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by: Ms. Kale Marvin


Ms. Kale Marvin
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Joshua Coveleski

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Joshua Coveleski
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Kale Marvin on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LDR 2101 at Florida State University taught by Joshua Coveleski in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 130 views. For similar materials see /class/205387/ldr-2101-florida-state-university in OTHER at Florida State University.




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Date Created: 09/17/15
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at 3 WWWemeraldinsightcoml02683 46htm EllE Two decades of selfleadership theory and research Past developments present trends 270 and future possibilities Christopher P Neck Department of Management Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universim Blacksburg Virginia USA and Jeffery D Houghton Department of Management Science Abilene Christian Universim Abilene Texas USA Abstract Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough review of self leadership literature past and present including a historical overview of how the concept was created and expanded as well as a detailed look at more recent self leadership research trends and directions The paper also presents a theoretical and conceptual explanation and differentiation of the self leadership concept relative to other related motivational personality and self in uence constructs Designmethodologyapproach Self leadership research and related literatures of motivation personality and self influence are discussed and described in order to present the current state of the self leadership body of knowledge and to suggest future directions to explore and study Findings It is suggested that self leadership is a normative model of self in uence that operates within the amework of more descriptive and deductive theories such as self regulation and social cognitive theory Research limitationsimplications While self leadership research composes an impressive body of knowledge it is a domain of study that has been under investigated in some aspects both empirically and conceptually Practical implications This paper suggests several future directions that researchers can undertake to advance self leadership knowledge Originalityvalue This paper lls a void in the organizational literature by reviewing the body of self leadership knowledge by stating how self leadership is a distinctive theory in its own and by presenting directions for future self leadership research Keywords Leadership Empowerment Motivation psychology Management techniques Paper type Concepmal paper Selfrleadership Manz 1986 Manz and Neck 2004 is a process through which individuals control their own behavior in uencing and leading themselves through the use of speci c sets of behavioral and cognitive strategies The concept of selfeleadership rst emerged in the midr1980s eg Manz 1983 1986 as an expansion of selfemanagement eg Manz and Journal of Manageml Psychology Sims 1980 which ms rooted in clinical selfcontrol theory egi Cautela 1969 and 353 2006 inspired by Kerr and Jerrnier s 1978 notion of substitutes for leadership Over the past 33321 Gm Publ shle m ed two decades the selfrleadership concept has enjoyed considerable popularity as D01 10110802683940610663097 evidenced by the large number of practitionerroriented selfrleadership books and articles Emerald on the subject erg Blanchard 1995 Cashman 1995 Manz 1991 Manz and Sims 2001 Sims and Manz 1996 Waitley 1995 Moreover selfrleadership has earned the respect of many academics as re ected by a plethora of theoretical and empirical selfrleadership journal publications eg Anderson and Prussia 1997 Houghton et al 2003a Manz and Sims 1987 Markham and Markham 1995 1998 Neck and Manz 1992 1996a Neck et al 1996 Prussia et al 1998 Roberts and Foti 1998 Stewart et al 1996 Williams 1997 and by coverage in a growing number of management and leadership textbooks erg Kreitner and Kinicki 2003 McShane and Von Gljnow 2005 Nahavandi 2006 Business executives have also embraced selfrleadership concepts through training programs designed to increase selfrleadership skills and behaviors in the workplace erg Neck and Manz 1996a Stewart et al 1996 The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough review of selfeleadership literature past and present including a historical overview of how the concept was created and expanded as well as a detailed look at more recent selfrleadership research trends and directions We will also provide a theoretical and conceptual explanation and differentiation of the selfrleadership concept relative to other related motivational personality and selfrin uence constructs such as selfrregulation selfrmanagement conscientiousness and emotional intelligence Finally we will also suggest some directions for future selfrleadership research including discussions of which aspects of selfrleadership have been underrinvestigated in the past and which aspects hold the most promise for future investigationi Selfleadership de nition and overview Selfrleadership is a selfrin uence process through which people achieve the selfrdirection and selfrmotivation necessary to perform Manz 1986 Manz and Neck 2004 Selfrleadership consists of speci c behavioral and cognitive strategies designed to positively in uence personal effectiveness Selfrleadership strategies are usually grouped into the three primary categories of behaviorefocused strategies natural reward strategies and constructive thought pattern strategies Manz and Neck 2004 Manz and Sims 2001 Prussia et 11 1998 Behaviorrfocused strategies strive to heighten an individual s selfrawareness in order to facilitate behavioral management especially the management of behaviors related to necessary but unpleasant tasks Manz and Neck 2004 Behaviorrfocused strategies include selfrobservation selfrgoal setting selfrreward selfrpunishment and selfrcueingi Selfrobservation involves raising one s awareness of when and why one engages in speci c behaviors This type of selfrawareness is a necessary rst step toward changing or eliminating ineffective and unproductive behaviors Mahoney and Arnkoff 1978 1979 Manz and Sims 1980 Manz and Neck 2004 Armed with accurate information regarding current behavior and performance levels individuals can more effectively set behaviorraltering goals for themselves Manz 1986 Manz and Neck 2004 Manz and Sims 1980 A large body of research suggests that the process of setting challenging and speci c goals can signi cantly increase individual performance levels Locke and Latham 1990 Selfrset rewards coupled with selfrset goals can aid signi cantly in energizing the effort necessary to accomplish the goals Mahoney and Arnkoff 1978 1979 Manz and Sims 1980 Manz and Neck 2004 Selfrrewards may be something simple or intangible such as mentally congratulating oneself for an important accomplishment or something more concrete like a special vacation at the completion of a dif cult project Self leadership theory and research 271 272 Selfepunishment or selfrcorrecting feedback should consist of a positively framed and introspective examination of failures and undesirable behaviors leading to the reshaping of such behaviors The excessive use of selfrpunishment involving selfrcriticism and guilt can be detrimental to performance and should be avoided Manz and Sims 2001 Finally concrete environmental cues can serve as an effective means of encouraging constructive behaviors and reducing or eliminating destructive ones Manz and Neck 2004 Manz and Sims 1980 2001 Lists notes screensavers and motivational posters are just a few examples of external cues that can help keep attention and effort focused on goal attainment In short behaviorrfocused selfrleadership strategies are designed to encourage positive desirable behaviors that lead to successful outcomes while suppressing negative undesirable behaviors that lead to unsuccessful outcomes Natural reward strategies are intended to create situations in which a person is motivated or rewarded by inherently enjoyable aspects of the task or activity Manz and Neck 2004 Manz and Sims 2001 There are two primary natural reward strategies The rst involves building more pleasant and enjoyable features into a given activity so that the task itself becomes naturally rewarding Manz and Neck 2004 Manz and Sims 2001 The second strategy consists of shaping perceptions by focusing attention away from the unpleasant aspects of a task and refocusing it on the tasks inherently rewarding aspects Manz and Neck 2004 Manz and Sims 2001 Both strategies are likely to create feelings of competence and selfrdetermination two primary mechanisms of intrinsic motivation Deci and Ryan 1985 To summarize natural reward strategies are designed to help create feelings of competence and selfrdetermination which in turn energize performanceenhancing taskrrelated behaviors Constructive thought pattern strategies are designed to facilitate the formation of constructive thought patterns and habitual ways of thinking that can positively impact performance Manz and Neck 2004 Neck and Manz 1992 