INTRO INTL AFFAIRS
INTRO INTL AFFAIRS INR 3003
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Barney Schaden on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to INR 3003 at Florida State University taught by Whitney Bendeck in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 137 views. For similar materials see /class/205406/inr-3003-florida-state-university in INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
INTRO TO INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS Realism and the Cold War September 10 2012 Nature of the Cold War seen in the Suez Canal crisis location was of strategiccritical importance served as Britain s lifeline for decades Egypt became a focus in the Cold war because of the locationclose proximity to the canal threat ofcommunism taking over here frightened the US because ofthe oil that exists here US also had many proxy governments here i Major powers are willing to fight in the periphery but don t want to fight head to head ii Neither wanted to engage in nuclear war iii Both powers ultimately recognized the wisdom of maintaining the balance of powers b Gamal Abdel Nasser eventually became PM in 1954 and President in 1956 of Egypt i Concerned with maintaining Egypt s independence pushed Brits out ii Brits loss all rights except access to the canal iii Concerned with Egypt s survivaldidn t want it to become a pawn in the warfall victim iv Played each superpower off each other V US say him as a potential to lead anticommunist movement seeking his favor Vi Interested in strengthen militaryasked US Eisenhower to sell arms 1 US agreed with conditionsmust be used only defensively avoiding war with Israel amp the US could trainoversee the process ofstrengthening He recognized the peoples Republic of China in 1949 China became a communist state 1 Nationalist government fled to Taiwan US recognized them communists remained in Beijing 2 US installed a policy of Containmentinsisted that are allies refused to recognize Communist China Nasser s decision was a huge slap in the face to the US c Aswan High Dam designed to help Egypt become more self sufficient industrialize hydro electric power controlling oods i US seeking their favor offered Nasser loans to help build it ii Nasser denied went to the Soviets they agreedthey agreed in secretunder trade agreements 1 Soviets outbid us US pulled out ofthe deal 2 Nesser Nationalized the Suez Canal Zone hurtingangering Britain iii Suez Cana Crisis October 29 1956 Israel paratroopers dropped east oftown ofSuez then Mitia Pass the following day Britain dropped on Cairo Israeli troops landed in AlTorsouth Sinal Britian and France responded Nov 7 UN orders a halt rst UN troops land at Port Said Soviets announced they would attack Britain and France US backed out Britain and France forced to pull out Israel occupied Sinal until March 57 then forced to pullout d Lessons we can Learn i Ifyou can maintain balance ofpower you can avoid war ii Little states can play a large role e Effects on US Allies i British ties relatively unaffected ii France pulls away from US Embark upon a foreign policy to undermine US hegemonyin 1960 became a nuclear power against the advice of USBritain 2 Pulled out of NATO 3 Rebelled against DollarGold standard 5 mNow wM Intro To International Affairs Nationalism and the NationState September 24 2012 1 NationState New Concept our understanding ofthe world is formed by a historically new system began to develop in the 1700s expanded in the postWWII period globally of nationstates States represent a particular group of people but not limited to one identity 2 Legitimacy before we had a nationstates system we had loosely defined countries fluid boarders At this time we had highly desensitized political systems Before we had a system of citizenscitizenship people were subjects In an effort to increase controlterritorial sovereignty a process of centralization took place In order to do this successfully Legitimacy must be reachedestablished a 539 Vertical Topdown The individual or the institution has to establish first and foremost their right to rule This provides them with the initial legitimacy If nothing else is combined with that than what they are ruling is simply the legitimacy to rule that territorialgeographical area Horizontal Who belongs herewho has the right to live herewho is the community Defined by 1 Religion 2 Language 3 Shared historyculture a Whatever it is something includes some while excluding others 3 PreNationState Europe now looks very different from the past in the year 1300 Europe was broken up into feudal linesmall units of kingsdelegated authority to feudal lords The vassals were the people who worked the