CONSUMER BEHAVIOR MAR 3503
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanel Mertz on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MAR 3503 at Florida State University taught by Victor Ranft in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see /class/205384/mar-3503-florida-state-university in Marketing at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Chapter 5 learningany process by which changes occur in the content or organization of a person39s longterm memory not directly observable entails a change brought about by experience effects are relatively long term behavior involves both overt and cognitive processes 0 range of learning situations lowinvolvement learninga case where individuals are less motivated to attend to and process material to be learned ie when consumers encounter ads for products they do not usually use highinvolvement learninga case where individuals are motivated to process information to be learned ie researching information on vehicles 0 learning theories classical conditioninga view that learning involves linking a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus conditioned stimuliproducts brands stores unconditioned stimulicelebrities music humor through association a productbrand CS can come to elicit likingdisliking CR analogous to the likingdisliking UR evoked by an ad39s model music or humor US 4 conditions must prevail for connections to be formed repetitionfrequency of pairing a conditioned and unconditioned stimulus NOTE repetition can cause advertising wearout diminished responsiveness of an audience to ads and commercials as a consequence of repeated exposure to them contiguitythe spatial or temporal nearness of the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus contingencythe notion that the conditioned stimulus should precede the unconditioned stimulus congruitythe relatedness of sequentially presented informational cues operant instrumental conditioninga view that learning is driven by the positive or negative consequences of behavior trial and error reinforcement and punishment are instrumental to in bringing about change positive reinforcementan inducement to repeat a behavior to receive a pleasant consequence negative reinforcementan inducement to repeat a behavior in order to remove an adverse situation punishmentan adverse result that decreases the frequency of an undesirable response perception of pain or something unpleasant removal of something desirable or pleasant reinforcement schedulethe pattern in which reinforcements are given continuous reinforcementrewards a desired behavior every time it occurs learning occurs more quickly but the sought behavior ceases shortly after rewards stop intermittent reinforcementrewards a desired behavior only occasionally learning occurs less quickly but the sought behavior becomes more persistent practice schedules massed concentrated practicelengthy learning sessions scheduled over a brief time period greater initial learning spaced distributed practicebrief learning sessions intermingled with rest periods scheduled over a lengthy time period longer lasting learning because the desired behavior must occur first before it can be rewarded marketers employ these techniques behavior shapingthe process of breaking down a complex behavior into a series of simple stages and reinforcing the learner at each step ie car dealership example ecological designthe planning of physical space and other facets of the environment to modify human behavior applications of conditioning theories stimulus generalizationthe tendency to assign commonality to similar stimuli the halo effect stimulus discriminationthe tendency to distinguish between and respond differently to similarbut nonidenticalstimuli the basis for product positioning strategy cognitive learninga view that humans are goaloriented problem solvers and processors of information subjective experiencethe notion that humans synthesize beliefs and experiences to gain insight into new situations neoPavlovian conditioninga view that reshapes traditional classical conditioning into a fully cognitive theory based on the assumption of intelligence and informationprocessing capabilities of the organism what is really conditioned is an evaluative response or attitude NOTE all theories should be considered complementary rather than contradictory O hemispheric specialization of the braina view that the left and right hemispheres of the brain process organize and encode information differently left hemispherethe rationallinear area of the brain verbalization analytical thinking new habit patterns forming relationships reading etc algebraic calculations right hemispherecapable of multiple processing of incoming stimuli interpreting and recognizing visual patterns hemispheres work together to process information type one learners type two learners type three learners type four learners o learningrelated concepts vicarious learningbehavior change due to observing others and the consequences of their actions learning curve experience effectthe notion that tasks become easier as the number of repetitions increases brand loyaltya consumer39s consistent purchase of a specific brand within a product category relationship marketinga set of activities that marketers undertake to establish a positive tie with