samplingthe researcher uses a hightraffic location to intercept potential respondents sample selection error occurs in the form of the absence of members of the population who are infrequent or nonusers of that location judgment samplingthe researcher uses his judgment to identify who will be in the sample sample selection error occurs in the form of subjectivity and certain members of the population will have a smaller chance of selection into the sample than will others referral samplingrespondents are asked for the names of others like themselves who might qualify to take part in the survey sample selection error occurs because certain members who are less well known disliked or who opinions conflict with the respondent have a lower probability of being selected quotsnowball samplequot quota samplingthe researcher identifies quota characteristics such as demographic or productuse factors and uses these to set up quotas for each class of respondent size of quotas are determined by the researcher39s belief of the relative size of each class in the population helps to reduce sample selection error but does not eliminate it online sampling techniques random online intercept samplingrelies on a random selection of Web site visitors invitation online samplingpotential respondents are alerted that they may fill out a questionnaire that is hosted at a specific Web site online panel samplingconsumer or other respondent panels that are set up by marketing research companies for the explicit purpose of conducting online surveys with representative samples 0 O 0 Chapter 11 errors encountered in the data collection stage 0 nonsampling errorserrors in the research process pertaining to anything except the sample size intentional fieldworker errorsthe interviewer deliberately falsifies his work unintentional fieldworker errorsthe interviewers makes mistakes intentional respondent errorsthe respondent knowingly provides false answers or fails to give an answer unintentional respondent errorsoccur when the respondent is confused distracted or otherwise inattentive 0 data collection errors with online surveys multiple submissions results in an overrepresentation of one respondent39s views and opinions curbed by electronic blocks that prevent multiple submissions from some identifier ie email address bogus respondents and responses curbed by selecting online panels or other options where the respondents are prequalified or preidentified population misrepresentation consumers are not equally Internetconnected or Webliterate O nonresponsea failure on the part of a prospective respondent to take part in the survey or to answer specific questions on the questionnaire refusaloccurs when a potential respondent flatly rejects the offer to take part in the survey breakoffoccurs when a respondent reaches a certain point and then decides not to answer any more questions for the survey item omissionoccurs when a respondent refuses to answer a specific question researchers must make judgments as to what qualifies as a completed interview data entrythe creation of a computer file that holds the raw data taken from all of the completed questionnaires 0 data codingthe identification of code values that pertain to the possible responses for each question on the questionnaire data code bookidentifies all of the variable names and code numbers associated with each possible response to each question that makes up the data set data analysisthe process of describing a data set by computing a small number of measures that characterize the data set in ways that are meaningful to the client data seta matrix of numbers and other representations that includes all of the relevant answers of all the respondents in a survey 0 4 functions summarizes the data accomplished with percents and averages generalizes sample findings to the population performed with hypothesis tests andor confidence intervals 3 compares for meaningful differences done by comparing percentages or averages 4 relates underlying patterns involves crosstabulations correlations or regression analysis umrrarvzmg arnpte nd Mm A mm mm mum m mnamvp mm mm Cmuawmm mm 9 i umemvr a Gen Hutton 9 cam manmm mmquot mum momma Amw I mlvluln ommm Bum way u p map camp ammo a Man mg central tendencyrrtne typical repone varvabmtywthe expre a categorrcat varrapte central tendency varvabmt category appear for the frequeer dumbuuona non of now tvprcat repondent are tne vatue tne occur rnot frequently y percentage ditrvbutiona ummary of tne percent or trrne eacn and every ampte entvre ummary of tne number of trrne eacn and every tegorv appear for tne entvre arnpte ca 0 memcvarvable centratten dency average xrbar vanapmtv ran v tand ange 1 narrow the average I tvprcat of many repondent fthe r ard devvauon orrnat curve drtnputron Sammlwmnnn wmmmvm m acaammmmr urwrllluuhnnau Chapter 1 marketingan organizational function and a set of processes for creating communicating and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders O ServiceDominant Logic for Marketingimplies that firms must collaborate with and learn from consumers adapting to their changing needs and that services and goods are not separate marketing concepta business philosophy that holds that the key to achieving organizational goals consists of the company39s being more effective than competitors in creating delivering and communicating customer value to its chosen target markets customer oriented marketing strategyconsists of selecting a segment of the market as the company39s target market and designing the proper quotmixquot of productservice price promotion and distribution system to meet the wants and needs of the consumers within the target market the quotrightquot strategythe marketing strategy that allows a firm to truly meet the wants and needs of its consumers within the chosen market segment NOTE In order to practice marketing marketing decision makers need information in order to make better decisions market researchapplying marketing research to a