landmost people did not know their kings reverenceloyalty was directly related to the Lords The catholic church was also competing for authoritydominance on the land a Feudalism non territorial boarders were not clearly defined many feudal states merged together were unclaimed or commonly disputed over States capacity to rule was quite bleak no formal bureaucracycentralized administration No formal taxation by the King Subjects or Citizens this did not work for the people they were not active participants merely subjects of the states identity was not clear in this system no ethnical awareness Identity was associated by where they Iivedworkedwho they worked for No sense of nationalism To replace the feudal system and replace it with the nation state territorial sovereignty must be created In order to create territorial sovereignty boarders must be created and respected by their neighbors i Must establish centralized bureaucratic centralized control know who the leader is ii Establish standing armies army ofthe peoplenot ofthe churchnobility 4 Creation of the Modern State 1st develops within Franceafter the 30 years war a France looking to establish its authority at home and in Europe To gain territorial sovereignty they needed a large army which costs money This caused the government to raise money begin taxation Although in order to begin collecting taxes they needed to breakdown the feudal system so the king becomes the central ruler By creating relationship with the people and recognition of boarders horizontal legitimacy is created Nationalism Louis XIV helps further the rulers legitimacy He begins the process ofbuilding up a nation H realized the Peoplethe Empire was fragmented and lacked a unified identity He changed this forcefully by suppressing individuallocal dialects and customs to create a unified language culture and tradition Serves to bring the people together and create a national identity French Revolution 1789 French Nationalism is formed The French people took down the government that made them subjects they forged themselves as citizens ofthe nation wanted an active role in the decision making process leaders could no longerward over them This was an extremely bloody battle i The catholic church crumbles Marie Antoinette amp Louis the IV killed old institutions attacked September 12 2005 INR3003 NeoLiberalism What realism doesn t explain are not against diplomacy and cooperation simply believe it s not a guarantee of security ifyou start putting collective interest above individual interest you make yourselfvulnerable a They don t explain how cooperation fits into the equation ll Liberalism look through history to see the success ofcooperation i Treaty ofWestphalia 1648 the conclusion ofthe 30 years The major euro players came together in an effort to cooperation to bring about collective security ii The Congress ofVienna Seeking peace among the power of Europe iii The League of Nations after WWI to bring international community together iv The United Nations to unite the world in peacekeeping efforts b Don t challenge the idea of anarchy simply the idea that it means competition c Our mutual interests tie us together Oilenergy environment economic stabilityprosperity peace d Don t say cooperation always work however there is a high probability lll Classical Liberalism byproduct ofthe Enlightenment After the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars these concepts take fruition a Empowerment ofthe individual b Government works for the people c Capitalism democracy voting rights rights of man d Take a political form in the 1800s powerful political movement challenging traditional ruling patterns IV Neoliberalism connected to Classical focuses on institutions cooperation collective security spread of democracy to create peace Rises as a challenge to Realism 39 Collective as opposed to individual security should be the goal of the states i Cooperation under anarchy anarchy isn t going to change so we must work together i Reciprocity how states relateinteract with one another ill treat you as you treat me 1 Implications through good communication positive relations can be built a Weak states and strong states work together as equals not power relations b Ideologically opposed states can work together to achieve common interests i US and China 2 different forms of government working together c More frequent states interact lends to greater positive reciprocal relations 1 Trust is built over repetitive contact e Reciprocity builds compromise iv Interdependence links interest with others the means and how often 1 Mutual dependence realists see this as vulnerabilitysecurity threat 2 This brings about more