Constructive thought pattern strategies include identifying and replacing dysfunctional beliefs and assumptions mental imagery and positive selfrtalk Individuals should rst examine their thought patterns confronting and replacing dysfunctional irrational beliefs and assumptions with more constructive thought processes Burns 1980 Ellis 1977 Manz and Neck 2004 Neck and Manz 1992 In addition negative and destructive selfrtalk should be identi ed and replaced with more positive internal dialogues Selfetalk is de ned as what people covertly tell themselves Neck and Manz 1992 1996a and involves mental selfeevaluations and reactions Ellis 1977 Neck and Manz 1992 By carefully analyzing selfrtalk patterns negative or pessimistic selfrtalk can be suppressed or eliminated and replaced with more optimistic selfrdialogues Seligman 1991 Finally mental imagery is the symbolic and covert cognitive creation of an experience or task prior to actual overt physical muscular movement see also Driskell et al 1994 Finke 1989 Neck and Manz 1992 1996a Individuals who envision successful performance of an activity in advance of actual performance are more likely to perform successfully when faced with the actual task Manz and Neck 2004 In support of this assertion Driskell et al 1994 performed a metaranalysis of 35 empirical studies and found a signi cant positive effect for mental imagery on individual performance Selfleadership development expansion and applications The selfrleadership concept rst appeared in a 1983 practitionerroriented book ie Manz 1983 that expanded upon the existing concept of selfrmanagement ego Manz and Sims 1980 The seminal academic work on selfrleadership appeared three years later in the Academy ofMariagemeiit Review ie Manz 1986 This article laid the basic theoretical foundations of selfrleadership and presented the basic selfrleadership strategies outlined above although the constructive thought pattern strategies were somewhat underdeveloped at this point Throughout the latter part of the decade and into the early 1990s the selfrleadership concept was applied to two primary areas 1 selfrmanaging teams and 2 empowering leadership The emerging selfrmanaging teams literature of the late 1980s often prescribed selfrleadership among team members as an integral part of the selfemanaging process eg Manz and Sims 1986 1987 1994 Manz 1990a About this same time leadership theorists were beginning to explore the concept of empowerment ego Conger and Kanungo 1988 as a possible alternative to the heroic leadership model of the 1970s and 1980s In particular the concept of SuperLeadership the process of leading others to lead themselves was introduced as an effective means for empowering followers and creating selfrleaders ego Manz and Sims 1989 1991 Manz 1990b 1991 1992a The rst empirical study to examine selfrleadership in an organizational setting was published in Administrative Scierice Quarterly in 1987 and examined the role of selfrleadership in the context of both empowering leadership and selfrmanaging teams Manz and Sims 1987 This study suggested that the most effective external leaders of selfrmanaging work teams are those that engage in behaviors that facilitate selfrleadership strategies such as selfrobservation selfrgoal setting and selfrreward Manz and Sims 1987 A few years later selfeleadership s constructive thought pattern strategies were more fully developed and expanded under the label thought selfrleadership ego Manz and Neck 1991 Neck and Manz 1992 The practical usefulness of the more fully developed thought selfrleadership strategies was later demonstrated in a trainingintervention based eld study Neck and Manz 1996a The results of this study suggest that individuals who received the thought selfrleadership training experienced increased mental performance positive affect enthusiasm job satisfaction and decreased negative affect nervousness relative to those not receiving the training Neck and Manz 1996a Throughout the remainder of the 1990s and into the new century selfrleadership theorists have made application of selfrleadership concepts within a variety of contextual settings including 39 spirituality in the workplace Neck and Milliman 1994 performance appraisals Neck et at 1995 organizational change Neck 1996 total quality management Neck and Manz 1996b selfrleading teams Neck et at 1996 entrepreneurship Neck et al 1997a diversity management Neck et at 1997b Self leadership theory and research 273 274 job satisfaction Houghton and Jinkerson 2004 Roberts and Foti 1998 nonrpro t management Neck et all 1998 39 goal settinggoal performance Godwin et 11 1999 Neck et 11 2003 the United States Army Neck and Manz 1999 team performance Stewart and Barrick 2000 team sustainability Houghton et al 2003b 39 succession planning Hardy 2004 and 39 ethics V anSandt and Neck 2003 In addition over the past decade and a half a number of popular books on selfrleadership and SuperLeadership have been published with a signi cant amount of success erg Manz and Sims 1989 1994 2001 Sims and Manz 1996 The book Mastering SelfLeadershzjb Empowering Yourself for Personal Exce enee has become the quintessential text on the subject and is currently in its fourth edition Manz 1992a Manz and Neck 1999 2004 Neck and Manz nid Selfleadership criticisms Although it has enjoyed an enduring and expanding popularity based on a strong intuitive appeal selfrleadership has not been without developmental problems and criticisms For instance the majority of selfrleadership research has been conceptual with relatively few empirical studies examining selfrleadership in organizational settings This lack of extensive empirical research may be due in part to the fact that a valid selfrleadership measurement scale has been slow to development The rst published selfrleadership assessment instrument Anderson and Prussia s 1997 Selereadership Questionnaire SLQ was based to a large extent on selfrleadership assessment prototypes created by Manz and Sims 1991 Manz 1992a and represented an excellent preliminary effort in selfrleadership scale development Nevertheless the Anderson and Prussia SLQ suffered from a number of psychometric problems and required further re nement More recently a Revised Selereadership Questionnaire RSLQ Houghton and Neck 2002 has been presented and has shown a greater degree of reliability and construct validity than the earlier SDQi The RSLQ was created by eliminating or rewriting ambiguous items from the Anderson and Prussia SLQ and by integrating additional items from a previously unpublished selfrleadership assessment instrument ie Cox 1993 Additional data is needed to fully assess the reliability and validity of the RSLQ Nevertheless preliminary applications indicate that the RSLQ may prove to be an effective selfrleadership measure with positive potential for facilitating additional empirical selfeleadership research Perhaps the most common criticism of selfrleadership is that it is conceptually indistinct from and redundant with classic theories of motivation such as selfrregulation As outlined above selfrleadership consists of a broad set of strategies that may be useful in leading to greater personal effectiveness Many of these selfrleadership strategies are founded upon other established theories of motivation and selfrin uence Thus some theorists have questioned the extent to which selfrleadership is a unique and distinguishable construct with respect to these related motivational and personality constructs while others have suggested that selfeleadership is a mere repackaging of individual differences already explained by previously existing personality constructs such as conscientiousness erg Markham and Markham 1995 1998 Guzzo 1998 For instance Markham and Markham 1998 pl 197 claim that one of the major stumbling blocks of selfrleadership theory is its uniqueness when compared to more traditional views of similar psychological processes l Likewise Guzzo 1998 pl 214 has expressed concern as to whether selfrleadership is distinguishable from other existing psychological constructs such as the personality dimension of conscientiousness C In addition Markham and Markham 1995 pl 198 suggest that it is possible that various aspects of selfrleadership simply recast previous personality traits C When critics suggest that selfrleadership overlaps with other classic theories of motivation they fail to understand that selfrleadership is a normative model rather than a descriptive or deductive theoryi Normative theories which are common in applied elds such as business are prescriptive and emphasize how something should be done In contrast deductive or descriptive theories seek to explain the basic operation of various phenomena but generally stop short of providing speci c normative advice for managing a particular process As Hilton 1980 has suggested normative and descriptive theories often take differing perspectives in examining the same phenomenon Indeed descriptive theories can often help to explain how and why the prescriptions of normative theories operate The realistic job previews RJPs literature provides a good example of a bene cial interaction between normative and descriptive theoryi RJPs egi Dugoni and Ilgen 1981 Reilly et al 1981 Wanous 1973 is a normative