HON INTR ATMOSPHERE
HON INTR ATMOSPHERE MET 1010
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Brandon Eichmann on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MET 1010 at Florida State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/205394/met-1010-florida-state-university in Meteorology at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Jon Ahlquist 1022006 Chapter 5 Condensation nuclei p 109 Condensation nuclei tiny particles on which condensa lon can occur Abundant 10039s to 1000039s in cubic centimeter 9 Small less than El 2 micrometers Most abundant ieast errective Formation of dew and frost Condensation nuclei Haze 0 Large I 2 to i rnlerurnetervvavelength or light oGiant bigger than i micrometer Fog fadla oquot adVectIOHr quotquotXl g Least abundant most errective Cloud classi cation amp examples of main types All condensation nuclei in the atmosphere are too Cloud can 9 small to see well even with a microscope especially small nuclei Satelllte orblts eostatlonar and olar g y p Conslst of dust smoke salt products of chemical reactions etc Condensation Nuclei cont Hale pp 109110 Some are Wettablequot water spreads out on them Dryhazei very small Particles Recall that very small as on an unwaxed car partlcles scatter more blue light than red light Some are not wettable hydrophobic water beads 0 dark DSCVQVOWd dry hale l00llt5 blue Light from up on em as on a waxed car elsewhere scattered toward you as blue orsky oif light background the light rrom background travels owar your eyes As it passes through the dry haze out so haze looks Some such as salts are hygroscopic they dissolve and allow condensation at lt 100 relaSv hpgldlty more We gm 5 Scattered can be as w a 75 relative humldlt yehowmh Wm 55 he Eu quotTable 55 flumpg 55 ate 9 0m Wet haze condensation occurred so particles are 9 Darnp Rid is a kind ofsait sold fordrylng aii39 in closets larger amp scatter all colors Wet haze looks whitish Condensation usuallyforms in air around 100 Form at relative humidityas low as 75 relative humidity if saitls in air typically from evaporated sea spray QScattei39S more light than di39y haZe Wet haze example Fig 54 p 110 of text Note white haze above water Fog pp 110116 u Fug eluud next tel gruund Fug in city usually thicker than rog over ocean ciues are polluted and have very many condensation particles Ocean rog is made orrevvei but larger vvater druplets u Radiation fog ground rog p iii inrrared radiation rrom ground cools airnext to it until condensation occurs The longer the night the more the cooling so radianon rog is must cummun in late fall andwlnter 9 Light breeze s irs air bringing more air in EDntaEtWith cold round increasing amount or condensation r3ng 9 strong Wind inhibits rog rorrnation by even greater mixing which brings down drierrrorn above 9 LightWinds and rlearskies common near center or high pressure sothat is whererog orten occurs 9 Thickest at sunrise after EDDling all night As the sun heats the air the rog evaporates burns or starting atthin edge or rog w 39 4 MET1010 Intro to the Atmosphere 1 Jon Ahlquist Radiationfo fi 55 111 Drains into inglgllgy Clegr abolle 1022006 Advection Fog pp 112113 Advection fog warm moist air advects over cold surface vecti n means that a Wll ld 15 required on fog e warm moist airtrom Pacific blows over cold ocean current nex to California oo x p e t Fog y San Francisco s Q cows 0 o d Banks Wnen Warn moist airfrorn GulfStrearn blows overcold waterof Labrador urrerit an Wll itel occurs along U s GulfCoast and W England Wnen warm moist all blows onto land cooled by radiation called advectionrradiation fog Advection fog fig 57 p 113 Summary of Radiation and Advection Fog Both radiation fog and advection fog involve warm moist air over cold surface oCoid fog drains ll ito low lying areas Olr l these cases alrls stable wa airhas risen cold alrhas sun o fog nas clearly de ned pp sur QRadlatlon and advectlori fog occurlri Stable a 2 E S 2 3 a 3 covered ll l chapter 6 Are al y nlform and featureless ll l appea rance Steam fog also called mixin fog evaporation fog pp 1131163J Water evaporates from warm surface warm moist air rises mixes with cold air above air eca Air does work as it expands into lower pressure Example Upslope fog on the east side ofthe Rocky Mountains g 59 p 113 cools to dewpoi Air in steam fog not stable near sur ce warm air rises looks wispy with no de nite top Occurs over ont orbomng water nenoe name steam fog ooutdoor heated pool on col y rner e m midrlatltude blows in rall i s Wnen cold airin early fall MET1010 Intro to the Atmosphere Jon Ahlquist 1022006 How steam fog lmixing fogl forms Snpeclal toplc 115 l agine two equalrslz d blobs