specific market area marketing researchthe process of designing gathering analyzing and reporting information that may be used to solve a specific marketing problem 0 purpose of marketing researchto link the consumer to the marketer by providing information that can be used to making marketing decisions 0 classification of marketing research studies applied researchresearch conducted to solve specific problems identify market opportunities and problems finds opportunities or problems with an existing strategy ie marketdemand research market segments identification productuse studies environmental analysis competitive analysis generate refine and evaluate potential marketing actions typically deal with one or more of the marketingmix variables ie proposed marketingmix evaluation testing concept tests of proposed new products prototype testing pricing tests monitor marketing performance control studies allow a firm that already has a marketing mix placed in the market to evaluate how well that mix is performing ie image analysis tracking studies customer satisfaction studies employee satisfaction studies distributor satisfaction studies basic researchresearch conducted to expand our knowledge rather than to solve a specific problem improve marketing as a process ie how managers learn about the market consumer behavior differences in ebusiness transactions predictors of newproduct success impact of longterm advertising on consumer choice measuring the advantage to being the first product in the market marketing information system MISa structure consisting of people equipment and procedures to gather sort analyze evaluate and distribute needed timely and accurate information to marketing decision makers 0 components internal reports systemgathers information generated by internal reports 0 O O marketing intelligence systema set of procedures and sources used by managers to obtain everyday information about pertinent developments in the environment formal or informal marketing decision support system DSScollected data that may be accessed and analyzed using tools and techniques that assist managers in decision making marketing research systemgathers information not gathered by the other MIS component subsystems is not continuous each project has a beginning and an end hot topics in marketing research 0 O 0 online marketing researchthe use of computer networks including the Internet to assist in any phase of the marketing research process webbased researchresearch conducted on Web applications ie site hit counts online survey researchthe collection of data using computer networks growing consumerrespondent resentment quotDo Not Callquot listlegislation that curbs calls made by telemarketers to anyone requesting that the calls be stopped does not apply to market researchers quotCan Spamquot billlegislation intended to curb Internet spam dropped due to inability to enforce DoNotMaillegislation intended to free consumers of junk mail if they request it still in consideration globalization Chapter 2 evolution of the industry 0 0 Charles Coolidge ParlinquotFather of Marketing Researchquot When the Industrial Revolution led to manufacturers producing goods for distant markets the need for marketing research emerged By the 1930s marketing search had not only gained acceptance in the business world but also was recognized as being a key to understanding distant and fastchanging markets It was needed for survival marketing research industry today classification of marketing research firms 0 0 internal supplieran entity within a firm that supplies marketing research formal departments usually organized according to one or a combination of the following functions area of applicationie consumer or industrial brands lines of products marketing functionie product research ad research pricing research channel of distribution research the research processie data analysis data collection no formal department responsibility for research assigned to existing organizational units a committee or an individual assigned marketing research no one assigned to marketing research external suppliersoutside firms hired to fulfill a firm39s marketing research needs can be organized using a multitude of bases function ie data analysis data collection type of research application ie customer satisfaction advertising effectiveness newproduct development geography ie domestic or international type of consumer ie health care government telecommunications some combination classification of external supplier firms fullservice supplier firmhas the ability to conduct the entire marketing research project for the buyer firm syndicated data service firmcollected information that is made available to multiple suppliers information is not tailored standardized service firmprovide syndicated marketing research services to clients each client gets different data but the process is standardized customized service firmoffers a variety of research services that are tailored to meet the client39s specific needs online research service firmspecializes in providing services online limitedservice supplier firmspecializes in one or at most a few marketing research activities field service firmspecializes in collecting data phone banksspecializes in telephone surveying market segment specialistspecializes in collecting data for special market segments such as Hispanics seniors gays sample design and distribution firmspecializes in providing samples to firms that are conducting research studies data analysis services specialized research technique firmsprovide a service to their clients by expertly administering a special technique ie eyetracking ethicsa field of inquiry into determining what behaviors are deemed appropriate 0 philosophies deontologyphilosophy of ethics that focuses on the rights of the individual teleologyphilosophy of ethics that focuses on the tradeoff between individual costs and group benefits 0 code of ethical behavior The AMA exhorts their members to be honest responsible