concept that has long been accepted as an effective practical tool for reducing employee turnover For many years however the reasons why RJPs work and the theoretical mechanisms through which they operated were not entirely clear Hom et al 1998 In response Horn and his colleagues Hom et al 1998 1999 have recently attempted to clarify and delineate the theoretical contexts and mechanisms through which RJPs in uence employee turnover In the following sections we will respond to selfrleadership critics in a similar manner by providing a theoretical and conceptual explanation of the selfeleadership concept relative to several related theories of motivation Speci cally we will argue that selfrleadership is a normative concept that provides certain behavioral and cognitive prescriptions while operating within and through the theoretical contexts provided by selfrregulation social cognitive selfrcontrol and intrinsic motivation theories We will further suggest that selfeleadership represents a unique constellation of strategies that are founded upon related to and yet distinct from these various theories as well as from various personality traits Although previous efforts have been made to conceptually distinguish selfrleadership from related psychological constructs egi Houghton et al 2004 Manz 1990b Neck 1998 Neck and Manz 1996b Williams 1997 the present discussion will go well beyond these in both scope and depth Selfleadership theoretical contexts Selfleadersl39u39p and selfregujdtion Selfrleadership strategies operate within the larger theoretical framework of selferegulationi Drawing from literature in the eld of cybernetics egi Ashby 1961 Clark 1996 Wiener 1948 and based on linkages suggested by Powers 1973 Carver Self leadership theory and research 275 276 and Scheier 1981 1998 have presented a broad selfrregulatory explanation of how behavior happens According to this view the selfrregulation process is analogous to the operation of a mechanical thermostat The thermostat senses temperature variations relative to a given standard and signals appropriate action to reduce the discrepancy Similarly within the process of behavioral selfrregulation Carver 1979 Carver and Scheier 1981 1998 a sensor monitoring performance in the environment yields a signal that is compared to a set standard or desired state If discrepancy or error exists then a behavioral change is facilitated through an adjustment of effort Alternatively the standard for behavior can be cognitively reevaluated and adjusted downward to meet the level of performance In either case the objective is the reduction of the discrepancy between the actual performance level and the standard or goal In addition selfrregulation theory suggests a hierarchical organization of the selfrregulatory system in the form of superordinate and subordinate feedback loops or goals Carver and Scheier 1998 Powers 1973 This hierarchy of goals ranges from systems concepts such as a globalized sense of the idealized self see also Burke 1991 Klein 1987 to overarching principles of what a person wants to be to more speci ed programs of behavior that indicate what a person should do in order to conform to higherrlevel principles and nally to speci c sequences of behavior that facilitate program goal attainment Carver and Scheier 1998 Selfrregulation theory further assumes that goals at the various hierarchical levels function simultaneously in shaping behavior but that there is a natural upward drift toward higher levels of goal abstraction as a person becomes more comfortable with his or her behavior V allacher and Wegner 1985 1987 Likewise there appears to be a complementary downward drift toward more concrete goals in response to dif culties in maintaining behavioral regulation in the context of higher levels of abstraction Carver and Scheier 1998 Selfrregulation theory also suggests that when faced with problems and discrepancies in progressing toward goal attainment those individuals who are con dent or hopeful ire possess positive expectancies for goal attainment tend to persist or even increase their efforts while those who lack con dence or hope ire possess negative expectancies for goal attainment tend to search for the availability of alternative goals or disengage altogether Carver and Scheier 1981 1998 Thus a key component in selfrregulation theory is the concept of con dence or hope as manifested in terms of performancerelated expectancies Although disengagement from unattainable goals is a necessary and vital part of the selfrregulation process cognitive distortions of feedback leading to lower than warranted levels of con dence and related expectancies can result in premature goal disengagement and other selfrregulatory dysfunctions such as binge eating or alcoholism Carver and Scheier 1998 Finally selfrregulation theory distinguishes between a promotion and a prevention selfrregulatory focus erg Carver 2001 Carver and Scheier 1998 Higgins 1987 1989 1996 1998 Higgins et all 1994 A promotion focus operates on the basis of accomplishments hopes and aspirations thus regulating the presence and absence of positive outcomes Higgins 1998 This type of focus is closely associated with the concept of an ideal selfrguide which represents the attributes a person would ideally like to possess Higgins 1987 1989 In contrast a prevention focus operates on the basis of safety responsibility and obligations thus regulating the absence and presence of negative outcomes Higgins 1998 The prevention focus is closely associated with the concept of ought selfrguides which represent the attributes that a person believes they should or ought to possess Higgins 1987 1989 Although broadly conceptualized as an individual difference variable regulatory focus may also vary across momentary situations erg Higgins 1996 1998 In short selfrregulation theory is a broad descriptive view of human behavior that seeks to explain how behavior happens According to this viewpoint however selferegulatory processes do not always operate smoothly nor do they always lead to successful performance outcomes and goal attainments Indeed as Latham and Locke 1991 p 240 have suggested although people are natural selfrregulators in that goalrdirectedness is inherent in the life process they are not innately effective selfrregulators C Some theorists have even used the term selfrregulatory failure to describe extreme examples of breakdowns in the selfrregulatory process eg Baumeister and Heatherton 1996 Baumeister et all 1994 Kirschenbaum 1987 While selfrregulation theory speci es the existence and likelihood of dysfunctions in selferegulation it prescribes few strategies for increasing selfrregulatory effectiveness In contrast selfrleadership operating within selfrregulation s broad theoretical framework for understanding behavior prescribes speci c behavioral and cognitive strategies designed to enhance individual selfrregulatory effectiveness Selfrleadership strategies may enhance selfrregulatory effectiveness in a number of important ways For instance the behaviorrfocused strategy of selfrobservation can lead to a heightening of selfrawareness and increases in selfrfocusi Research evidence suggests that an increase in selfrfocus can promote increases in task focus and ultimately in task performance eg Carver 1975 Wicklund and Duval 1971 In addition increased observation of one s own behavior can provide a more accurate and richer interpretation of feedback loops leading to the identi cation of speci c behaviors that should be changed enhanced or eliminated relative to goal attainment Likewise selfrgoalrsetting may have a positive effect on selfrregulatory processes Goal setting research eg Locke and Latham 1990 has demonstrated that performance is better when goals are dif cult and speci c than when they are easy and vague Indeed in the absence of an intentional goalrsetting process individuals tend to satis ce Simon 1955 adopting goals that are less than optimal but seem adequate for the given situation Carver and Scheier 1998 p 66 In contrast dif cult and speci c goals tend to result in increased effort and better task performance Thus through conscious and intentional selfrgoalrsetting processes individuals may increase selfrregulatory effectiveness in terms of increased effort and better performance outcomes Finally selfrrewards selfrpunishment and selfecueing each have a certain potential for enhancing selfrregulation In order for a goal to be meaningful it must be both valuable and attainable erg Carver and Scheier 1998 The creation of selfrreward contingencies increases the value of goal achievement thereby leading to increased effort and persistence toward goal attainment In like manner by providing detailed feedback regarding goalrperformance discrepancies selfrpunishment and selfrcueing each may further enhance the ef cacy of selfrregulatory processes Natural reward strategies are particularly useful in improving selfrregulatory performance relative to selfrdetermined or intrinsic goals Deci and Ryan 1985 or what Carver and Scheier 1998 have called individual or personal goals Strategies such as incorporating more pleasant and enjoyable features into a given task or focusing attention on a task s inherently rewarding aspects help to make even Self