cooperation our interests are tied trade relations 3 EU collective trade currency transportation policies all linked throughout Europe 4 Has increased goes beyond government NGOs multinationaltransnational corps v Collective goods things that can only be achieved by working together 1 Collective security international peacekeeping 2 Environment global policies vi Absolutenonzero sum gains by working together we all benefitrealize the gains 1 Benefits may not be equal however everyone is gaining 2 Contrasted to RealistsRelative gainZerosum what you gain over others V Prisoners dilemma according to the Liberals recognize distrust canindividual over collective interest may result but worse offwithout communication i Mutuality of interest common goals ii Repetitive contactbuild trustsunderstanding Shadow of the future expectation of future contactrelations game theory tells us this c Cost of defection increased Do you gain more from cooperation or defection Titfortat work togethercompromise Neither prisoner talks and each end up with only Iyear Work together for collective good D Prisoner B39s Slraregies Confess Confess 0 ii x2 20 Years mmquot A s Suategjes Confess Par1 20 Yeats Best solution is they collectively work together and both get off with one year Intro to International Affairs Realism Continued September 5th 1 WWI realist believe this was caused in 1971 by the Uni cation of Germany prior was a union of39 weak stateswith the exception of Prussia very powerful a Germany and the Security Dilemma i This new Germany can go two wayweak become absorbed by neighbors or strong state and pose a threat to its neighbors9 Either way it poses a security threat 1 Otto Von Bismarck goal was to unify Germany as a strong state was successful alliances emerged a Triple Entente Russia Britain France b Central Powers Germany Austria Hungry Italy b Balance of Power and Reasons for its Demise i Power transition declining power becomes desperate while rising power tries to assert its dominance 1 Realists expect to see war during a power transition ii Russia and Preventative War Germany tried to seek a preventative war in its own self interest and long term survival by trying to prevent Russia from gaining power and surpassing them c Consequences of WWI i WWI brought down 4 empires AustroHungarian Ottoman German and Russian empires fell ii Pyrrhic victory a victory with such a devastating cost that it carries the implication that another such victory will ultimately lead to defeat Extreme devastation high death toll iii Germany lost land prestige empire switched to democratic government Weimar Republic 2 Interwar to WW Europe failed to create balance a Balance of Power balance in the sense that there were two alliances however they were not equal b League of Nations wanted to promote peace communication and cooperation 39 US did not join dependent on Britain and France to make peace failed i Japan Manchukuo failed attempt Japans delegates walked out ofthe League in attempt to become an aggressor nation 1931 Italy 2nd failed attempt Italy invaded Ethiopia 1935 50 ofthe 54 member nations condemned Italy as an aggressor and put sanctions Italy on rubber tin and coopernot oilthey knew putting sanctions on oil might cause Hitler and Mussolini to join powers 1 1936 Hitler rearmed Germany 2 1938 Germany annexed Austria c Appeasement Munich Conference allow Germany to Annex Czechoslovakian land i No checks to prevent Germany from rising and no power to stand up to them d Nazi Germany as a Revisionist State Germany is going to go further than simply protecting its immediate security but rather complete power hegemony i Encirclement survival is not guaranteed 3 The Cold war erupts a The Big 3 Churchill FDR and Stalin discuss what the post WWII era would look like decided each state would administrate the land that was taken during the war b The Big 3 at Potsdam Attlee Truman and Stalin i America wanted democracy and demanded elections be held Russia USSRStalin allowed elections and communist leaders were all elected into power c Division of PostsWar Europe Germany was divided 1945 into French American Berlin and British zone to the victories as a temporary solution d Eastern EuropeSoviet Satellites communist governments at the mercy of Moscow Intro To International Affairs The Rise ofChina September 19 2012 Realist and Liberal Predictions History of China a Qing Dynasty 16441912 the last ruling dynasty They started off very strong very conservativeand inward focused Invented the printing press the compass and gunpowder It was very strong dominated the world China translates to the center of civilizations Very extensive tributary system and ethnocentric view