fair respectful open and to demonstrate good citizenship issues covered sugging and frugging suggingselling under the guise of a survey made illegal under the Consumer Fraud and Prevention Act of 1994 fruggingfundraising under the guise of a survey maintaining research integrity by avoiding misrepresentation and omission of pertinent research data loss of research integrity can take the form of withholding information falsifying data altering research results or misinterpreting research findings in a way that makes them more consistent with predetermined point of view treating outside clients and suppliers fairly unfair treatment of buyer firms passing hidden charges to buyers overlooking study requirements when subcontracting work out to supplier firms selling unnecessary research to clients sharing confidential and proprietary information unfair treatment of supplier firms phony RFPs failure to honor time and money agreements unfair treatment of the public balancing marketing requirements with social issues ie advertising products that are dangerous to the public cigarettes respondent fairness Chapter 3 deception during respondent recruitment during the research procedure during postresearch situations confidentialitythe researcher knows who the respondent is but does not identify the respondent with any information gathered from that respondent and provided to client anonymitythe respondent remains anonymous or unknown issues invasions of privacy unsolicited telephone calls spam optout standardindividuals are given the opportunity to not be contacted again andor to limit the manner in which the information they provide may be used passive consent optin standardindividuals must specifically and affirmatively consent to a specified activity active consent panel equitythe value of readily available access to willing respondents marketing research process 0 11 steps establishing the need for marketing research defining the problem most important step problems stem from 2 primary sources gaps between what was supposed to happen and what did happen gaps between what did happen and what could be happening establishing research objectives research objectivesstate what the researchers must do in order to carry out the research determining research design exploratory researcha form of causal informal research that is undertaken to learn more about the research problem learn terms and definitions or identify research priorities descriptive researchresearch that describes the phenomena of interest causal researchstudies that attempt to uncover what factor or factors cause some event experiments identifying information types and sources primary informationinformation collected specifically for the problem at hand secondary informationinformation already collected should be sought first syndicated data Chapter 7 surveya predesigned questionnaire used to interview a large number of respondents personadministered surveyone in which an interviewer reads questions either facetoface or over the telephone to the respondent and records the answers was the primary administration method before communications systems became more developed advantages feedback a human interviewer can answer respondent questions or adjust the questionnaire according to verbal or nonverbal cues rapport another person can create trust and understanding that nonpersonal forms of data collection cannot achieve quality control personal interviewers can ensure respondents fit certain criteria ie gender age etc respondents may be more likely to be truthful if they respond facetoface adaptability personal interviewers can adapt to differences in respondents ie age differences NOTE interviewers must be careful not alter the meaning of the question disadvantages humans make errors interviewers can make mistakenly change the meaning of the question or record data incorrectly slow speed high cost interviewer evaluation the presence of an interviewer may create apprehension among respondents that they are answering quotcorrectlyquot respondents can be concerned with how the interviewer evaluates their answers especially prevalent when questions concern personal issues such as hygiene finances politics age etc computerassisted surveysone in which computer technology plays an essential role in the interview work many variations ranging from computers assisting an interviewer to interacting directly with the respondent no human contact advantages speed translates into cost savings errorfree interviews 3 use of pictures video and graphics realtime capture of data information is directly entered into a computer39s data storage system and can be accessed for tabulation or other analyses at any time reduction of quotinterview evaluationquot concern in respondents disadvantages technical skills required high setup costs NOTE these disadvantages along with any others can be passed on to other companies if the researcher uses the services of a data collection firm selfadministered surveysone in which the respondent completes the survey on his own no agenthuman or computeris employed advantages reduced cost the need for an interviewer and a computer are eliminated respondent control respondents can feel more relaxed c no interviewevaluation apprehension disadvantages a respondent control risk of survey being filled out incorrectly untruthfully or not being returned b lack of monitoring no opportunity to monitor or interact with the respondent if a respondent does not understand the question he may answer it incorrectly or not at all c high questionnaire requirements the questionnaire is responsible for respondent understanding clear questions examples and reminders and respondent encouragement 4 mixedmode hybrid surveysone in which multiple data collection methods are used becoming increasingly popular due to the increasing use of online survey research advantages a multiple advantages to achieve data collection goal researchers can take the advantages of each of the various modes to achieve