leadership theory and research 277 278 externally imposed or coercive goals seem less controlling and more internalized intrinsic and personal Such goal internalization may lead to improved selfregulatory processes Much like the behaviorrfocused and natural reward strategies constructive thought strategies also demonstrate potential for improving selfregulatory effectiveness For example the strategy of evaluating and challenging dysfunctional beliefs and assumptions may have a positive effect on selfrregulatory feedback processes Individuals often distort feedback to be closer to what they expect to see or want to see Carver and Scheier 1998 Mental distortions such as mind reading extreme thinking overgeneralization and mental lters Burns 1980 Carver and Scheier 1998 Manz and Neck 2004 lead to feedback distortion and ultimately impaired selfregulatory processes By confronting the beliefs and assumptions that lead to distortion and replacing them with more realistic and less dysfunctional ones feedback may become less distorted and selfrregulation more effective Selftalk and mental imagery strategies also have particular application for improving individual selfregulationi As outlined above a key component in selfregulation is the concept of con dence as re ected in the form of expectations of success or failure Con dence can be de ned in terms of both perceptions of personal capabilities ire selfef cacy Bandura 1986 1991 and external situational factors Carver and Scheier 1998 When con dence is unwarrantedly low individuals may prematurely disengage effort toward goal attainment Such a premature disengagement may result from a failure to adequately assess current feedback as discussed above or from inaccurate performance expectancies When faced with problems or dif culties individuals tend to turn automatically to previously encoded sources of information about expectancies Carver and Scheier 1998 p 221 This process has been described as a residual sense Carver and Scheier 1998 and as habitual ways of thinking or thought patterns Manz and Neck 1991 2004 Neck and Manz 1992 1996a Often when the residual sense is in the form of doubt or inadequacy or when thought patterns are pessimistic or obstacleroriented individuals will give up and disengage effort at the rst sign of trouble or adversity without realizing that the present obstacle is minor and relatively easy to overcome Carver and Scheier 1998 Manz and Neck 1991 2004 Neck and Manz 1992 1996a Positive selftalk and mental imagery strategies are intended to facilitate optimistic or opportunityroriented thought patterns which may lead to greater persistence in the face of challenges and dif culty Manz and Neck 1991 2004 Neck and Manz 1992 1996a Finally research evidence erg Neck and Manz 1996a Prussia et al 1998 suggests that selfleadership strategies such as positive selftalk and mental imagery may increase selfref cacy levels a primary determinant of con dence and performance expectancies potentially leading to more effective selfregulation and increased performance Carver and Scheier 1998 According to selfregulation theory standards are simply assumed to exist and little attention is paid to how standards are determined In an organizational setting selfregulatory standards are based primarily on existing organizational standards and objectives As long as organizational policies rules and procedures are followed deviation reduction will occur Thus in the short run the process of deviation reduction becomes relatively automatic and selfperpetuating Neck and Manz 1996b Given a continuum ranging from complete external in uence to complete internal in uence see also Manz 1990b Neck and Manz 1996b selfrregulation falls closer to the complete external in uence end of the spectrum As outlined above selfrleadership strategies may be useful in helping the individual to set and manage selfrregulatory standards thereby improving selfrregulatory effectiveness and increasing the degree of internal in uence In summary selfrleadership strategies operate within the broader theoretical context of selfrregulation Speci c selfeleadership strategies may serve to increase selferegulatory effectiveness by improving selfrfocus goalesetting processes goal valence and saliency feedback processes and taskrrelated con dence or performance expectancies In short sel frleadership does not represent an alternate theoretical view of selfrin uence but rather a complimentary set of strategies designed to improve the selfrregulation process Selfleadei39sl39u39p and social cognitive theory Selfrleadership also operates within the context of Bandura s 1986 1991 social cognitive theory Social cognitive theory suggests that human behavior may be best explained by a triadic reciprocal relationship among internal in uences external in uences and behavior Together with selfrregulation theory this reciprocal determinism view provides the other major conceptual framework upon which selfrleadership strategies are based Manz 1986 Much like selfrregulation theory social cognitive theory suggests that the basic structure of the selferegulatory system is comprised of processes involving selfrmonitoring selfrjudgments and selfrreactions But whereas selfrregulation deals primarily with the concept of discrepancy reduction social cognitive theory proposes a system of discrepancy production followed by discrepancy reduction The basic assumption is that individuals have control over setting their own performance standards Based on past performance experiences people will set performance goals in such a manner as to create discrepancy The production of discrepancy mobilizes and induces efforts to subsequently reduce discrepancy When discrepancies are eliminated higher standards are set and the process begins again Social cognitive theory also differs from selfrregulation in terms of selfrreactions According to Bandura and Cervone 1986 three types of selfrin uences mediate the relationship between goals and performance These in uences are selfrsatisfaction selfref cacy and the regulation of internal standards Selfrregulation theory focuses primarily on the internal regulation of standards Social cognitive theory in contrast stresses the importance of the selfrreactive in uences of satisfaction and selfref cacyi Selfref cacy is a key construct within social cognitive theory Selfref cacy describes a person s selfrassessment of the capabilities necessary to erform a speci c task Bandura 1986 1991 Gist 1987 Selfref cacy can in uence aspirations effort persistence and thoughtepatterns The concept of selfref cacy is of particular importance to selfrleadershipi Indeed a major objective of all selfrleadership strategies particularly natural reward and thought pattern strategies is the enhancement of selfref cacy perceptions in advance of higher performance levels eigi Manz 1986 Manz and Neck 2004 Neck and Manz 1992 1996a Prussia et ai 1998 High levels of taskrspeci c selfref cacy lead to higher performance standards Bandura 1991 greater effort and greater persistence in the pursuit of goals and objectives and ultimately greater effectiveness eigi Bandura and Self leadership theory and research 279 280 Cervone 1983 1986 Empirical evidence tends to support the usefulness of selfrleadership strategies in promoting selfref cacy perceptions For instance Frayne and Latham 1987 Latham and Frayne 1989 demonstrated a positive relationship between selfrmanagement training and selfref cacy for reducing absenteeism Furthermore Neck and Manz 1996a reported a signi cant difference in selfref cacy levels between a group that had received selfrleadership training and a nonrtraining control group More recently Prussia and colleagues Prussia et al 1998 examined the role of selfref cacy as a mediator of the relationship between selfrleadership strategies and performance outcomes Their results indicated signi cant relationships between selfrleadership strategies selfref cacy perceptions and task performance Taken together these ndings suggest that selfref cacy may function as the primary mechanism through which selfrleadership strategies affect performance Selfleadership selfmanagemmt and selfcontml Inspired by the concept of substitutes for leadership Kerr and Jermier 1978 selfrmanagement erg Manz and Sims 1980 Luthans and Davis 1979 Andrasik and Heimberg 1982 also operates within the framework of selfrregulation theory by providing speci c strategies for managing one s own behaviors in an effort to regulate discrepancy from set standards Manz 1986 Selfrmanagement is founded upon concepts of selfrcontrol originally developed in clinical psychology erg Cautela 1969 Mahoney and Thoresen 1974 Thoresen and Mahoney 1974 Mahoney and Arnkoff 1978 1979 Selfrmanagement has been described as a process through which an individual chooses a less attractive ire apparent low probability but perhaps ultimately more desirable behavior from among shortrrun alternatives Manz 1986 Manz and Sims 1980 Thus according to selfrmanagement undesirable shortrrun behaviors are energized by a focus on desirable longrterm consequences Manz and Sims 1980 Several speci c strategies of selfrcontrol have been presented in the clinical literature These strategies include selfrobservation selfrgoal setting cueing strategies