Failed to realize the Western world was rising an unprecedented way industrial revolution i Opium wars 2 different wars 18391842 fought between China and Britain 18561860 between China vs British and French 1 Both wars fought over access oftrade with china 2 Chinese government was trying to crack down on opium Brits wanted to legalize it 3 Westerners wanted Missionaries to have free access into china As a result China had to agree to very demoralizing treatiesterms opposed on them were humiliating Led to revolutionary movement in China calling for downfall ofgovernment end to Confucius ideas ii 15 Sino Japanese War embarked on wholescale reform rapidlyefficiently 1 China began to reform not enough conservative reform 2 Reforms were failureswent to war with Japan 1894 over the Korean Peninsula was a tributary state of China 3 Japan defeated the Chineseforced China to sign another demoralizing treaty a Leads other nations to come to china to get their share diving the China pie 9dividing it into different spears of in uence iii Boxer Rebellion a martial arts cult lived in the North area ofthe N river The Yellow was flooding leading to diseases they began rising up against foreign presence The Empress Dowager used tried to use the boxers to regain China from the west 1 Boxers began to attack westerns 2 Trapped foreignersmissionaries in Beijing 3 Resulted in more foreign pressure west brought their armies in to protect their people 4 Empress declared warno one acknowledged her declaration iv Belated Reform 1 Rebellion put down more conditions imposed on ChinaOQen Door Policy stopped the colonization of China from the West everyone had access to each other sphere of influence 2 Western powers were fed up with china by the 1900schina began to embark on serious reform b National Period Guomindang Sun Yatsen Father of Modern China wanted to see an end to the dynastic tradition wanted a republic impressed by the American style i Fall ofthe Dynastic cycle in 1911 erupted in revolutionFebruary 1912 221 BC1192 china was ruled by a serious of dynasty 1 Sun Yatsen s republic failed become a warlord state democracy western support 2 Two parties emerged Nationalists rightwing and Communists leftwing 3 Sun Yatsen preached socialism and democracyserved as a bridge between the 2 parties 4 1925 Sun Yatsen died coalition between the Nationalists and Communists died ii Civil War 192749 1 Chiang KaiSheck become the new ruler 2 1928 Nationalist became the official government constantly after communists 3 Chiang KaiSheck fails to see his goals throughJapan become immediate threat became a colonial powerthey converted Manchuria Chinese territory a Japs invaded and took over 1931renamed it Manchukuo Japan left league of Nations 2nd Sino Japanese WWII erupted in 19371945 by 1941 it becomes a world war War of attrition Japan surrender after the bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima Japanese forced to pull out of Chinese territory Japan conducted horrific atrocitiesscienti c experiments throughout China 1 Left bad blood between the two countries 2 Chiang KaiSheck turned against nationalist partycommunist party prevails 3 Nationalist ed to Taiwan c 1949 People s Republic of China Communist Era have never recognized Taiwan as a separate government view it as part of china i Mao Zedong s Policies new leader offered another opportunity to stabilize build up its power Korean war breaks out N invaded S US lead a coalition pushing troops all the way to the Chinese boarder China we led fleets to Taiwan preventing China from launching military campaign 79 million people died under him most deadly dictator 1 Relations With USSR Stalin did not trust Mao Korean war strengthen their relations a US become 1 enemy 2 lnitiated a serious of reforms to help the peasants a Redistribution of land b 1953 began to follow Soviet model of communism 5 year plan i Collective pooling of Farms ii Nationalization of industry 1985 Great Leap Forward 2nd 5 year plan more aggressive deviation from soviet model a Backyard steel furnacesproduced useless steel b Epic fail c 30 million peasants starved to death greatest famine this world has seen SinSoviet Split 1960 didn t like China s deviation from Soviet Communist model Deng xiaopong loyal communists argued with Mao s plan thought people should be able to have their own land and gain a profit no incentiverewards more moderate Mao returned to take full controllaunched a revolution to purify china a Cultural revolution led to a purging of society by the Red Guard attacked class enemies the Red Guard consisted ofChildren Lasted from 19661976 Mao died 30 million people diedwar turned on itself b 1976 china became nuclear