or all botn neariv Saturated Recall rig 4111 91 snowing saturation vaporbressure versus temperature Midpoint temp amp up pressure for mixed air Steam fog fig 510 p116 wispy Initial temperatures apnr pressure for 2 mnist hlnhs of air W lt vvnen tne blobs are mixed together tneirternberatures and dew points are averaged Even irtne initial dew points were below saturation the mixed partial can be above saturation lrso condensation will result i e rniwng ro Fog Review amp Fog in Florida pp 116117 Look at the map on Page 116 and eXPlain why Classi cation proposed in 1303 by English scientist coastal California the Appalachians New England Luke Howard and the Gulf Coast are so foggy Cloud classification pp 117119 Uses Latin words to describe cloud appearance here stratus laver sarne root as stratosp Fog is a problem on Florida highways For info on oCurnulus heap root as in accurnulate what other states have done to monltorthel C WS iock We h39ghways39 5 cNirnbus rain cloud nttp garnet acns rsu edulelsnerrdotOtnerRWls htrnl Florida even ets su erro wnicn is es eciall dense A m We ed to deme m dd e C OUdS 9 p l D V lust as an alto voice is a rniddleebitcned voice fog caused bv the abundance of condensation nuclei in forest fire srnollte Formore information do an Internet 39 F quot 39 quot9 W0 aquot great PlClureSi see The AUdUbON search on superfog Florida NWquot AmenCi weathe by David Ludlum c 1991 Cirrus ice clot i Cloud claSSIflcatlon continued Wlspy no Sharply de ned edges High clouds ice halo around sun or moon as low as 1020000 fl as high as 2660000 fl chn39us clrrostratus cliTocumuluS Middle clouds 6500 to 25000 fl liquid droplets amp some If S some ICe Qaltostrattls altocurnulus Low clou S su ace to 6500 fl liquid water Ostratus Stratocumulus l llmbost tu 39 opmen ocumulus curnulus cohgestus cumulonimbus Fig 512 p 119 Q o e a u g lt m a n n a m lt MET1010 Intro to the Atmosphere Jon Ahlquist Altocumulus individual clouds about size of your thumbnail when your arm IS exnd F 5 15 12 Stratus featureless cloud blanket Sun notvisible Fig 519 p 123 MET1010 Intro to the Atmosphere 1022006 Cirrostratus thin sheet often over whole sllrry Halo around sun or 14 p 120 moon Altostratus glow of sun th halogavisible thru featureless cloud deck Fig 51 121 Nimbostratus See wet round amp scud small low tornlooking clouds that move quickly Fig 517 p 122 Jon Ahlquist 1022006 Stratocumulus individual clouds about size of st at arm s length Fig 518 p 122 Cumulus con estus growing cumulus like I cauli ower s y congested g 521 p 125 iv n F summary MET1010 Intro to the Atmosphere Cumulus humilis humilityquot so low cumulus Fair weather cumulus Fig 52 p 124 nderstorm cloud d by upiierievel e SldeS Banner cloud above mm Fig 525 p 127 Pileus capg cloud Fig 526 p 128 Airflows over arrier moun ain or cloudg cooling by oing expansion work as i ises me imes there is enough cooling for condensation and a cloud Jon Ahlquist 1022006 Lenticular clouds Lensshaped clouds downwmd of mountains Sometimes confused with ying saucers Fig 524 p 127 Mammatus same root as mamma resemble cow s udders Often seen on underSIde of cumulonimbus aan F 527 128 Measuring Cloud Ceilings p 131 1 Cloud ceiling Height of lowest cloud base above ground Determined by various methods QTimii ig how long it takes a small balloon to rise from oRotatingrbeam ceilometer which reflects a light beam at an arig e offthe cloud base and uses trigonometry rig it takes a pulse of iaser light to travel up to ciou base and reflect back to detectoron Earth s surface cloud Ceiiii ig o 5timec Where c speed of ig t Geostationary Satellite Orbit p 129 A satellite 22300 miles above the Earth s a satellite at this distance above the equator day and appears to remain stationary above the Earth Orbit is called geostationary or geosynchronous synchronized with Earth Satellites in this orbit can take pictures ofthe e area 24 hrsday Receiving antennas on Earth dishes don t have to track surface will take one day to circle the Earth so rotates at the same rate as the Earth 360 per Because satellite is 22300 miles above equator Earth has 8000 mile diameter satellite has fairly good view of almost half of Earth 1 Geostationary satellite does not MET1010 Intro to the Atmosphere US Geostationary Satellites GOES GOES Geostationary Operatiunal Envirunmental Satellite ES satellites are at lt m uverAtlariti GOES East amp Pacific GOES West 5 sectur n Nute pEIEIrViEW ur pularregiuns in phutus beiuvv GOES East Jon Ahlquist 1022006 Polar orbit pp 130131 Pulapurbrtmg satellite nearly gues uver pales abuut am As satellite travels in man rth splris eastward an lungitude or satellite m hrsuuth path Ea ltts Westward