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by: Cathy Marvin


Cathy Marvin
GPA 3.62

Tiffanie Holloway

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Tiffanie Holloway
Class Notes
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This 63 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cathy Marvin on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSB 2000 at Florida State University taught by Tiffanie Holloway in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see /class/205389/psb-2000-florida-state-university in Psychlogy at Florida State University.




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Date Created: 09/17/15
PSBZOOO Brain amp Behavior Tiffanie Holloway About Me Tiffanie Holloway Ph D Candidate Undergrad BS Central Michigan University in Psychology and Neuroscience Grad Florida State University Neuroscience Research Interests Understanding circuitry in the brain involved in language acquisition and processing General Interests Understanding different pathologies of the brain Syllabus posted on BB Course Objectives Provide a basic understanding of the neurobiological basis of behavior Class Format Lectures PowerPoint Lectures will be posted prior to class Classroom Conduct Turn off cell phones Please be courteous to your neighbors by not chatting during the lecture Cheating will NOT be tolerated Of ce hours will be held W 1140am 1240pm in room A207 Or by appointment Contact information hollowaypsyfsuedu Office phone 6458918 Grading Exams 3 150pts each 450 Quizzes 6 10pts each 50 500 Percentage Score Letter Grade 94100 A 9093 A 8689 B 8285 B 7881 B 75 77 C 7174 C 6770 C 64 66 D 5963 D 58 or less F Exams and Quizzes Multiple choice Best way to prepare for each Exam Come to class Read the book chapters Ask questions Fill out study guides Of ce hours are meant for you so use them Extra Credit What everyone is wanting to know You can earn up to 20 points by writing a one page scienti c article review Guidelines for this assignment are posted on Due the last day of class Late papers will NOT be accepted Questions Chapter 1 The Major Issues The MindBrain Relationship Biological Psychology aka biopsychology psychobiology physiological psychology and behavioral neuroscience is the study ofthe physiological and genetic basis of behavior Emphasis is placed upon physiological evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of behavior Behavior is anything that an organism does that involves action and response to stimulation Goal is to relate biological processes to psychology Astrong emphasis is placed upon brain functioning Preface Some of you may have reservations about taking this course One reason may be that biological psychology employs the language of biology which may be unfamiliar to some of you However no matter what your eld of study understanding the fundamentals of neuroscience is important for understanding many aspects of life ie development decision making thought mental illness etc Historical Origins of Biological Psychology Where is the mind located Where does behavior originate Until relatively modern times there has been no de nitive answer to the question of the physical location of the mind Aristotle 384322 BC thought that the mind resided in the heart because that is where the blood pumped through the brain merely cooled the blood Egyptians preserved the heart and discarded the brain Historical Origins of Biological Psychology More questions is the mind and the brain synonymous What is consciousness Why is there consciousness How do we answer this The MindBrain Relationship Commonsense explanations are those in which we may infer why a behavior occurs Ex She wantedquot or He likesquot Don t always work Can you explain what laughing crying or yawning accomplish Biological explanations can fall into 4 categories Physiological 2 Ontogenetic 3 Evolutionary 4 Functional The MindBrain Relationship Physiological Explanation relates a behavior to the activity ofthe brain and other organs Ex regions required for singing in a songbird brain can growshrink in the presenceabsence of hormones testosterone this enables the male bird to sing The MindBrain Relationship Ontogenetic Explanation describes the development of a structure or a behavior Involves tracing genes environment nutrition experiences etc Ex human language development requires the FoxP2 gene Immunizations linking to autism debatable The MindBrain Relationship Evolutionary Explanation reconstructs the evolutionary history of a structure or behavior Ex goose bumps in humans may have been a defense mechanism inherited from an organism that use it to make themselves look bigger ie cats The MindBrain Relationship Functional Explanation describes Whya structure or behavior evolved as it did Ex Camou aged appearance and mimicry Monarch Viceroy The MindBrain Relationship Biological explanations of behavior raise the issue of the relationship between the mind and the brain also known as the mindbody or mindbrain problem The mindbrain problem has a number of theories attached to it The MindBrain Relationship Dualism is the belief that there are different kinds of substances and the mind and the body are separate entities Two major forms interactionism and parallelism Most common belief among nonscientists Rejected by most neuroscientists Why The