selfrreinforcement selfrpunishment and rehearsal Mahoney and Arnkoff 1978 1979 These strategies were originally used in clinical settings in order to manage addictive or selfrdestructive healthrrelated behaviors eg smoking cessation or eating disorders These strategies were subsequently adapted to organizational settings and relabeled selfrmanagement by organizational theorists Luthans and Davis 1979 Manz and Sims 1980 Andrasik and Heimberg 1982 Later these same strategies of selfrcontrol and selfrmanagement became the basis for selfrleadership s behaviorrfocused strategies Manz 1986 Manz and Neck 2004 In short selfrmanagement consists of a set of strategies designed to help a person manage behavior with respect to reducing discrepancies from immediate externally set standards Selfrmanagement does not however facilitate the assessment of the standards themselves Thus while selfrmanagement provides ample selfrin uence in terms of how discrepancy reduction should be approached it provides little selfrin uence in terms of what should be done and why Manz 1986 Neck and Manz 1996b In other words the purposes and importance of the given standards are not addressed by selfrmanagementi In contrast selfrleadership is a more encompassing approach to selfein uence than selfrmanagement Manz 1986 Selfrleadership merges the behavioral strategies suggested by selfrmanagement and selfrcontrol with cognitive strategies based on the concepts of intrinsic motivation and constructive thinking Selfrleadership addresses not only the reduction of discrepancy from performance standards but also the purposes and appropriateness of the standards themselves Manz 1986 Thus according to selfrleadership the discrepancy reduction process is based on internalized superordinate standards of behavior rather than on immediate shortrrun operating standards Manz 1986 Superordinate or higherrlevel standards for selfrin uence provide speci c reasons for selfrmanaged behaviors For example rather than merely focusing on attaining a certain goal one might evaluate the validity and appropriateness of the goal within a greater context beyond the immediate situation By focusing on the reasons for behavior and by incorporating both cognitive and behavioral strategies selfrleadership theory represents a substantially higher level of selfrin uence than selfrmanagement Selfeleadership therefore subsumes selfrmanagement and speci es additional sets of cognitiveroriented strategies designed to in uence behavioral outcomes Selfrleadership also goes beyond selfrmanagement by addressing the superordinate standards ie the reasons for behavior Selfleadei39ship and intrinsic motivation Selfrleadership strategies have also been signi cantly informed by the concept of intrinsic motivation While selfrmanagement emphasizes extrinsic rewards ie outcomes such as praise recognition and sel frrein forcement using external reward contingencies selfrleadership extends beyond this perspective to focus on the natural rewards that result from the performance of the task or activity itself Manz 1986 Manz and Neck 2004 Selfrleadership s conceptualization of natural rewards is based primarily on the intrinsic motivation literature egi Deci 1975 particularly Deci and Ryan s 1985 cognitive evaluation theoryi Building on the work of White 1959 and deCharms 1968 cognitive evaluation theory suggests that the need for competence and the need for selfrdetermination are the primary mechanisms that drive intrinsic motivation The need for competence involves the need to exercise and extend one s capabilities while the need for selfrdetermination involves the need to feel free from pressures such as contingent rewards Deci and Ryan 1985 Cognitive evaluation theory contends that individuals will seek to nd and overcome challenges in an effort to increase feelings of competence and selfrdeterminationi Feelings of competence and selfrcontrol ie selfrdetermination are a central part of selfrleadership s conceptualization of natural rewards Manz and Neck 2004 According to selfrleadership to the extent that activities and tasks can be chosen structured or perceived in ways that lead to increased feelings of competence and selfrdetermination task performance will be enhanced Finally although natural reward strategies are generally more effective selfrreward strategies utilizing external reward contingencies as suggested by selfrmanagement may be more helpful in situations lacking natural or intrinsic rewards Manz and Neck 2004 That is to say given a task that is inherently unpleasant or tedious ie a task lacking intrinsically motivating aspects external selfrreward contingencies become particularly appropriate and effective Nevertheless most tasks have at least some potential to be naturally rewarding Thus for most tasks or activities natural reward strategies will be more effective and generally preferable Self leadership theory and research 281 282 Selfleadership and personality As mentioned earlier some theorists eigi Guzzo 1998 Markham and Markham 1998 have questioned whether selfrleadership is unique and distinguishable with respect to certain personality traits such as conscientiousness Selfleadership is usually conceptualized as learned behavior rather than as a xed trait Manz 1986 and selfrleadership proponents have generally ignored personality and individual difference factors Some advocates eigi Neck and Manz 1992 Neck et all 1995 have even implied that personality traits may be unrelated to selfleadership effectiveness citing a study Turner et all 1982 that found no relationship between extraversion and performance for individuals using mental imagery a selfleadership strategy In contrast Williams 1997 has suggested that a variety of personality traits are likely to be associated with selfleadership skills in meaningful ways In particular Williams 1997 proposed positive associations between selfleadership skills and extraversion emotional stability conscientiousness general selfef cacy internal locus of control and selfmonitoringi Empirical evidence provides some support for the existence of relationships between selfleadership and various personality concepts For example Williams et al 1995 have shown signi cant relationships between selfrmanagement and the MyersrBriggs Type Indicator Myers and McCaulley 1985 trait preferences of extraversion judging and sensing In addition Stewart and his colleagues Stewart et all 1996 demonstrated signi cant correlations p lt 001 between conscientiousness neuroticism and supervisor evaluations of selfeleadership behaviors On the other hand the ndings of Stewart and his colleagues Stewart et al 1996 seem to suggest that selfleadership is nonetheless a distinct concept from personality Their ndings revealed an interaction effect between conscientiousness and selfleadership training such that those scoring lowest in conscientiousness subsequently showed the greatest increase in selfleadership behaviors as a result of the training This lends support to the assertion that selfleadership behaviors are amenable to change eigi Manz 1986 while personality characteristics are relatively stable across both time and situation eigi Block 1981 Conley 1985 Costa and McCrae 1988 If selfleading behaviors are malleable while personality is not then these concepts may not be synonymous Selfregulation theory would also seem to indicate that selfleadership may operate apart from personality in uences In contrast to personality traits one s selfregulating tendencies may vary across situations Carver and Scheier 1998 Higgins 1998 For instance although people may have established tendencies regulatory focus varies from promotion to prevention across momentary situations Higgins 1996 1998 In so much as selfrleadership strategies operate within the general framework of selfregulation it seems reasonable to suggest that people may vary their utilization of selfleadership strategies separate and apart from the in uences of their xed personality traits Based on the theoretical and empirical evidence outline above it would appear that selfleadership dimensions are distinct from yet related to certain key personality traits Houghton et al 2004 have recently provided some additional empirical evidence in support of this position They reported signi cant relationships between the three selfleadership strategy dimensions and the personality traits of extraversion and conscientiousness Nevertheless a comparison of the hierarchical factor structures of selfrleadership and a constellation of personality traits including extraversion and conscientiousness utilizing factor analysis and structural equations modeling techniques suggested that the three selfrleadership strategy dimensions are distinct from personality traits particularly at lower levels of abstraction Houghton et al 2004 In the preceding sections we have argued that selfrleadership while related to and sometimes predicated upon similar psychological processes is a unique concept that may be distinguished from other concepts of selfrin uence and personality More speci cally we have suggested that selfrleadership is a normative constellation of behavioral and cognitive strategies that operates within theoretical frameworks provided by more descriptive theories including