relative tEI Earth Fur infnrmatiun un USWeathersatellite prugram see http Unuaasis nuaa guvNOAASlSmlgenlsatl html Earth has rutated Equipment on weather satellites pp 131134 Satellite sensors are radiometers ie devices that measure radiation visible light infrared andor microwave Visible light pictures higher resolution than infrared but can only be taken during daytime Infrared pictures lower resolution but day and night be amp clouds emit infrared day amp night Hot things are bright in infrared but negative of infrared ima e is s own so at picture resembles standard visiblequot satellite picture of Earth Co d clouds look white warm Earth a Visible and infrared pictures are actually black amp white b t 39 u are often colorenhanced to bring out details Sounders p 131 I Sounders are radiom eters that measure infrared radiation at various wavelengths from which vertical pro les oftemperature and humidity in various layers t osp ere can be computed Di dvantage compared to weather balloon Vertical re lution of satellite sounder is not as good as a weather balloon radiosonde a Advantage compared to weather balloon One satellite h an I de sa so can sound ma y m yp aces while a radioson only sounds one column MET1010 Intro to the Atmosphere Jon Ahlquist Chapter 3 Review Seasonal and Daily Temperatures 9152006 The Earth and the Sun Looking down on the North Pole in what direction does the Earth rotate In what direction does the Earth go around the Sun Near what compass point does the sun rise Near what compass point does the sun set How much does the Earth s distance from the Sun vary during the course of a year Not much The orbit is nearly circular Farthest and closest distances are within 2 of average of 93 million miles The Earth and the Sun Why does the Earth have seasons The Tropics of Cancer Northern Hemisphere and Capricorn Southern Hemisphere are at 235 degrees latitude What is special about thos latitudes The following Web site for Mazatlan Mexico has a good discussion of the Tropic of Cancer which is close to Mazatlan http lvwvwmaztravelcommazexplaincancerhtm The Arctic and Antarctic Circles are at 90 235 665 deg latitude What is special about those latitudes At what latitudes is the Sun directly overhead once per year Twice per year Never The Earth and the Sun The Earth s tilt is associated with what two effects that are responsible for less heating in winter and more heating in summer If the Earth s tilt increased would seasons in midlatitudes probably be more or less extreme How different is the heating between equator and pole in mid summer In mid winter How different is the temperature at different latitudes during summer During winter The tropics has a surplus of energy while mid latitudes and the poles have a deficit Why don t the tropics get warmer and warmer and the poles colder and colder Temperature Variations At what level in the troposphere is the daynight temperature difference usually the largest What is the usual effect ofa gusty wind that mixes the air on the daytime high and the nighttime low temperature What time of day usually has the highest temperature Lowest temperature The Earth s surface is heated bythe Sun during the day and cooled day and night by infrared emission conductionconvection and evaporation What is true of the heating and cooling while the surface is warming While the surface is cooling While the surface is at its maximum or minimum temperature MET1010 Intro to the Atmosphere Controls on Temperature pp 68 71 How can the side of a hill be warmer than the hilltop or the valley How large is the difference between summer and winter as you go from the tropics poleward How large is the difference between summer and winter over the ocean versus over the interior of a continent Give examples of how ocean currents can affect the temperature of a coastal area How does elevation typically affect temperature Jon Ahlquist 9152006 Temperature What does the wind chill index wind chill temperature measure Where should you put a thermometer if you want to measure airtemperature accurately How does a maximum temperature thermometer work if it uses mercury How does a minimum temperature thermometer work if it uses alcohol and a slider What are some other ways of measuring temperature Why was the Automated Surface Observing System ASOS developed MET1010 Intro to the Atmosphere 2 Jon Ahlquist Chapter 5 Review 1052006 Condensation Dew Fog and Clouds v What is the dew point temperature What is a condensation nucleus How common are condensation nuclei z What does it mean ifa condensation nucleus is hygroscopic or hydrophobic What common substance is hygroscopic If hygroscopic condensation nuclei are present