their data collection goals disadvantages a mode affects response some researchers argue that the mode used might affect responses given by consumers b additional complexity data collection is more complex ie instructions for an online survey and a telephone survey will be different data from the multiple sources will have to by integrated and care must be taken to ensure data are compatible data collection methods personadministered interviews 1 W inhome interviewconducted in the home of the respondent advantages facilitate interviewerinterviewee rapport useful when the research objective requires the respondents39 physical presence to interact with the research object AND it is believed that the security and comfort of respondents39 homes is an important element affecting the quality of the data collected disadvantages very high costs mallintercept interviewone in which the respondent is encountered and questioned while he or she is visiting a shopping mall advantages easy to implement and cost effective presence of an interviewer to interact with the respondent disadvantages sample representativeness is an issue malls generally draw crowds from the immediate area some people shop at mall more frequently malls attract recreational shoppers more than convenience shoppers many shoppers refuse to participate NOTE quotas can be used to counter this disadvantage a shopping mall does not provide comfort or security to the respondent thereby reducing rapport NOTE taking participants to special rooms can be counter this disadvantage inoffice interviewone that takes place in person while the respondent is in his office useful for marketing research conducted in the 828 or organizational market advantages disadvantages costly and time consuming locating the personnel with the expertise required is time consuming persuading that person to agree to an interview can be costly the interviewer must travel to the interviewee39s workplace and usually encounters long wait times interviewers specializing in businessperson interviews are generally more expensive 4 telephone interview an attractive option when physical contact is not necessary advantages relativelyinexpensive can potentially yield a very highquality sample quick turnaround times short duration disadvantages the respondent cannot physically interact with the research object the interviewer cannot make judgments or evaluations ie judgments about the respondent39s income level based on the home they live in observations about body language researchers are more limited in the quantity and types of information that can be obtained long interviews or questionnaires involving openended questions are a poor choice for telephone interviews gatekeeping methods answering machines caller ID call blocking quottraditionalquot telephone interviewthose that are conducted either from the homes of the telephone interviewing staff or from telephone stalls located in the data collection company39s offices everything is done manually by the interviewer great potential for error interviewer cheating is more prevalent central location telephone interviewone in which a field data collection company installs several telephone lines at one location and the interviewers make calls from the central location pooling resources interviewers results in cost savings and quality control 2 computeradministered interviews common advantages the computer eliminates the human error potential the interviewer is just the quotvoicequot of the computer the computer can be used to customize questions eliminates the need for editing completed questionnaires and creating computer data files tabulations may be run at any point during the study can result in cost savings by removing unnecessary questions from interviews or suggesting additional questions managers can use early reports of survey results to organize presentations in advance computerassisted telephone interview CATthe interviewer reads the questions off a computer screen and enters respondents39 answers directly into the computer program fully computerized interviewthe survey is administered completely by a computer but not online completely automated telephone survey CATSa computer dials a phone number and a recording is used to administer the survey the respondent reads the survey instructions from a computer screen and uses the computer to answer each question advantages cost of a human interviewer or human quotvoicequot is eliminated online and other Internetbased surveysthe respondent answers questions online advantages fast easy and inexpensive flexible ability to present pictures etc disadvantages sample representativeness respondent validation difficulty in asking probing questions selfadministered surveys each respondent works at his own pace generally all modes of selfadministered surveys are pencilandpaper situations group selfadministered surveyone in which a questionnaire is administered to respondents in groups reduced costs dropoff surveyone in which the survey representative approaches a prospective respondent introduces the general purpose of the survey and leaves it with the respondent to fill out ie hotel chains have questionnaires in their rooms with an invitation to fill them out and turn them in at the desk on checkout ideal for local market research undertakings in which travel is necessary but limited surveys MUST be selfexplanatory advantages quick turnaround high response rates minimal interviewer influence on answers good control over how respondents are selected inexpensive mail surveyone in which questions are mailed to prospective respondents who are asked to fill them out and return them to researched by mail advantages generally is the most inexpensive survey method disadvantages no interviewer present nonresponse rate is generally high selfselection biasthose who do respond are probably different from those who do not fill out the questionnaire 0 NOTE each data collection method has it39s own nonresponse rate and self selection bias