power Relations With the US 1971 Kissingerwent to Beijing for peace talks 1976 Nixon went to China began trade agreements 1972 China emitted into UN seat on the security council 1970 US officially recognized the People Republic of China ii Deng Xiaopong comes to power despite being purged 2x No relaxation on political control 1 Economic reforms opened up economy market economy trade investments economic control relaxed private ownership and business created economic zones where foreign could enter Very successfull Tiannamen Square 1989 no political freedoms existed yet people wanted democracy China sent in tanksmilitary Tank man a China tried to hide it and pretend nothing happened b Xiaopong stepped downwas paramount leader iii Jiang Zemin Hu Jintao continued economic growth still strict political power quotI What happens now Is china a threat a Reaists say yes China has a massive economicGDP growth clear contender Military spending has been increasing signi cantly and is the largest in the world military threat 39 Human rights issues i39 TaiwanUS is supposed to protect ii39 Tibetproblem spot for china iv South china seamultiple states lay claim to them v Unfair trade practices 03 we 07 M Vi Competition over resources Vii Serious trade imbalanceUS trade deficit b Liberals say no US spends more on military china has more men i US still has a larger economy ii China trades a large amount with us we supply the majority of its net income iii We mutually need each otherunlikely to fight against each other Intro To International Affairs Decolonization and the NationState September 26 2012 Process and Purpose of Colonization we first see this with the colonization of the Americas 1800s Span in the conquest to find new Iand Europe begins to look beyond to the rest ofthe world to send people to live in these lands ll Role of ColoniesImperialism End ofthe 1800s colonization changed from a place to send their people to a A zone of extraction tap into raw materials to fuel industrial revolution b A market for their goods used with the colonies extracted materials c Fuel the slave trade d Bene t missionary effort e Civilize the primitive natives Ill Nationalism Within the Colonies tried to keep these two ideas separate horrible idea to try and encourage it IV Boundary drawing Scramble of Africa a European powers want to de ne their own interest potential forwar in establishing rights to natural resourcesland b Boundaries are drawn based on their own interest not based on the people who live within the land c This grouped people together who were vastly different enemies rival sdo not reflect the natural boundaries of the area 1 Very different people with different ideologies religions ethnicities cultures etc were placed together under the artificial boundaries V Decolonization reveals the problems of boundary drawingresulting in the Holocaust 6 million Jew7million non Jews killed a Why did it happen US and most of Europe were appalled by Nazi Germany and the actions of WWII This completely discredited the idea of colonizationwe realized it was completely hypocritical to continue i The colonies began fighting backlearned the Western concepts of Nationalismselfdetermination why not for them as well ii Many of the Imperial powers were very weak due to WWII iii US didn t need colonies to fuel us anymoremore ofa liability b Areas of conflict 39 IndiaPakistan Mohandas Gandhi understood how Britain worked used the British rhetoric to turn it against them through nonviolent civil disobedience Did it in a way that prevented Brits from ghting back 1 Started the Quit India Campaign 2 Nationalist fueled 3 1947 India gained Independencepredominantly Hindu a Pakistan createdpredominantly Muslim b Mass conflictviolence for the individuals trapped in the wrong country 4 Kashmir both countries are nuclear powers and fighting over the land Algeriaviolence began in 1954 as Algerians demand their independence from France 1962 conflict is settled with their independence 2 35000015 million deaths The Middle EastFrance controlled Lebanon and Syria England controlled Jordan Iraq Libya 1 After WWII Jews begin call for their own state Zionist movement after the Holocaustthey had no where to gono official state western powers begin to back them up 2 1947 Britain handed the Palestinian mandate over to the UN to wipe their hands clean of it 3 UN Partition Plan declared to divide Palestine upPalestine refused 4 Israel created and wars ensued c Area of Cold War US and USSR involvement Proxy WarsConflict i Korea under Colonial Power Japan Korea was divided along the 38th parallel 1 Divided into N and S Korea civil war erupts between the two Egypt Suez canal conflict Britain