this weeks notes
this weeks notes GEOG 103 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eliza Lynch on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 103 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Larianne Collins (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geography in Geography at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
GEOG103 91715 Landforms Earth Formation amp Geologic Time Earth formed 46 billion years ago Protoplanet the beginnings of planets which got bigger and bigger 1 eon somewhere between 500 million and 1 billion years Earth s Physical Environment provide the constant amp generally passive background against which the human drama is played constantly changing earth is always in motion horizontal amp vertical can happen abruptlycatastrophically geologists study earth s physical structure amp history but geographers study why certain landforms are where they are and how they change landform identifiable variations of Earth s surface geomorphology the study of landforms their special distribution amp the processes that create them endogenic processes things that happen inside the earth exogenic processes things that happen outside the earth erosion etc Earth s Physical Systems need all spheres for life Exterior 1 atmosphere vapor 2 lithosphere stonerocky surface we exist on amp soil up into the upper crust 3 hydrosphere all water inonaround the earth 4 biosphere where the life occursexists on the planet Interior 1 continental crust 2 oceanic crust thinner than the continental crust 3 mantle 4 core average crust depth on Earth 28 mi landforms change because earth s crust is easily able to crack egg Composition of Earth Minerals naturally formed components of elements of earth Rocks comprise one or more minerals create landforms classified by how the rock if formed Rock Classification Sedimentary sediments worn from other rocks sandstone limestone etc lgneous fiery Inception intrusive vs extrusive cooling magma or lava crystalline cooling Metamorphic meta change morphic form changing chemistry mineralogy or texture of other rocks crystalline Rock Cycle diagrams review Earth s Crust mostly igneous amp metamorphic Rocks a lot in the west mostly sedimentary rocks exposed at surface of the world s surface is sedimentary rocks Earth s Surface fixed Earth people thought that oceans and continents were one thing that didn t move Continental Drift Theory Alfred Wegener 1912 supercontinent Pangea 200 mya idea that they shift theory widely rejected until the 1950s Plate Tectonics Theory 12 major plates basically the continental drift theory when it was accepted Why do plates move Convective currents heat currents in mantle circulate heat amp drive tectonic processes Plate Boundaries Divergent plates spread apart new crust formed create ridgesrifts more land is being created Convergent plates converge and grind into one another trenches heavier one is going to dive down amp smaller one begins to scrunch up to form mountains Transform plate grinds horizontally causing earthquakes two cars side swiping no major topographic effect but earthquakes can be devastating to human environment Endogenic Processes inside the earth Diastrophism amp Volcanism 1 Diastrophism deformation of earth s crust 0 Solid portions of earth s crust o 2 categories folding faulting Folding bending compressional pressure Faulting break or fracture displacement of crust Earthquakes sudden movement slip of crust along a fault line measured on the Richter scale which gives us magnitude epicente point on the earth where the earthquake happens Tsunamis large ocean waves caused by undenNater earthquake volcanic eruption or landslide Volcanism o Transports heated material of earth s interior to or toward earth s surface 0 Shield volcano gentle broader slopes lava flows without explosion smooth eruption 0 Composite volcano steep sided cone lava flows with explosion explosive very deadly and intense eruption Volcano Locations Typically on plate boundariesfault line