selferegulation social cognitive selfrcontrol and intrinsic motivation theories We have also contended that selfrleadership is conceptually distinct from related personality traits such as extraversion and conscientiousness We have provided theoretical and empirical arguments and rationale in support of our positions supplemented by available empirical evidence Nevertheless the extent of the uniqueness of selfrleadership and its value for understanding and shaping one s behavior is a question that should be further addressed by future empirical research In the following section we will dependent variables associated with the selfrleadership concept Selfleadership predictable outcomesmechanisms The selfrleadership literature has suggested a number of predictable outcomes or dependent variables thought to be associated with the application of selfeleadership strategies These include 1 t 39 cwm39 39 39 iuu trust potency positive affect job satisfaction psychological empowerment and selfref cacyi These outcomes may serve as the mechanisms that affect individual group and organizational performance Although we have previously mentioned some of these possible outcomes we will now provide a more detailed overview of the primary selfrleadership predictable outcome variables Commitment and independence Commitment and independence are two of the more commonly suggested outcome variables in the selfrleadership literature erg Houghton and Yoho 2005 Manz and Sims 2001 Individuals engaging in selfrleadership often develop a sense of ownership over their tasks and work processes As a result selfrleading individuals may demonstrate higher levels of commitment to their tasks goals teams or organizations than individuals who are not engaging in selfrleadership erg Bligh et all 2006 Houghton and Yoho 2005 Manz and Sims 2001 Likewise individuals practising selfrleadership may experience greater feelings of control and autonomy leading to heightened levels of independence in behavior and decision making Manz and Sims 2001 In contrast individuals who are not actively practising selfrleadership may become dependent on external in uences from traditional leaders to guide their actions becoming increasingly incapable of independent thought and action Houghton and Yoho 2005 Although these outcomes have often been suggested in the literature no empirical examinations to date have attempted to substantiate these Self leadership theory and research 283 284 claims Future researchers should undertake to examine these hypothesized relationships in greater detail Creativity and innovation Creativity may be de ned as the development of original novel appropriate and useful ideas while innovation implies the subsequent implementation of creative concepts within in an organizational egi Amabile et at 1996 Selfrleadership proponents have often suggested relationships between selfrleadership and creativityinnovation eigi DiLiello and Houghton 2006 Houghton and Yoho 2005 Manz and Sims 2001 As DiLiello and Houghton 2006 suggest many critical concepts from the creativity literature may be related to selfrleadership For example autonomy and selfrdetermination are key components of both creativity and selfrleadership DiLiello and Houghton 2006 Yun et at 2006 have provided empirical evidence suggesting that the need for autonomy may be positively related to individual selfrleadership practices and autonomy is often identi ed as an essential component in individual creativity egi Amabile 1996 For a more detailed overview of the relationships between selfrleadership and creativityinnovation see DiLiello and Houghton 2006 As these authors suggest additional research is needed to further clarify the relationships between selfrleadership and creativity innovation Tmst and team potemy Selfrleadership has often been presented as a critical component for facilitating team effectiveness particularly in selfrmanaging teams with no formal internal leader eigi Houghton et al 2003a 2003b Manz and Sims 1987 1994 Neck et at 1996 Of particular note trust and team potency have been suggested as two possible selfrleadership outcomes that may have important implications for team effectiveness Bligh et at 2006 Trust generally refers to the belief that others will be honest upholding commitments and declining to take unfair advantage when given an opportunity egi Cummings and Bromiley 1996 Team potency is a belief jointly held among team members that the team can be effective in accomplishing its goals and objectives Guzzo 1998 See Bligh et at 2006 for an inrdepth discussion of this issue and presentation of a model detailing the relationships between selfrleadership trust and potency in a team context along with propositions for future research in this area Positive affect and job satisfaction Positive affect and job satisfaction are two additional predictable selfrleadership outcomes that have been advanced in the literature In a eld study of a group of employees at America West airlines Neck and Manz 1996a found signi cant relationships between a thought selfrleadership training intervention and subsequent levels of both positive affect enthusiasm and job satisfaction More recently in a separate empirical study Houghton and Jinkerson 2004 reported a signi cant relationship between selfrleadership s constructive thought strategies and job satisfaction as mediated by the absence of dysfunctional thought processes and by subjective wellebeing happiness Although these studies provide good preliminary support for these relationships future research should continue to investigate the role of selfrleadership in shaping positive affect and job satisfaction Psychological empowerment Psychological empowerment is yet another commonly predicted outcome of selfleadership Indeed selfleadership has often been proclaimed as a primary mechanism for facilitating empowerment eg Houghton and Yoho 2005 Manz 1992 Prussia et al 1998 For example Shipper and Manz 1992 have presented a case study that portrays selfleadership as an integral part of the empowerment of the employees at WL Gore and Associates Selfleadership may enhance feelings of empowerment by creating perceptions of meaningfulness purpose selfdetermination and competence Lee and Koh 2001 More precisely the behaviorfocused strategies of selfobservation selfgoal setting and selfreward can foster feelings of selfdetermination and competence while natural reward strategies are aimed at increasing feelings of competence selfcontrol and purpose lVlanz and Neck 2004 pp 424 Because the purported relationship between selfleadership and psychological empowerment has yet to be fully explored in the literature we strongly encourage future research in this direction Selfef cacy Selfef cacy is perhaps the single most commonly mentioned selfleadership outcome variable eg Manz 1986 Manz and Neck 2004 Neck and Manz 1992 1996a b Prussia et al 1998 As we have discussed in detail in an earlier section empirical research eg Neck and Manz 1996a b Prussia et al 1998 has provided signi cant evidence in support of selfef cacy as the primary mechanism through which selfleadership affects performance Nevertheless this is yet another area that could bene t from additional empirical investigation To summarize our arguments to this point we have suggested that selfleadership is a normative concept that may operate within several theoretical contexts including selfregulation theory social cognitive theory intrinsic motivation theory and selfcontrol theory We have further suggested that the application of selfleadership strategies may result in a number of predictable outcomesperformance mechanisms including commitment independence creativity innovation trust team potency positive affect job satisfaction psychological empowerment and selfef cacy We believe that these outcome variables in turn may lead to higher levels of individual team and organizational performance Figure 1 provides a visual overview of these suggested relationships Theoretical Contexts Predictable Outcomes SelfRegulation Theory Performance Mechanisms Social Cognitive Theory Commitment Intrinsic Motivation Theory Independence SelfControl Theory Behavior Focused Natural Reward Constructive Thought SelfLeadership Strategies CreativityInnovation Psychological Empowerment Trust Team Potency Positive Affect Job Satisfaction SelfEf cacy Improved Individual Team and Organizational Performance Self leadership theory and research 285 Figure 1 A model of self leadership theoretical contexts and performance mechanisms 286 Current trends and future research directions After more than two decades of selfrleadership theory and research the eld continues to move in new and exciting directions Current trends in selfrleadership research include interculturalinternational issues selfrleadership contingency factors executive health tness and shared leadership The intercultural and international aspects of selfrleadership have not been fully explored to date Selfrleadership has developed largely within the context of the culture of the USA As a result the usefulness and applicability of selfrleadership should be examined across a variety of international settings Indeed such efforts are already underway For example Georgianna 2005 recently reported a number