MindBrain Relationship Rene Descartes French philosopher reasoned that the only thing that could be trusted was the fact that thought existed I think therefore I amquot Believed the body worked like a machine following the laws of physics The mind was a nonmaterial entity that did not follow the laws of physics Where did the two interact The MindBrain Relationship Reasoned that the mind and brain could interact at a single point in space pineal gland seat of consciousness Why the pineal gland It was an independent structure It was surrounded by the ventricles Galen Thought that only humans possessed a pineal gland The MindBrain Relationship Monism is the belief that the universe is only comprised of one type of substance Forms of monism include Materialism everything that exists is physical by nature Hobbes Mentalism only the mind truly exists Identity position mental processes are the same as brain processes but simply described in different ways Ex Feeling afraid vs Activation of the amygdale The MindBrain Relationship Explanations of the mindbody relationship do not answer some fundamental questions Why is consciousness a property of brain activity What kind of brain activity produces consciousness How does brain activity produce consciousness The MindBrain Relationship Because consciousness is not observable it s function is often dif cult to de ne and or explain The MindBrain Relationship Chalmers 1995 proposes two problems that must be distinguished when discussing consciousness Easy problems focus on differences in conscious states and their mechanisms Hard problems focus on why and how brain activity is associated with consciousness brain scan techniques to identify speci c regions corresponding to activity when a stimulus is consciously detected The MindBrain Relationship Chalmers 1995 proposes two problems that must be distinguished when discussing consciousness Easy problems focus on differences in conscious states and their mechanisms Hard problems focus on why and how brain activity is associated with consciousness brain scan techniques to identify specific regions corresponding to activity when a stimulus is consciously detected Monitoring brain activity when attention is directed or focused upon varying competing stimuli Dothetest The Genetics of Behavior How much influence does genetics have on a person s behavior How much does the environment shape a person s behavior Both genes and environment interact to shape human behavior The fundamental issue is how much of a role genetics play in shaping human behaviors Examples psychological disorders weight gain personality sexual orientation The Genetics of Behavior 19th century monk Gregor Mendel demonstrated that inheritance occurs through genes x Darantm AABB i aabb genetgmn r M L A selvipulimat d n generatiun A3517 4 F2 gener twn 9 ions Entyukpadh Emma m The Genetics of Behavior Genes are basic units of heredity that maintain their structural identity from one generation to anot er Genes are aligned along chromosomes strands of genes and come in pairs Ex EV Chromosome Nucleus The Genetics of Behavior A gene is a portion of a chromosome and is composed of deoxyribonuoleio acid DNA Properties of DNA Double stranded helix Selfreplicating can build itself Composed of 4 base pairs Guanine Cytosine Adenine Thymine 2quot ms 3 Base pairs GC Ajenlnu Hiymm AT E Guamm Cylusn Siigarphusuhats mum Base pairs A DNA serves as a model for the synthesis of ribonucleic acid RNA Properties of RNA Single stranded helix Copy of one ofthe DNA strands Composed of4 base pairs Guanine Cytosine Adenine Uracil RNA s function is to code for amino acids to make proteins Every 3 base pairs code of one amino acid Ex UUC Phenylalanine UGG Tryptophan quotw m Genome Raeamn InsllLulE DNA Self repicating molecule RNA Copy of one strand 5 DN A triplet of bases determines Protein one amino acid Building blocks for proteins mm mm HmuE mmon Fig 17 p 12 The Genetics of Behavior Proteins determine the development of the body by forming part of the structure of the body serving as enzymes that act as biological catalysts and regulate chemical reactions in the body What you want to know The order of genetic information The Genetics of Behavior Language of genetics Homozygous for a gene means that a person has an identical pair of genes on the two chromosomes Heterozygous for a gene means that a person has an unmatched pair of genes on the two chromosomes 1 quot quotquot J 4 The Genetics of Behavior Some genes can be either dominant or recessive Examples eye color ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide PTC A dominant gene shows a strong effect in either the homozygous or heterozygous condition A recessive gene shows its effect only in the homozygous condition Father Mother Genes Tt Genes Tt Heterozygous Heterozygous ter Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 mmmm mama Fig 18 p 13 The Genetics of Behavior Each chromosome participates in reproduction independently of the others Each species has a certain number of chromosomes Crossing over occurs when a pair of chromosomes break apart during reproduction and reconnects and attaches to the second chromosome BC ampbc Bc ampbC The Genetics of Behavior Types of genes include Autosomal genes all genes except for sex linked genes Sexlinked genes genes located on the sex