consumers inertiaa pattern of repeatedly buying a particular brand merely because it is familiar differs from quottrue bluequot brand loyalty in that consumers are apt to switch brands without much obstacle brand paritya situation where many consumers come to believe that no significant differences exist among brands 4 purchasingbehavior patterns reversionconsumers switch back to their original brand conversionconsumers remain loyal to the new brand vacillationrandom switching between the new and old brands experimentationconsumers engage in further systematic trials of other brands memory and retention mnemonic devicesauditory or visual aids that promote retention of material by identifying it with easily remembered symbols 0 structure of memory sensory memorya storage system in which incoming data undergo preliminary processing iconicvisual echoicauditory shortterm memory STMa storage system in which an individual briefly holds a limited amount of information if information is significant it may undergo rehearsalsilent mental repetition of data and linkage of it to other information encodingthe process of employing symbols such as words or images to store a perceived idea longterm memory LTMthe information warehouse in which data are organized and extendedly stored knowledge structuresformations of related bits of information information retrievalthe process of sifting through memory to activate previously stored information from LTM o 2 obstacles hinder retention processes retroactive interferencea case where recent learning interferes with recall of previously learned material misinformation effecta case where false assertions taint a person39s recall of what really occurred recent learning hinders the recall of prior learning proactive interferencea case where prior learning interferes with recall of recently learned material prior learning hinders new learning extinction and forgettinglearning losses extinctionwhen a behavior ceases because it no longer brings rewards or prevents punishments forgettingwhen knowledge recedes into the mind39s unconscious recesses or cannot be recalled occurs when a stimulus is no longer repeated or perceived confusion increases the likelihood of forgetting message interference interference occurs only for unfamiliar brands confusion grows in proportion to the extent that competing ads push products from the same category or claim similar features and benefits a unique item in a series of relatively homogenous items tends to be recalled easily learning is a major determinant of human behavior learning does not occur in a vacuum 0 O O O O O 0 Chapter 6 attitudeslearned predispositions to respond in a consistent manner to a given object valencean attraction positive or repulsion negative felt toward an attitude object intensitythe extent of how strongly resistant to change or weakly easily changed an individual feels one way or the other about an attitude object O O O O centralitythe extent of how closely central or detached peripheral an attitude reflects a person39s core values and beliefs sources personal experience with objects social interaction exposure to mass media functions utilitarian functionthe notion that some attitudes serve as a means to an endgaining rewards or avoiding punishments ie mouthwash is used to achieve the goal of fresh breath egodefensive functionthe notion that some attitudes serve to protect an individual39s ego or disguise a person39s inadequacies ie Viagra is used for its compensatory values valueexpressive functionthe notion that some attitudes help consumers communicate the core values they revere to other people ie Porches are portrayed as high class and exhibit a successful lifestyle for the consumer knowledge functionthe notion that some attitudes provide people with a simple predictable and organized view of the environment ie Heinz portrays it39s allnatural vinegar recipe as superior to others attitudes and behavior 3 fundamental issues whether a relationship between attitudes and behavior exists researchers have found conflicting evidence consumers39 behavior reflects their attitudes SOME of the time when such a relationship is to be expected moderating variables qualities of the behavior general or specific qualities of the person inner or outer directed vested issue or attitude issue qualities of the situation physical and social surroundings time context qualities of the attitude apparent influence that the attitude exerts upon the individual 3 how attitudes affect or guide behavior reported attitudes do not always equal action basic attitude perspectives the traditional model of attitudes cognitive componentwhat a person thinks he or she knows about an attitude object knowledge opinion faith value systems O affective componentan individual39s positive or negative reactions to an attitude object behavioral conative componenta person39s action tendency or intentions with respect to an attitude object Fishbein39s multiattribute model of attitudesa view that attitude objects have a number of desirable or undesirable features that differ in importance to the same individual attitudetowardtheobject a person39s beliefs about an object the person39s evaluative aspects of those beliefs tends to assume that when consumers hold positive feelings toward most or even some features of a