of signi cant differences in the use of selfrleadership strategies between US and Chinese students In a similar vein Neubert and Wu 2006 examine the psychometric properties and construct validity of the Houghton and Neck 2002 Revised Selfrleadership Questionnaire RSLQ in a Chinese context This study investigates the extent to which selfrleadership dimensions are generalizable across cultures as well as addressing the issue of how to measure the existence and development of selfrleadership practices across cultures Finally Alves et al 2006 examine the culturally bounded nature of leadership and explore the applicability of selfrleadership theory across cultures by drawing on Hofstede s 1980 2001 cultural dimensions framework to address the question of how selfrleadership may be understood and practised in other cultures Another current trend in selfrleadership research concerns selfrleadership contingency factors Although proponents have generally encouraged the use of selfrleadership strategies across a wide variety of situations some researchers have questioned whether selfrleadership should be encouraged across all types of situations For example Markham and Markham 1998 p 199 have raised the issue as to whether selfrleadership is a universally applicable theory that will work with all employees under all circumstances or a contingency theory that best ts certain boundary conditions C As a matter of fact selfrleadership theorists have often admitted that encouraging follower selfeleadership may not be universally appropriate For instance Manz and Sims 2001 pp 6374 have stated that it is naive to assume that relying on selfrleadership is always appropriate r r several important situational factors in uence the appropriateness of attempts to develop selfrleadership in followers i In response these concerns Houghton and Yoho 2005 have recently presented a comprehensive contingency leadership model that speci es when and under what circumstances selfrleadership should be encouraged by organizational leaders The model suggests that certain key contingency factors including follower development situational urgency and task structure dictate which of several leadership approaches including directive transactional transformational and empowering should be chosen Each speci c leadership approach in turn results in a speci c combination of predictable outcomes which include the level of follower involvement dependence creativity and psychological empowerment Along the same lines Yun et al 2006 present an alternative contingency model of leadership in which the interaction between the leadership approach and follower need for autonomy can in uence subsequent follower selfrleadershipi The results of their study support the view that speci c attributes of the follower can be an important element within a contingency view of leadership In addition to these possible research directions the realm of selfleadership might need to be expanded beyond behavioral and cognitive elements to include physiological components as well In other words a comprehensive view concerning the potential of individuals to truly selflead themselves certainly must be impacted by their tness level and nutritional habits The work of Neck and Cooper 2000 and Neck et al 2004 suggesting that t leaders are more productive leaders is a step in this direction Finally one of the more exciting and promising areas of current selfleadership research relates to shared leadership Shared leadership is an ongoing process of mutual in uence that occurs when the members of a team share traditional leadership roles and responsibilities erg Pearce 2004 Recently Houghton etal 2003a presented a model that explains the role of SuperLeadership and selfleadership in facilitating shared leadership in teams In short this model suggests that an empowering leadership approach from the external vertical leader will encourage team member selfleadership which in turn will enhance selfef cacy perceptions among team members for sharing leadership roles Pearce and Manz 2005 have further elaborated on the importance of self and shared leadership operating in combination particularly in the context of knowledge work Bligh et al 2006 expand even further in this direction to examine the relationships between self and shared leadership in the context of teamrbased knowledge work presenting a model that links self and shared leadership as important antecedents to knowledge creation in teamrbased environments Future selfleadership research should continue along the lines of these current trends In particular future empirical research effort should be focused on further examinations of the intercultural aspects of selfleadership selfleadership contingency and outcome factors and the role of selfleadership within the shared leadership process Future selfleadership research should also empirically investigate the way in which selfleadership processes operate within the larger theoretical contexts of selfregulation social cognitive intrinsic motivation and selfcontrol theories For instance future research should directly examine the effectiveness of selfleadership strategies in improving selfregulation Although selfleadership strategies are generally portrayed as ef cacious for improving selffocus goalrsetting processes goal valence and saliency feedback process and taskrrelated con dence or erformance expectancies very little empirical research has examined these relationships Thus research endeavors should examine the extent to which selfleadership strategies facilitate improvements in measurable aspects of the selfregulatory process Future research should also examine the distinctiveness of selfleadership strategy dimensions at the measurement level in a comparison of scales designed to measure selfleadership such as Houghton and Neck s 2002 Revised SelfLeadership Questionnaire and instruments desi ed to directly measure selfregulatory processes such as a revised version of Kuhl s 1994 actionrstate orientation scale Diefendorff et all 2000 Future selfleadership research should also strive to investigate empirically the relationships between selfleadership and the predictable outcome variables discussed above In particular researchers should expand on the work of Prussia et al 1998 to delineate more clearly the role of selfef cacy as a primary mechanism through which selfleadership strategies in uence various performance outcomes To the extent that Self leadership theory and research 287 288 the role of selfeleadership strategies can be differentiated from the mechanisms through which they operate selfrleadership s distinctive yet harmonious identity within its various theoretical frameworks may be better understood Finally future selfrleadership research should also continue to investigate speci c relationships between personality and selfrleadershipi In particular future researchers should investigate the relationships between selfrleadership and other personality characteristics of interest such as general selfref cacy selfresteem locus of control and selfmonitoring see also Williams 1997 In conclusion two decades after its conception selfrleadership continues to show impressive potential for application in today s fastrpaced and highly technical competitive environments characterized by exible and decentralized organizational types As organizational members at all levels are encouraged to take more and more responsibility for their own jobs and work behaviors the ability for these workers to successful lead themselves will become increasingly critical As selfrleadership strategies are acknowledged as having value beyond related psychological concepts empirical research in the selfrleadership domain may be advanced and our understanding and application of this useful selfrin uence concept will continue to expand in the context of twentye rst century organizational settings References Alves JC Lovelace KJ Manz CC Matsypura D Toyasaki F and Ke K 2006 A cross cultural perspective of self leadership journal ofManagerial Psychology Vol 21 No 4 pp 338 59 Arnabile TM 1996 Creativity in Context Westview Press Boulder CO Arnabile TM Conti R Coon H Lazenby J and Herron M 1996 Assessing the work environment for creativityquot Academy of Management journal Vol 39 pp 1154 84 Anderson LS and Prussia GE 1997 The self leadership questionnaire preliminary assessment of 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Englewood Cliffs NJ Manz CC 1986 Self leadership toward an expanded theory of self in uence processes in organizationsquot Academy of Management Review Vol 11 pp 585 600 Manz CC 1990a How to become a SuperLeaderquot Executive Excellence Vol 7 No 6 pp 10 13 Manz CC 19901 Beyond self managing work teams toward self leading teams in the workplacequot in Woodman R and Pasmore W Eds Research in Organizational Change and Development JAI Press Greenwich CT pp 273 99 Manz CC 1991 Developing self leaders through SuperLeadershipquot Supervisory Management Vol 36 No 9 p 3 Manz CC 1992a Mastering Self Leadership Empowering Yourself for Personal Excellence Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs NJ Manz CC 1992b Self leadership the heart of empowerment The journal for Quality and Participation Vol 15 pp 80 9 Manz CC and Neck CR 1991 