STTEACHLEARN SCIEN BSC 5936
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kari Harber Jr. on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 5936 at Florida State University taught by Anne Thistle in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see /class/205417/bsc-5936-florida-state-university in Biological Sciences at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
BSC 5936 Scienti c Communication SUMMARY OF COMMA USE SOME PLACES NEVER TO PUT COMMAS 1 Never use a comma to separate a verb from its subject or object 2 Never put a comma between two items joined by a coordinating conjunction and or but for nor unless they are 1 part of a longer series or 2 independent clauses PLACES WHERE YOU SHOULD PUT COMMAS A In Series Place a comma after each of a series of independent parallel items except the 03 0 N L 5 V39 9 last If the items contain commas separate them with semicolons instead Between Independent Clauses Two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction and or but for nor are separated by a comma which precedes the conjunction In Conventionally Determined Locations In 5digit numbers between coordinates of a point in geometry after letter salutations and closings in ellipses To Enclose Parenthetical Material Elaborations on proper nouns e g state names that follow city names years that follow dates titles that follow the bearer s name Transitional words and phrases and those introducing examples e g quothoweverquot quotthereforequot quotfor examplequot Material without grammatical relation to the rest of the sentence absolutes like nominatives of direct address nominatives absolute interjections Direct quotes when any punctuation is necessary Material moved out of its normal position e g initials that follow the surname preposed modi er phrases and clauses Nonrestrictive modi er phrases and clauses 7 Nonrestrictive appositives BSC 5936 Scienti c Communication Note Throughout an asterisk marks each incorrect example EXAMPLE SENTENCES COMMA USE l 2 E 4 V39 O gt1 00 0 The pig is an animal The pig is an animal The task of bringing to the attention of a badly informed public the plight of our endangered species and their vanishing habitats falls to investigators with the ability and willingness to recast the results of their work in language comprehensible to the curious but scienti cally untrained lay reader Jack and Jill went up the hill The two greatest defects of the proposal were an overblown carelessly prepared budget and a confusing methods section The investigators designed an elaborate project and carried it out awlessly The investigators designed an elaborate project and their assistants carried it out awlessly The investigators designed an elaborate project and they carried it out awlessly The chairmen of biology chemistry and oceanography forbade interaction among their departments Don Fran Joe Tom and Alice are members of the department 1 sorted the hardware into siX categories hinges nails washers plates nuts and bolts and screws The experimental apparatus was placed in a wide deep round hole The speaker was known for long tedious lectures and short incomprehensible publications The lives of technicians who pipette organic solvents by mouth are nasty brutish and short N 5 N UI N O N l A fourth indirect bene t of the study is described below It was an itsybitsy teenyweeny yellow polkadot bikini The large gravid female was removed from the aquarium After sieving the samples we searched them for amphipods polychaetes and sorted them by grain size The literature on Florida s decapods is scattered incomplete and o en lacks keys or illustrations After sieving the samples we searched them for amphipods searched them for polychaetes and sorted them by grain size The literature on Florida39s decapods is scattered is incomplete and o en lacks keys or illustrations After sieving the samples we searched them for amphipods and polychaetes and sorted them by grain size The literature on Florida39s decapods is scattered and incomplete and often lacks keys or illustrations Smith 1983 foresaw the importance of the phenomenon to ecology and Jones 1984 demonstrated it in an elegant series of experiments Smith 1983 foresaw the importance of the phenomenon to ecology Jones 1984 however was the one to demonstrate it The principal investigator takes responsibility for the proper conduct of the research and the principal investigator is therefore often the first author on the resulting paper Smith 1983 foresaw the importance of the phenomenon to ecology and later 1984 demonstrated it in an elegant series of experiments The principal investigator was responsible for the design of the experiment and the technician for its execution gt0 O N L 5 UI 05 gt1 9 50 0 3654982 54679 7091 365498252 three million six hundred ftyfour thousand nine hundred eightytwo and ftytwo hundredths 3 654 98252 The principal investigator was responsible for the design of the experiment and the technician for its execution The principal investigator was responsible for the design of the experiment and the technician for its execution Dear John There comes atime in every relationship just good friends Sincerely yours Marsha Dear Dr Whosit Thank you for your submission to the Journal of t our needs at this time Sincerely yours The Editor Tallahassee Florida is a county seat as well as a state capital Donald R Strong Jr was once a member of the FSU faculty January 3 1949 is the date of my birth Did you know that 3 January 1949 is the date of my birth January 1949 was a very good month Syntech Inc specializes in adult toys 4 4 N 4 LA 4 4 4 VI 4 ON 4 l 4 00 4 O u 0 UI UI UI u gt1 u 9 It is widely believed that the sky is blue Jones 1956 Smith 1963 It is widely believed that the sky is blue but see Jones 1956 for a contrasting view It is widely believed that the sky is blue but see Jones 1956 for a contrasting view William H Outlaw Jr is still a member of the FSU faculty His term paper was excellent his nal exam however was a disaster We conclude therefore that in this system the organism is multivoltine However Itwisted it I couldn39t get it loose Drat he39s at it again interjection Do not Gentle Reader overlook the caveats expressed in the Discussion section of the present paper nominative of direct address All other things being equal more intense predation should result in stronger selection nominative absolute Drat He s at it again Dr Jones insists that his idea quothas been stolenquot Dr Jones insists quotMy idea has been stolenquot During the coldest months of the year the organism is unable to reproduce Rising out of the fog the sun glowed red It is important to note that in spite of extremely