lost their rights quot Vietnam Colonial power France tries to reassert their control1954 French pulled out Civil war 19551975 erupts US and USSR get involved with the proxy war iv Angola Portugal was the Colonial power forced out Civil war 19752002 erupts in the absence of colonial authority US and USSR get involved v Afghanistan d Process of Decolonization amp the UN i The colonizing power pulls outColony is then considered independent with territorial sovereignty ii Conflict ex VietnamAlgeria forcing the French outwar e Do the new sovereignty states have vertical legitimacy Do they have the right to rule i In many cases territorial legitimacy was not established no ruler was established by the support ofthe people typically the ruler was the generalleader of the conflict f Did the people in the state comprise horizontal legitimacy 39 Most cases the people were not similardid not comprise a common mass of peopleno nationalism VI Role of the Artificial State states that were created due to the results of artificial boundary drawing were not states compromised of common citizens with similar cultures religions etc a This lead to mass conflict after independencepeople do not get alongmass killings 39 Yugoslavia break up of the Slavic nations Rwanda genocide ii39 Sudan iv PalestineIsrael UN does not recognize Palestine as a state 1 Some state recognize their sovereignty v Taiwan replaced by the People Republic ofChina by the UN 1 Some state recognize their sovereignty Vll ls every StateCountry a Nation No not all states are Many cannot claim to have a unified community may have vertical but not horizontal legitimacy Vlllls every Nation a Statecountry No a Kurdistan this is a nation divided amongst Turkey and Iran although there is no actual state or of cial sate status Intro To International Af ars Realism Continued September 5 2012 Classical Realism role on the individual state concerned with security survival power of the state develops around the time of the world wars focuses on the role of individual to prevent war a flawed individuals create awed systemshowever in this belief comes the idea that it can be xed i Emphasizes increase of communication ii Recognizes sovereign states iii Spread of Democracy b Hans Morgenthau wrote Politics Among Nations in regards to this new idea c Realism theom focuses on two patterns Empirecreated do to the quest for power Equilibrium War is natural and inevitable states strive to achieve power Believe preparing oneself creating a zerosum game will prevent war d Response Idealism created the League of Nations to prevent war it failed in preventing WWII e Pursuit of Power realpolitik ll Liberalism looks at a more pluralistic viewpoint within the state Constructive identity perspective values normal cultural patterns IV NeoRealismStructural Realism Kenneth Waltz develops in the late 1970s a Removes the individual out of the equation no longer looking for flawed indiv it is the institution as a Whole how are states aligned How do they work together States are in completion with each other Removes the focus off power and on survival EX Hitler was not the problem Germany was strengtheningposing a threat to its neighbors creating a Security Dilemma for Germany d Assumptions i States are Rational Unitary Actors each state is lndlv looks after its own selfinterest political ideology democracy or dictatorship is not a concern ii States seek their own security they have other interests but this is the firstmost important 1 Brings about the idea that war is naturalconcern for security 2 As one nation increase power to increase their security they create insecurity for others iii Anarchy there is no international governing power that tells us what to so all sovereign states 1 UN doesn t govern simply peacekeeping no guarantee of securitymust prepare ourselves 2 Breeds insecurity e Balance of power international approach to establishing securityavoiding war i Alliances inevitable to stand up against enemies 1 Fluid constantly change situational ii Bandwagoning smaller states form alliance with a more powerful state 1 Most realists don t believe this establishes security iii Balancing fluid alliances balance each other out not a guarantee 1 7877 German Uni cationbalance ofpowers changedculminating in war 00 f Polarity i UniPolaritylhegemony ii Bipolarity offers the best sense of security was the m stable for the world does not believe communication will bring about security 1 1949 Iron Curtain divided Germany between East and West iii Multipolarity g Security DilemmaPrisoner s dilemma i The most likely outcome is that both prisoners confess and receive 20years ii Realist viewpointboth interest must be armed so