how ow can the relative humidity be for condensation How does a dry haze look different from a wet haze Fog and Clouds What type of cloud is radiation fog Advection fog Advectionradiation fo a What is upslope fog Where does it occur u What is steam fog What is the basis for naming clouds What are the types of low clouds Middle clouds High clouds Which clouds extend through a signi cant vertical distance Name the clouds in the following pictures Say as much about them as you can Tall cloud flatto h isto flat Fig 522 p125p W y P lndividual cloud puffs look like size of thumbnail when your arm Is extended Fi 21 21 MET1010 Intro to the Atmosphere Usuall cove ronl small artofsk fig p 120 y p y Lensshaped clouds downwind of mountains Sometimes confused With ying sauc ers like Fig 524 p 127 Jon Ahlquist Wispy no sharply defined edges Fig 512 p 119 1052006 Glow of sun but no halo visible thru featureless c oud deck lg 516 p121 Featureless cloud blanket Sun notVISIble Fig 519 p 123 Fig 52 Low se arated uff clouds Fp124p y Featureless raining clouds not the small clouds Ie scud Fig 517 p 122 MET1010 Intro to the Atmosphere Thin sheet often over whole sky alo aroun sun or moon Fig 514 p 120 Jon Ahlquist 1052006 Clouds close together each about size of fist at arm s length Fig 518 p 122 Large clouds with cauliflower tops Fig 521 p 125 Fi 2 What causes cloud above mountain 525 or on top of other cloud Fig Cloudsbulge downward Often seen on underside of cumulonimbus anVII Fig 527 p 128 Cloud ceiling Geostationary orbits To what does cloud ceilingquot refer Geostationary satel i e Ougnly now far from the Eartn S surface are they oWnat is a geostationary or it7 QHOW rnucn ottne Earth can they 5 7 QWhat parts of the Earth can they never See Well oyantages of geostationary oroits oyer nonegeostationary oroits QWhatproblern does tnis orbit create roroesigning satellite Sensors oHow rnany sucn sateiiites ooes tne us keep in operatiom Wnere are they Polar Orbits Radiometers Polar orbiting satellit oRougnlynoW farfrorn tne Eartn s surface are my oWnat is a polar Orbit oHow much oftne E can tney see at any one instant in one Ol blt in da 7 oAre tnere any parts ottne Eartn tney can t see well Infrared IR photographs ow ooes lR onotograonyworw ovvnat is an aoyantage of R onotograony overusing regularvisible light MET1010 Intro to the Atmosphere Jon Ahlquist 1052006 Chapter 4 Review Moisture Boiling Dew Point Temperature What do you call the direct transformation from ice to The saturation vapor pressure equals what other vapor From vapor to ice pressure when water boils Explain why it would be very unusual if only What happens to the boiling temperature as you go to evaporation were taking place without some higher altitudes Why does this happen condensation occurring at the same time and place What is the de nition of relative humidity What is saturation What is the definition of dew point temperature 39 What is eerieet and What is ineeiieet abOUt the Can the dew point temperature be lower than the air statement warm air can held more Water Vapor than temperature Equal to the air temperature Greater mid air than the air temperature What is Vapor Pressure saturation Vapor Pressure How much does the dew point temperature usually What happens to the saturation vapor pressure as change during 24 hours temperature increases Describe how relative humidity changes during a day Dew Point and Relative Humidity Humidity in Different Places How are the dew point and the air temperature Why does Florida air usually have a higher dew related when the relative humidity is near 100 point temperature than California air When the FeiatiVe humidity is i W7 Why does your skin get dry during winter What is true about the dew point when air has particularly up north many water Vapor m0ieeUies7 Why is it vague to say that the air in a certain place Can air have is humid dew point versus relative humidity 9a low relative humidity amp a low dew point What fraction of evaporation occurs over oceans 98 low ralaiiVe humidity amp a high UEW POW If all the water vapor in the atmosphere would rain 0a high relative humidity amp a low dew point out an impossibility how deep would it be over 9a high relative humidity amp a high dew point the surface 0f the Earth What region of the continental US typically has the highest dew point temperatures Relative Humidity and Measurement Describe situations in which you cold find the following relative humidities outside amp inside a house 0 Low outside and low inside oLow outside and high inside oHigh outside and low inside oHigh outside and high inside How could you measure the dew point temperature How does a psychrometer 2 thermometers