choice of the survey method 0 the foremost objective is the quality of the data collected 0 considerations time horizon if a deadline is short faster methods should be utilized ie telephone surveys mallintercept studies online surveys budget mail surveys are the least expensive but are used infrequently due to low response rate online survey research is a viable option for low budgets NOTE companies must ask themselves if they can use data generated only from people with Internet access telephone surveys are another possible option incidence ratethe percentage of the population that possesses some characteristic necessary to be included in the survey lowincidence situations require certain precautions in sample selection it wouldn39t be cost effective to send interviewers doortodoor in search of a specific niche online surveys telephone surveys and sometimes mall surveys are usually good choices culturalinfrastructure ie n Scandinavia residents are uncomfortable letting strangers into their home Therefore doortodoor interviewing would not be a good method ie In India 10 of the population has telephone services so telephone surveys would not be a good choice of method type of respondent interaction required ie if only verbal communication is required telephone surveys will likely be a good option ie if a respondent needs to physically handle a product mall intercepts will likely be a good option Chapter 8 questionresponse format options openended response formatthe respondent is instructed to respond in his or her own words useful for exploratory or descriptive research studies unaided openended formatdoes not prompt or probe the respondent beyond the initial question aided openended formatthere is a response probe in the form of a followup question instructing the interviewer to ask for additional information categorical response formatprovides response options on the questionnaire used when the researcher already knows the possible response to a question allow respondents to answer effortlessly dualchoice questionthe respondent must select one answer from only two possible alternatives quotcheck all that applyquot question appears to be a multiplechoice category question but is actually a dualchoice question yesno a check means quotyesquot and no check means quotnoquot multiplechoice category questionthe respondent selects one of several options that indicates the answer to the question posed metric response formatcalls for a number to be provided by the respondent or utilizes a scale developed by the researcher natural metric response formatthe respondent is asked to give a number that is the appropriate response to the property being measured ie age number of visits number of dollars etc synthetic metric response formatuses an artificial number to measure a property ie level of satisfaction on a scale from 110 measurementdetermining the description or amount of some element of interest to the researcher o propertiesthe specific features or characteristics of an object that can be used to distinguish if from another object what is being measured in marketing research 0 operational definitionthe procedure to measure a property of an object describes how a researcher will measure a property of an object EX objectconsumers propertygender operational definitionmale or female 0 level of measurement specified in the operational definition openended measurement measurement is not standardized because respondents use their own words most difficult level of measurement to work with categorical measurementthe possible responses are categories possible alternatives are labels that represent different concrete types of answers when a respondent answers a dualchoice or multiplechoice question he is expressly placing himself in a certain category ie negative or affirmative Papa John39s Dominos or Pizza Hut 3 metric measurementrequires the respondent to think in terms of amounts or levels of the property being measured ordereach number that can be given is larger or smaller than other numbers that can be given distancethe numbers can be compared to see how many units separate them natural metric scalesrequires respondents to give number that is appropriate or natural to the property being measured NOTE properties are inherently quantitative synthetic metric scalesutilize artificial descriptors or numbers to indicate the amount of a property possessed by an object descriptorsnumbers are artificial because they are arbitrarily selected by the researcher to represent something ie level of satisfaction descriptors or numbers only have meaning in the context of the scale from which they originate you must know the range of the scale and the property the scale is measuring in order to understand the meaning of any descriptor or number in the scale synthetic number metric scaleuses a number range ie 1 100 synthetic label metric scaleuses words to indicate gradations of the property being measured ie a rating scale of quotpoorquot quotfairquot quotgoodquot quotvery goodquot or quotexcellentquot to measure the respondent39s opinion of service labels represent successive degrees it is customary for researchers to code them as quot1quot quot2quot quot3quot etc when preparing responses for data analysis commonly used metric scales objective propertiesphysically verifiable characteristics ie age gender store last visited dollars spent etc subjective propertiesmental constructs that cannot be directly observed ie attitudes opinions intentions etc 0 scale developmentthe process of developing response formats principally concerned with the creation or use of synthetic metric measures reliabilitythe extent to which a respondent responds in the same way to an identical or nearly identical question validitythe extent to which a scale truly measures the construct under study O symmetric synthetic scalescontain counterbalancing positive and negative degrees on intensity neutral pointa midpoint along the continuum between extremely negative and extremely positive