both powers can protect themselves in doing so neither is willing to attack ex Cold war Intro To International Affairs NeoLiberalism Continued September 17 2012 Review a Classicalpowerful political movement empowering the individual government works for the people democracy capitalism b Neo liberalism international affairs theory in reaction to realism offering a better alternative we live in a state of anarchy focus on collective security c Prisoners Dilemma i Realist no communication between the two mimicking the lack oftrust acting in own interest unitary actors Oneoff no going back2nd chance ii Liberal game is repeated communication between prisoners representing openrepeated trust compromising diplomacy to bring about cooperation of collective interest d Tit for Tat another term for reciprocity players are going to treat each other as they are being treated i Can be positive or negative ex Japan ii Trust can be rebuilt through coopcommunication e Shadow of the Future expectation of contact in the future should breed stronger relationships i As states invest in relationships it is harder to move backwards will lose more than they will gain ii Are costs worth gains received Other ways to increase Costs of Defection a Reputation Costs everyone is concerned with their reputation determines the relationships they will have with other states Loss of reputation can have major implications i NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement triIateral agreement based on trade and investment between US Canada and Mexico 1 lfyou damage reputation with one it can affect our relationship with the 3rd 2 Requires transparency 3 lncreases cost ofdefection helping countries stay in line b Monitoring keeps countries in check through a system of compliance falling to international organizations i Brings home reputation costs ii Nuclear NonProliferation Treaty NPT signed in 1968 major playersUs and USSR neither power was going to completely disarm instead set out control of nuclear weapons each country has agreed to monitoring of facilities 1 Non proliferation 2 Disarmament didn t apply to USSR or USwould simply cap theirs 3 Peaceful use of Nuclear energy Not a part of NPT North Koreaquot was a member in 1985pulled out in 2003 Pakistan India Israel 1 Every other country is a member of NPT v Member of NPT in noncompliance lran will not allow inspectors to monitor v Realist argue that this does not work no substitute for countries not being prepared they say it is just an agreement that can be broken 1 Ex Korea pulled out Iran is in noncompliance 2 The only enforcement is implementation ofsanctions Liberal argue that it does work because it does exactly what it is designed to do it has committed ever signatory state to monitoring 1 Makes it harder to defy the treaty They have to do it openlymaking it harder and a slower process to defy 2 Only alternative is to pull out everyone watches them quotI Complex Interdependence states that are connected on many different levels with different states ExTrade security ideological ties due to common sense of norms and values environment geography transportation education scienti c endeavors a Pr05 fosters cooperation v39 i Liberals champions of this cooperation states working together for collective gain peaceprosperity 1 Encourages us to seek compromise over war b CLns dif cult to extract yourselffrom certain issues i Realist view this as a problem makes us vulnerable high risk of it unraveling minor conflict can escalate 1 Great Depression in 1929 stock market crashed in USbecame a global depression US gave Germany loans after WWI to help economy growonce stock market crashed we called in our loans Germanys economy collapsed Europe s economy collapsed i EntangI39ng alliances based on security or prosperity that we might not othenivise be engaged in Outbreak of WWIthe immediate issue was between Austria and Serbia Great Britain could have remained completely neutraluntil Germany invaded Belgium threatening their security 2 Persian GulfWar Iraq invaded KuwaitUS got involved because ofour ties to Kuwait our prosperity based on their oil IV InternationalOrganizations 6 E i Liberals uphold the value create longterm relationships expect increased cooperation increases global participation 1 Monitoring of compliance sanctions and cost of defection achieve this b Cons i Realist only as powerful as the countries that make them up they do not have the authority to do anythingenforce anything simply monitorsanctions ifthey threaten a states selfinterest states will pull out 1 League of nation Italy Germany Japan pulled out 2 NPT North Korea pulled out
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