product the positive attitudes toward these features will translate into a purchase the theory of reasoned action TORAa view that behavior is determined by a person39s intentions to behave attitudetowardthebehaviorone39s overall appraisal of an act based on its consequences and one39s evaluation of these outcomes subjective normsone39s beliefs about what significant others think and inclinations to comply with their views formation of attitudes learning classical conditioningeliciting a conditioned response by pairing a brand conditioned stimulus with an attractive unconditioned stimulus ie a celebrity operant conditioningrewards enhance attitudes toward a stimulus and increase the probability that a behavior will recur cognitive learningconsumers form attitudes about products based on both exposure to information about them provided by marketers as well as through consumers39 own cognitions attributionefforts to ascertain the causes of events in out lives attitude changea shift in the valence of an attitude from negative to positive or vice versa cognitive consistencya view that we strive to maintain congruity between beliefs emotions and behaviors cognitive dissonance theorya view that inconsistency between a person39s beliefs and behavior causes psychological tension postpurchase dissonancea state of doubting the wisdom of one39s choice after making a purchase to resolve this consumers will either revoke their decision change the behavior or seek additional information for support change the attitude marketers create a state of cognitive dissonance to change consumers39 attitudes informationprocessing approachan effort to provide facts to help consumers reach a logical conclusion informationprocessing stages presentation attention comprehension yielding retention behavior informationprocessing strategies making comparisons against competition emphasizing brand attributes adding new attributes providing knowledge of alternatives or consequences changing the relative value of attributes consumer reactions elaborationlikelihood model ELMa view that consumers39 level of involvement determines the appropriate route to persuasion central routehigh involvement greater elaboration peripheral routelow involvement less elaboration cognitive miserpeople may choose not to think a great deal about messages issues and arguments and instead employ some rudimentary means for deciding theories of goal pursuit and trying goalspursuits where an individual thinks impediments stand in the way of attaining a desired objective 3 attitudes toward goals attitudes toward the consequences of succeeding to achieve a goal attitudes toward the consequences of trying but failing to achieve a goal attitudes toward the process of striving to achieve a goal Chapter 7 motivationa state in which our energy is mobilized and directed in a selective fashion toward desirable goals arousala tension state resulting mainly from unfulfilled needs physiological cuesie hunger emotional cuesie boredom cognitive cuesie personal accomplishment environmental cuesie ads directionan end toward which behavior is prompted o classifying consciousmanifest unconsciouslatent marketers must draw the consumer39s attention to these needs high urgencyrequires immediate satisfaction marketers attempt to create a high urgency motivation low urgencysatisfaction can be delayed positive polaritylead people to desired goals O 0 negative polaritysteer people away from undesired consequences intrinsicbehavior undertaken for the inherent pleasure of the activity itself more enduring marketers try to create intrinsic motivation extrinsicbehavior undertaken in order to acquire rewards rationalappeals to reason and logic emotionalstresses sentiments fantasies and feelings elements needsinternal forces that prompt behavior toward goaloriented solutions physiological needsbasic bodily requirements essential to maintain life acquired needsdrives that are conditioned by relationships with others in the environment motivesstates of tension that push an individual to act goalssoughtafter objectives of motivated behaviors generic goalsnonspecific categories of products and services that can satisfy customer needs brandspecific goalsparticular alternatives in a product category from which consumers can choose for something theories instinct theories dri desirespassions that involve longing yearning and fervently wishing instinctgenetically transmitted physical and behavioral characteristics of a species that enable it to survive in the environment behavior is innate example many ads appeal to people39s sexual instincts ve theories people strive for homeostasis a selfregulating mechanism of the body that maintains harmony of all bodily systems any imbalance causes arousal to correct the deficit arousal theories people seek stimulation rather than avoid it optimal stimulation level OSLa measurement of people39s tendency to seek or avoid thrilling challenging activities high sensation seekers HSSpersons with strongerthan average need to seek novel surprising and more intense activities low sensation seekers LSSpersons who prefer lessthrilling activities general sensationseeking scale GSSSa scale designed to measure individual differences in sensationseeking tendencies 4 dimensions
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