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by: Kari Harber Jr.


Kari Harber Jr.
GPA 3.72

Alice Winn

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Alice Winn
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kari Harber Jr. on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2011 at Florida State University taught by Alice Winn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/205415/bsc-2011-florida-state-university in Biological Sciences at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
BSC 2011 POPULATION GENETICS 1 A survey of the peppered moth Biston betularia population of London gives the following result dark melanic morphs 827 light morphs 353 Given the M melanic gt m light and assuming that the population is in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium answer the questions below a What is the frequency ofthe melanic allele in the population b What percentage of the moths will be melanic in the next generation 2 A small pond is being used for a breeding experiment to develop golden carp The single locus controlling the golden pigment has two codominant alleles G and g with phenotypes as follows GG golden Gg bronze gg brown After a number of generations of breeding the researcher finds that this population has reached genetic equilibrium and she can count the following individuals in the pond golden 147 bronze brown 28 a What is the frequency of the G allele in the population During one winter the pond is almost completely frozen and all but 10 of the fish die Of the 10 remaining 6 are bronze and 4 are brown b What is the frequency of the G allele in this smaller population c Does the difference in the frequency before and after the freeze qualify as an evolutionary change d lfso what is the mechanism of evolution involved 3 A large human population is analyzed for A B AB and 0 blood types All blood types are present in the population and the alleles are in genetic equilibrium The frequencies ofthe alleles are shown to be pA 03 qlB 01 ri 06 a What will be the most common blood type in the population b What percentage of the Type B persons will be heterozygous c What will be the frequency with which two Type AB persons will mate in this population assuming mating is random with regard to blood type d In this population how often would you expect to find a family in which the father is Type A and the mother is Type B 4 You observe the following distribution of autosomal genotypes in a population in HardyWeinberg equilibrium MM 423 Mm 454 mm 123 a What are the frequencies ofthe M and m alleles b What proportion of the matings in this population will occur between a homozygous dominant and a heterozygous individual 5 In the American Black population the frequency of the recessive Hbs allele which causes sickle cell anemia is 005 in the African Black population it shows a frequency of020 Assuming HardyWeinberg assumptions are met a What fraction ofthe American Black population is heterozygous for the Hbs allele b What fraction ofthe African Black population is heterozygous for the Hbs allele c If matings are random what is the probability that two heterozygous American Blacks will mate and produce a child with sicklecell anemia d How much greater is that probability for two heterozygous African Blacks 6 Using the allelic frequencies below and assuming HardyWeinberg equilibrium answer the following questions about the Rh factor RRh is dominant to rRh PR C1r allr asian Europe 055 045 USA 060 040 Black African 075 025 USA 070 030 Oriental 095 005 a What fraction of the US Caucasian population has the Rhnegative phenotype b What fraction ofthe US Caucasian population is homozygous for either allele c In the US Black population what is the probability that an Rhnegative female will mate with a homozygous dominant male assuming random mating d What is the probability that the offspring from the mating in c will be Rhpositive thus being at risk of developing erythroblastosis fetalis 7 Using the allelic frequencies below for A B and 0 blood antigens and assuming HardyWeinberg equilibrium answer the questions that follow IA I3 i allr asian 026 007 067 Black 014 012 074 Asian 020 026 054 a What proportion ofthe Asian population will have Type AB blood b What proportion of the Black population will have Type AB blood c What proportions ofthe Caucasian and ofthe Asian populations will have Type blood 8 In an area near Birmingham England Kettlewell observed that 87 ofthe Biston betularia were melanic What fraction ofthe melanic moths were heterozygous if the population was at HardyWeinberg equilibrium The allele for melanism M shows simple dominance to the allele for light color m 9 Phenylketonuria PKU results in a form of mental retardation that is caused by an autosomal recessive allele a f1 in 10000 newborn Caucasians have PKU what fraction ofthe Caucasian population is a carrier forthe trait assuming a Hardy Weinberg equilibrium b In part a you were told to assume that the prerequisites ofa Hardy Weinberg equilibrium were met Do you think it is likely that this assumption is correct If not which HardyWeinberg prerequisites are probably not met in this case c Based upon your answer to part b how will the carrier frequency be affected over several generations Explain your answer d PKU can now be prevented by regulation ofthe diet ofa person with this trait How will this fact affect your answer to part c 10 In many American Indian groups the IB allele is extremely rare A sample of 600 Papago Indians in Arizona shows that 37 were blood type A and 563 were blood type 0 a What are the best estimates ofthe frequencies of the IA IB and i alleles in this population b What are the genotype frequencies predicted by the HardyWeinberg model 11 We have seen that several different genes can be used to classify human blood the ABO Rh and MN are three systems whose genes are autosomal An additional classi cation system is based upon a gene that is XIinked This gene has two alleles designated X3 and X0 the XO allele is recessive Two phenotypes can be detected chemically in each sex The dominant phenotype is called apositive and the recessive is called anegative If pXA 068 and qX0 032 what are the expected phenotypic frequencies in a population at HardyWeinberg equilibrium for these alleles HINT Work out each sex separately first and assume a 5050 sex ratio Remember that at equilibrium the allele frequencies are the same for both sexes and that guring out the allele frequencies from phenotype frequencies will be easier for males 12 An electrophoretic study ofthe enzyme alkaline phosphatase in a population of stone crabs shows this enzyme is controlled by a single gene locus with two alleles A and a Further analysis reveals that the frequency ofA 05 Analysis of a sample collected later reveals the frequencies of the three possible genotypes to be AA33 Aa 33 aa 33 a Is this population in HardyWeinberg equilibrium How can you tell b Describe two mechanisms that might account for this situation ANSWERS Beware of rounding error a 045 2 a 07 b 70 b 03 0 yes d genetic drift bottleneck a Type A 4 a pM 065 qm 035 b 92 b0385 c 00036 d 585 or 00585 a95 6 a 16 b 32 b 52 c 0002 c 0044 d111 times more probable d1 00256 vs 00023 8 053 a 104 b 34 c 99 Caucasian 348 Asian a 002 b The assumption of equal survival and reproduction is probably wrong in this case 0 The frequency ofthe PKU allele should decline as homozygous recessives are removed from the population dThe decline will stop if there is no selection against PKU sufferers a pIB 0000 plA 003 pi 097 b IA 0058 IAIA 00009 ii 0941 034 male apositive 016 male a negative 045 female a positive 005 a negative a No we don39t see the genotype frequencies predicted by HardyWeinberg b Possibly nonrandom mating migration chance or selection against the heterozygote Probably not mutation


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