chromosomes In mammals the sex chromosomes are designated X amp Y Females have two X chromosomes XX Males have an X and a Y chromosome XY The Genetics of Behavior During reproduction Females contribute an X chromosome Males contribute either an X or a Y chromosome that determines the sex of the child The Genetics of Behavior The human Y chromosome has genes for 27 proteins The human X chromosome has genes for approximately 1500 proteins Thus sexlinked genes usually refer to X linked genes Example Redgreen color deficiency Sexlimited o es are Genes t are present in feet on one sex The Genetics of Behavior Sources of variation in a species that allows for evolution to occur include Recombination refers to a new combination of genes in the offspring that yield characteristics not found in either parent Mutation refers to a change in a single gene that is rare random and often independent of the needs ofthe organism The Genetics of Behavior Almost all behaviors have both a genetic component and an environmental component Researchers study monozygotic and fraternal twins to infer how much of a genetic component exists for a particular behavior Researchers also study adopted children and their resemblance to their biological parents to infer the influence of heredity The Genetics of Behavior Estimates of hereditary in uences are often dif cult to infer and are prone to error Sources of error include the following The inability to distinguish between the effects of genes and prenatal in uences Environmental factors can inactivate genes methylation Ex maternal behavior in mice The Genetics of Behavior Sources of error con t Multiplier effect genetic tendencies that guide behavior will result in a change in the environment that magni es the original tendency Traits with a strong hereditary in uence can by modi ed by environmental intervention Eg Phenylketonuria PKU cannot metabolize phenylalanine The Genetics of Behavior PKU cont All newborns are screened If not carefully monitored it can lead to mental retardation Microcephaly Can be prevented by a diet low in phenylalanine Meat nuts cheese legumes Women affected with PKU must be extremely careful during pregnancy The Genetics of Behavior Important Note Genes do not directly produce behaviors Genes produce proteins that increase the probability that a behavior will develop under certain circumstances Genes can also have an indirect affect Genes can alter your environment by producing behaviors or traits that alter how people in your environment react to you The Genetics of Behavior Evolution refers to a change in the frequency of various genes in a population over generations Evolution attempts to answer two questions 1 How some species evolve 2 How do species evolve The Genetics of Behavior How species m evolve involves the tentative construction of evolutionary trees Eivdl U mun Mam mm mm mm Mmmmmmn w m 55 a 5 54 E 3 s E Fig 110 p 17 a 2m Thurman Hana Educnnm The Genetics of Behavior How species do evolve rests upon two assumptions 10ffspring generally resemble their parents for genetic reasons 2Mutations and recombination of genes introduce new heritable variations that help or harm the chance of survival and reproduction The Genetic of Behavior Common misconceptions about evolution include the following Lamarckian evolution The use or disuse of some structure or behaVIor causes an increase or decrease in that behaVIorquot Humans have stopped evolvingquot Key is not survival but reproduction Evolution means improvementquot Depends on the environment some genes may be advantages in one environment but not in another Evolution acts to benefit the individual or the speCIesquot Not always depends on whether the gene is passed on The Genetics of Behavior Evolutionary psychology sociobiology focuses upon functional explanations of how behaviors evolved Assumes that behaviors characteristic of a species have arisen through natural selection and provide a survival advantage u thulmv w 1th r mum Thumsun new Edummn Fig 113 p 24 The Use of Animals in Research Animal research is an important source of information for biological psychology but remains a highly controversial topic Animal research varies on the amount of stress and or pain that is caused to the animal itself The Use of Animals in Research Reasons for studying animals include 1 The underlying mechanisms of behavior are similar across species and often easier to study in nonhuman species 2 We are interested in animals for their own sake 3 What we learn about animals sheds light on human evolution 4 Some experiments cannot use humans because of legal or ethical reasons The Use of Animals in Research Opposition to animal research varies Minimalists favor rm regulation on research and place consideration upon the type of animal used and the amount of stress induced Abolitionists maintain that all animals have the same rights as humans and any use of animals is unethical The Use of Animals in Research Justi cation for research considers the amount of bene t gained compared to the amount of distress caused to the animal No clear dividing line exists Colleges and research institutions in the United States are required to have an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Oversee and determine acceptable procedures


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