NOTE the neutral point is NOT considered zero or an origin 1 Likert scaleformat in which respondents are asked to indicate their degr ee of agreement or disagreement it is important not to use strong evaluative terms ie quotveryquot in statements Ex Levi39s Engineered jeans are good looking quotStrongly Disagreequot1 quotNeutralquot3 quotStrongly Agreequot5 2 semantic differential scalebipolar adjectives are assigned to PrOP erties of the object under study primarily used to measure brand company or store image focuses on the measurement of the meaning of an object concept or person researchers can compute averages of the scales to create profiles Ex Rate your impression of Target quotBad valuesGood valuesquot quotConvenient locationnconvenient locationquot quotlow priceshigh pricesquot NOTE separators are generally ODD numbered to allow for a neutral point adjectives should be randomly flipped to avoid having all of the quotgoodquot ones on one side this avoids the halo effect halo effecta general feeling about a store or brand that can bias a respondent39s impressions on its specific properties C Stapel scaleuses counterbalancing positive and negative numbers for respondents to express degrees of positive or negative feelings eliminates the need for bipolar adjectives more flexible in that respondents do not need to quotseequot the scale respondents should be comfortable dealing with negative numbers Ex Rate Barnes amp Noble on each factor Competitive prices quot3 to 3quot Wide assortment quot3 to 3quot nonsymmetric synthetic scalesmeasures positive degrees of opinions or feelings begins at the lowest positive position and extends to the highest positive position does not contain a neutral point A oneway labeled scaleuses words to convey degrees of feeling or opinions B npoi Ex How important is each of the following to you Lowest prices quotNot mportantExtremely Importantquot nt scaleuses positive numbers ie 5point 7point to convey degrees of feeling or opinions anchored npoint scalecontains two anchors anchorsindicate how to translate the range of the scale into a frame of reference ie for an anchored 5point scale quot1quotpoor and quot5quotexcellent are the anchors EX Indicate how you rate the friendliness of the wait staff quotNot friendlyquot1 quotExtremely friendlyquot5 unanchored npoint scaleno anchors are provided EX On a scale of 1 5 how do you rate the friendliness of the wait staff C graphic rating scaleuses graphic symbols ie smiley faces to convey degrees of feeling or opinions EX How did you feel the last time your parents bought you a Learning Tree book 2 j I o choosing symmetric or nonsymmetric When a synthetic scale is used in a survey the researcher wants respondents to use all of the scale positions If there will be very few respondents who will make use of the negative side of a symmetric scale a nonsymmetric scale should be used Researchers can pretest both the twosided and onesided versions to see whether the negative side will be used by respondents NOTE generally the symmetric version is tested Researchers usually rely on triedandtrue formats that they apply from study to study decreases time and costs ability to assess reliability and validity Chapter 9 questionnairethe vehicle used to pose the questions that the researcher wants respondents to answer translates the research objectives into specific questions that are asked of the respondents standardizes those questions and response categories so that every participant responds to identical stimuli fosters cooperation and keeps respondents motivated throughout the interview serve as permanent records of research can speed up the process of data analysis 0 questionnaire designa systematic process in which the researcher contemplates various question formats considers a number of factors characterizing the survey at hand words the various questions and organizes the questionnaire39s layout question biasthe ability of a question39s wording or format to influence respondents39 answers STEP 1 question developmentthe practice of selecting appropriate response formats and wording questions so that they are understandable unambiguous and unbiased research questions measure attitudes beliefs behaviors and demographics certain words can introduce question bias 10 words to avoid all always any anybody best ever every most never worst global researchers must be careful when dealing with multiple languages STEP 2 question evaluationscrutinizing the wording of a question to ensure that question bias is minimized and that the question is worded such that respondents understand it and can respond to it with relative ease 4 quotdosquot of question wording the question should be focused on a single issue instead of quotWhen do you typically go to workquot ask quotAt what time do you ordinarily leave home for workquot the question should be brief brevity helps the respondent comprehend the question and reduces the distraction of wordiness instead of quotWhat are the considerations that would come to your mind while you are confronted with the decision to have some type of repair done on the automatic icemaker in your refrigerator assuming that you noticed it was not making ice cubes as well as it did when you first bought itquot ask quotIf your icemaker was not working right how would you correct the problemquot 3 the question should be a grammatically simple sentence if possible the more complex a sentence the greater the chance of respondent error simple sentence structure subjectnoun should be strived for even if two sentences are required instead of quotIf you were looking for an automobile that would be used by the head of your household who is primarily responsible for driving your children to and 4 the q 4 quotdo nots39 1 the q from school how much would you and your spouse discuss the safety features of one of the cars you took for a testdrivequot ask quotWould you and your spouse discuss the safety features of a new family car Would you discuss safety 39very little39 