Inner leadership creating productive thought patternsquot The Executive Vol 5 pp 87 95 Manz CC and Neck CR 1999 Mastering Self Leadership Empowering Yourself for Personal nce 2nd ed Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River NJ Manz CC and Neck CR 2004 Mastering Self Leadership Empowering Yourself for Personal Excellence 3rd ed Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River NJ Manz CC and Sims HP Jr 1980 Self management as a substitute for leadership a social learning perspectivequot Academy of Management Review Vol 5 pp 361 7 Manz CC and Sims HP Jr 1986 Leading self managed groups a conceptual analysis of a paradoxquot Economic and Industrial Democracy Vol 7 pp 141 65 Manz CC and Sims HP Jr 1987 Leading workers to lead themselves the external leadership of self managing work teamsquot Administrative Science Quarterly Vol 32 pp 106 28 Manz CC and Sims HP Jr 1989 Superleadership Leading Others to Lead Themselves Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs NJ Manz CC and Sims HP Jr 1991 Superleadership beyond the myth of heroic leadershipquot Organizational Dynamics Vol 19 pp 18 35 Manz CC and Sims HP Jr 1994 Business Without Bosses How Self Managing Work Teams are Budding High Performing Companies Wiley New York NY Manz CC and Sims HP Jr 2001 ew Superleadership Leading Others to Lead Themselves BeIrett Koehler San Francisco CA Markham SE and Markham LS 1995 Self management and self leadership reexamined a levels of analysis perspectivequot Leadership Quarterly Vol 6 pp 343 59 Markham SE and Markham LS 1998 Self management and self leadership reexamined a levels of analysis perspective in Danereau F and Yarnrnarino FJ Eds Leadership The Multiple Level Approaches Classical and New Wave JAI Press Stanford CT pp 193 210 Mayer JD and Salovey P 1997 What is emotional intelligencequot in Salovey P and Sluyter D ds Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence Implications for Educators Basic Books New York NY pp 3 31 Myers LB and McCaulley MH 1985 Manual A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator Consulting Psychologists Press Palo Alto CA Nahavandi A 2006 The Art and Science of Leadership 4th ed Prentice Hall Upper Saddle r Neck CR 1996 Thought self leadership a self regulatory approach to overcoming resistance to organizational changequot International journal of Organizational Analysis Vol 4 pp 202 16 Neck CR 1998 The rest of the self leadership storyquot in Dansereau F and Yarnrnarino FJ Eds Leadership The Multiple Level Approaches Classical and New Wave JAI Press Stanford CT pp 221 8 Neck CR and Cooper KH 2000 The t executive exercise and diet guidelines for enhanced p rfor mancequot Academy of Management Executive Vol 14 No 2 pp 72 83 Neck CR and Manz CC 1992 Thought self leadership the impact of self talk and mental imagery on performance journal of Organizational Behavior Vol 12 pp 681 99 Neck CR and Manz CC 1996a Thought self leadership the impact of mental strategies training on employee behavior cognition and emotionquot journal of Organizational Behavior Vol 17 pp 445 67 Neck CR and Manz CC 199613 Total leadership quality integrating employee self leadership and total quality managementquot in ous S and Fedor D Eds Advances in the Management of Organizational Quality Vol 1 JAI Press Greenwich CT pp 39 77 Neck CR and Manz CC 1999 In search of the self led soldier army leadership in the twenty rst centuryquot in Hunt G Dodge GE and Wong L Eds Out of the Box Leadership Transforming the Tuenw First Century Army and other Top Organizations JAI Press Stamford CT pp 153 76 Neck CR and Manz CC 2007 Mastering Self Leadership Empowering Yourself for Personal Excellence 4th ed Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River NJ Neck CR and Milliman LF 1994 Thought self leadership nding spiritual ful llment in organizational life journal of Managerial Psychology Vol 9 pp 9 16 Neck CP Ashcraft R and VanSandt C 1998 Employee self leadership enhancing the ectiveness of nonpro tsquot International journal of Organization Theory and Behavior Vol 1 pp 521 52 Neck CP Neck HM and Manz CC 1997a Thought self leadership mind management for quotjournal of E 39 Vol 2 pp 25 36 Neck CP Smith W and Godwin J 19976 Thought self leadership a self regulatory approach to diversity managementquot journal of Managerial Psychology Vol 12 pp 190 203 Neck CP Stewart G and Manz CC 1995 Thought self leadership as a framework for enhancing the performance of performance appraisersquot journal of Applied Behavioral Science Vol 31 pp 278 302 Self leadership theory and research 293 294 Neck CP Stewart GL and Manz CC 1996 Self leaders within self leading teams toward an optimal equilibriumquot in Beyerlein M Ed Advances in Interdisciplinary Studies 0 Warh Teams Vol 3 JAI Press Greenwich CT pp 43 65 Neck CP Mitchell T Manz CC and Thompson E 2004 Fit t0 Lead The Praven 8 Week Salutian far Shaping Yaur Bady Yaur Mind And Yaur Career St Martin39s Press New York Neck CP Nouri H Houghton JD and Godwin JL 2003 How self leadership a ects the goal setting processquot Human Resaurce Management Review Vol 13 pp 691 7 Neubert MJ and Wu JC 2006 An investigation of the generalizability of the Houghton and Neck Revised Leadership Questionnaire to a Chinese contextquot aurnal 0f Managerial Psychalagy Vol 21 No 4 pp 360 73 Pearce CL 2004 The future of leadership combining vertical and shared leadership to transform knowledge workquot Academy 0f Management Executive Vol 18 pp 47 57 Pearce CL and Manz CC 2005 The new silver bullets of leadership the importance of self and shared leadership in knowledge workquot Organizational Ibnamics Vol 34 pp 130 40 Powers WT 1973 Behaviar The Cantral 0fPerce1 ti0n Aldine Press Chicago IL Prussia GE Anderson JS and Manz CC 1998 Self leadership and performance outcomes the mediating in uence of self ef cacyquot aurnal 0f Organizatianal Behaviar Vol 19 pp 523 38 Reilly R Brown 13 Blood M and Malatesta C 1981 The effects of realistic job previews a study and discussion of the literaturequot Persannel Psychalagy Vol 34 pp 823 34 Roberts HE and Foti RJ 1998 Evaluating the interaction between self leadership and work structure in predicting job satisfactionquot aurnal 0 Business and Psychalagy Vol 12 pp 257 67 Salovey P and Mayer JD 1990 Emotional intelligencequot Imagination Cagnition and ersanality Vol 9 pp 185 211 Seligman MEP 1991 Learned Optimism Alfred Knopf New York NY Shipper F and Manz CC 1992 Employee self management without formally designated t ms an alternative road to empowermentquot Organizatianal Dynamics Vol 20 No 3 pp 48 61 Simon HA 1955 A behavioral model of rational choicequot Quarterly aurnal 0fEc0n0mics Vol 69 pp 99 118 Sims HP Jr and Manz CC 1996 Campany 0fHer0es Unleashing the Pauer 0 Self Leadership Wiley New York NY Stewart GL Carson KP and Cardy RL 1996 The joint effects of conscientiousness and self leadership training on self directed behavior in a service settingquot Persannel Psychalagy Vol 49 pp 143 64 Stewart GL and Barrick MR 2000 Team structure and performance assessing the mediating role of intrateam process and the moderating role of task typequot Academy 0 Management f0urnal Vol 43 pp 135 49 Thoresen CE and Mahoney MJ 1974 Behaviaral Self Cantral Holt Rinehart amp Winston NY Tulner PE Kohl RM and Morris LW 1982 Individual differences in skilled performance following imagery of bilateral skillquot Perceptual and M0t0r Skills Vol 55 pp 771 80 Vallacher RR and Wegner DM 1985 A Theary 0fActi0n Identi catian Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Hillsdale NJ Vallacher RR and Wegner DM 1987 What do people think they39re doing Action identi cation and human behaviorquot Psychalagicaj Review Vol 94 pp 3 15 VanSandt CV and Neck CR 2003 Bridging ethics and self leadership overcoming ethical iscrepancies between employee and organizational standardsquot aurnaj 0 Business Ethics Vol 43 pp 363 87 Waitley D 1995 Empires 0 the Mind Lessans t0 Lead and Succeed in a Knauledge Based 0rld William Morrow New York NY Wanous LP 1973 Effects of raelistic job preview on job acceptance job attitudes and job survivalquot aurnaj 0pr1 lied Psychalagy Vol 58 pp 327 32 White RW 1959 Motivation reconsidered the concept of con dencequot Psychalagy Review Vol 66 pp 297 333 Wicklund RA and Duval S 1971 Opinion change and performance facilitation as a result of objective self awarenessquot aurnal 0fEu1 erimentaJ Saciaj Psychalagy Vol 7 pp 319 42 Wiener N 1948 Cybernetics Contral and C0mmunicati0n in the Animal and the Machine MIT Press Cambridge MA Williams RL Verble JS Price DE and Layne EH 1995 Relationship of self management to personality types and indicesquot aurnaj afPersanaJiw Assessment Vol 64 pp 494 506 Williams S 1997 Personality and self leadershipquot Human Resaurce Management Review Vol 7 pp 139 55 Yun 8 Cox J and Sims HP Jr 2006 The forgotten follower a contingency model of leadership and follower self leadershipquot journal 0fManagerialPsych010gy Vol 21 No 4 88 Corresponding author Christopher P Neck can be contacted at christopherneckyahoocom To purchase reprints of this article please e mail reprintsemeraldinsightcom Or visit our web site for further details WWWemeraldinsightcomlreprints Self leadership theory and research 295


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