one covered by a wet cotton sock measure humidity MET1010 Intro to the Atmosphere 1 Jon Ahlquist Review of chap 16 Climate Change How is climate different from weather Describe how climate varies from small scales to planetary scales Is the last century the first time that a major warming has occurred How do we figure out what past climates were like What is an ice age What two land masses have most of the Earth s ice At the time of a ice age would the sea level be lower or higher than it is now By how much How much would sea level rise if all the Earth s ice were to melt Climate Change What has happened to the globally averaged surface temperature overthe last 100 years List ways in which climate can change overtime scales 0 oMillions of years 9105 to 1003 of thousands ofyears How can dust from volcanoes or an asteroid impact affect climate What would probably happen to climate if there were a major nuclear war Climate Change By how much does solar output vary with time Why do climatologists look at sunspot counts How much warmer is the global average surface temperature now compared to 100 years ago When CO2 is added to the atmosphere what fraction stays in the atmosphere and where does most of the rest go How do scientists estimate what the future climate will be like Is the temperature expected to change overthe next 100 years MET1010 Intro to the Atmosphere Climate Change What is a positive feedback Give an example What is a negative feedback be Give an example What evidence relates global warming and hurricanes Where is the Sahel What has happened to its climate since the late 1960s What is the climate situation like in Australia as of December 2006 Jon Ahlquist 10272006 Chapter 11 Review Air masses What is an air mass What conditions are needed for an air mass to form Where are the source regions for air masses ie where do they form What two characteristics are used to catalog air masses What 3 names characterize air mass temperature as warm cold orvery cold What 2 names characterize air mass humidity as dry or mois Air Masses ls high or low pressure typically at the center of air masses What kind of air mass usually affects Florida What kind of air mass usually affects Michigan Why don t air masses typically form in midlatitudes What is air mass modification Give an example of air mass modification What is lake effect snow Where in the US is it most common Question for Review 11 p 306 11 What type of air mass would be responsible for Heavy snow showers amp low temps at Buffalo NY Hot muggy weather in the Midwest and East Daily afternoon thunderstorms along the Gulf Coast Heavy snow showers along the W slope of the Rockies Question forThought 2 p 307 Explain how an anticyclone region of high pressure during autumn can bring record breaking low temperatures and cP air to the SE states and only a few days later it can be bring very high temperatures and mT air to the same area Fronts What is a front What is a oStationary front Cold front Warm front Back doorquot cold front 0 Occluded front What is the typical slope of a front Which is typically steeper a cold front or a warm front Are cumulonimbus clouds more common at cold fronts or warm fronts Why Are nimbostratus clouds more common at cold fronts or warm fronts Why Fronts Which kind of front warm or cold more commonly has39 9A greater contrast between warm and cold air 0 More intense precipitation oSteady precipitation lasting hours What kinds of fronts are transition zones between oTropical and polar air 2 types ocP and mP air 2 types ocT and mT air 1 type Frontal Passage Imagine you are in warm airand a cold front approaches What weather changes do you expect in winds temperature pressure clouds precipitation and dew point See table 112 on p 300 Imagine you are in cold air and a warm front approaches What weather changes do you expect in winds temperature pressure clouds precipitation and dew point See table 113 on p 302 MET1010 Intro to the Atmosphere Jon Ahlquist 10272006 Question for Review 15 p 307 15 Based on the following weather forecasts what type offront will most likely pass the area See ma amp a c Increasing cloudiness and warm toda s r ning Turning much colderton SW becoming gusty and shilting to NW by ton gh d Increasing high cloudiness and cold this morning 39 39 lowerin his a ernoon with a Clouds ance ofsnow 5 2 m a a eezmg SE wm s shilting to Wtonlg t Turning colderwith rain heavy a 39 l 39 b Cool toda with rain becomin a o r r n M EL E 39LO 539 Q 1 m a 0 0 539 o o a t m quot Zlt E 539 6 393 2 E E m m E amp m o o lt rSW See tables 113 p 302 and 114 p 305 MET1010 Intro to the Atmosphere
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