39some39 39a good deal39 or 39to a great extent39quot uestion should be clear all respondents should understand the question identically strive to use words that are in the core vocabulary of the respondents instead of quotHow many children to you havequot ask quotHow many children under the age of 18 live with you in your homequot 39 of question wording uestion should not lead the respondent to a particular answer 2 the q 3 the q 4 the q leading questionone that is worded or structured in such a way as to give the respondent a strong cue or expectation as to how to answer creates biased responses instead of quotDon39t you see any problems with using your credit card for an online purchasequot ask quotDo you see any problems with using your credit card for an online purchasequot uestion should not have loaded wording or phrasing loaded questionone that has buried in its wording elements that allude to universal beliefs or rules of behavior can play on the emotions or fear of the respondent instead of quotShould people be allowed to protect themselves from harm by using mace as selfdefensequot ask quotDo you think carrying a mace product is acceptable for people who are worried about being attackedquot uestion should not be doublebarreled doublebarreled questionone that is actually asking two different questions creates difficulty for the respondent to answer either question directly instead of quotWere you satisfied with the food and servicequot ask quotWere you satisfied with the foodquot quotWere you satisfied with the servicequot uestion should not use words that overstate the condition overstated questionone that places undue emphasis on some aspect of the topic 0 instead of quotHow much do you think you would pay for a pair of sunglasses that will protect your eyes from the sun39s harmful ultraviolet rays which are known to cause blindnessquot ask quotHow much would you pay for a pair of sunglasses that will protect your eyes from the sun39s raysquot questionnaire organizationthe sequence of statements and questions that make up a questionnaire the questionnaire39s appearance and the ease with which respondents complete the questions have the potential to affect the quality of the information that is gathered functions of the introduction or cover letter in the case of mail or online surveysl introducing the interviewer reassuring respondents that this is a bona fide survey and identifying the sponsor undisguised surveythe sponsoring company is identified disguised surveythe sponsor39s name is not divulged to respondents used if the identity of the sponsor could alter respondents39 answers or to prevent competitors from becoming aware of the survey clearly and simply describing the general purpose of the survey the specific research objectives are not generally divulged making prospective respondents aware of how and why they were selected asking prospective respondents for their participation in the survey incentivesoffers to do something for the respondent in order to increase the probability that the respondent will participate in the survey physical incentivesmoney samples etc letting participants know the importance of their participation addressing respondent anxieties concerning privacy anonymity or confidentiality qualifying prospective respondents screening questionsused to ferret out respondents who do not meet qualification necessary to take part in the research study question flowthe sequencing of questions or blocks of questions including any instructions on the questionnaire the location of questions should be logical quot FIRST ASKED screening questions IMMEDIATELY AFTER ANY SCREENS warmup questions simple easytoanswer questions that are used to get O O respondents39 interest and to demonstrate the ease of responding to the research request Ex quotHow often do you go shoppingquot PRIOR TO MAJOR SECTIONS OF QUESTIONS OR CHANGES IN QUESTION FORMAT transitionsstatements or questions made to let the respondent know that changes in question topic or format are forthcoming Ex quotNow for the next few questions I want to ask about your family39s TV viewing habitsquot skip questionone whose answer affects which question will be answered next Ex quotWhen you bake a cake do you usually do it from scratch or do you use a box mixquot If the person responds that he uses a box mix questions asking more details about scratch baking will be skipped MIDDLE OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE CLOSE TO THE END complicated and difficulttoanswer questions questions involving more mental activity should be quotburiedquot into the questionnaire because respondents have completed enough of the survey to usually feel some sort of commitment respondents will see that they are approaching the end of the survey and will be more inclined to finish LAST SECTION classification demographic questionsused to classify respondents into various groups for purposes of analysis since these questions are usually personal in nature ie income level if a respondent chooses not to answer they will have already completed the survey survey does not begin on a sour note precodingthe placement of numbers on the question responses to facilitate data entry after the survey has been conducted ie dualchoice answers are assigned 1 for quotyesquot and 2 for quotnoquot quotall that applyquot questionone that asks the respondent to select more than one item form a list off possible responses each selection should be treated as a quotyesnoquot question the box is selectedquotyesquot1 if the box is not selectedquotnoquot2 precodes do not generally appear on questionnaires anymore due to computer advancements computerassisted questionnaire designsoftware programs that allow researchers to use computer technology to develop and disseminate questionnaires and in some cases to retrieve and analyze data gathered by the questionnaire advantages easy fast friendly and flexible questionnaire creation


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