high temperatures the organism reproduces throughout the summer During December and January the organism is unable to reproduce To a man a car can be the key to freedom During the winter months of reproductive inactivity are possible To a man driving a car can be the key to freedom To a man driving a car the countryside seems to ash by The organism is ordinarily apomictic but when conditions are right it may reproduce ON O N 70 7 7 N 7 7 4 7 VI 7 O E sexually The eld sites will be visited monthly and if predator densities rise sharply measures will be taken to exclude immigrants Strong D R Jr L G Abele and J F Willing 1984 The foibles of graduate students Simberloff D and J M Diamond 1984 Aamp J Irreprod Res 137 quotuse of monofilament in shark fishingquot quotmonofilament use of in shark fishingquot microfilaments characteristics of 13 18 monofilament use of in shark fishing 27 Two men were walking side by side The man who had red hair stumbled A man and a woman were walking side by side The man who had red hair stumbled The red car that ran down the pedestrian was towed away The other red cars were left alone The red car which ran down the pedestrian was towed away The blue ones were left alone The discovery is usually credited to Jones 1954 who proved the force exists rather than to Smith 1950 who suggested but could not demonstrate its existence The discovery is usually credited to the scientist who proved the force exists rather than to the earlier investigator who suggested but could not demonstrate its existence During the summers when temperatures are over 40 C the organism is unable to reproduce During the summers when temperatures are over 40 C the organism is unable to reproduce Members of science departments which require their students to take laboratory courses carry heavy teaching loads Members of science departments that require their students to take laboratory courses 77 7 00 7 0 oo 0 00 oo 4 carry heavy teaching loads Permit me to introduce Dr Smith today39s speaker She is an eminent scientist a leader in her eld The next to address the class a solid D student mumbled badly The Gulf coast blue crab Callinectes sapidus was the subject of our study The Carolina Wren Thryothorus ludovicz39anus is quite widespread The crab C allinectes sapidus was the subject of our study The crab was the subject of our study grammatical only if the species has already been uniquely identi ed A crab Callinectes sapidus was the subject of our study A crab was the subject of our study grammatical even out of context BSC 5936 Scienti c Communication USEFUL DEFINITIONS Modi er An adjective or adverb Phrase Broadly any group of words that is not a clause More narrowly a group of words that is not a complete clause but forms a grammatical unit Clause A grammatical structure containing a subject a verb and any necessary objects Every sentence consists of at least one clause but not every clause is a complete sentence Subject The topic about which a sentence makes a statement The term can refer either to the single quotcorequot noun of the sentence39s topic or to that word and all its modi ers the entire topic quothalfquot of the sentence Predicate The statement that a sentence makes about its topic The term can refer either to the single quotcorequot verb or to the complete verb and all its modi ers and objects the entire predicate quothalfquot of the sentence Compound sentence A sentence containing more than one independent clause Complex sentence A sentence containing one or more dependent subordinate clauses in addition to its independent clauses Predicate adjective An adjective that is located in the predicate but that modi es the subject of the sentence as can occur after certain intransitive verbs Predicate nominative A noun or phrase or clause acting as a noun that occurs in the predicate but is in the nominative case and renames the subject of the sentence as can occur after intransitive verbs closely related to quotto bequot Objective complement An additional complement sometimes necessary to complete the meaning ofa verb such as quotmakequot or quotconsiderquot eg We consider John an idiot They made Jane chairman BSC 5936 Scienti c Communication GRAMMAR BASICS The Parts of Speech 1 N E Verb expresses an action or state Fred gave George a book Jack and Jill went up the hill Jesus wept The student assistant seems sullen today He seems to have been photographed twice They seem to have been photographed twice You seem to have been photographed twice He seemed to have been photographed twice Noun names a person place or thing Ignorance is no excuse George doesn39t know a frog from a toad Apalachicola Bay is full of oysters Marilyn is a police o lcer Crying won t get you anywhere That professors are absentminded is a wellknown fact Adjective modi es a noun or pronoun Answers questions about the noun or pronoun like What kind Which one How many The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy alog39s back Mathilda is asleep Have a lovely day 4 V39 O Adverb modi es a verb adjective or another adverb Answers questions about the word it modi es like How Where When To what extent Why In what manner The car accelerated fast I don 39t sing well I ve never seen anyone perform so poorly A very nicely wrapped package is always welcome Preposition forms always with its object and the object39s modi ers a phrase that serves as an adjective or adverb A preposition expresses the relationship between its object and some other word in the sentence The ball is under the house The task of bringing to the attention of a badly informed public the plight of our endangered species and their vanishing habitats falls to the investigator with the ability and willingness to recast the results of relevant research in language comprehensible to the curious but scienti cally untrained voter Get into the pool He s up the creek without a paddle Pronoun stands in lieu of a previously mentioned noun Personal plain and possessive eg I you he her their Re exive and intensiveforms with quotself Relativewho whom which that what whose introduce relative clauses I nterrogativewho whom which what whose Demonstrativenthis that these those Indefiniteeg all each everyone few several She rejected their proposal on behalf of everyone who is important to her Who do you think you are He who does not respect himself cannot respect anyone 7 9 Conjunction serves to join other words or groups of words Coordinatingand or nor but for Subordinatingeg after although where until C orrelatz39veue g bothand eitheror neithernor not onlybut also Jack and Jill went up the hill I can t go to the house or to the store but Frieda will He would neither laugh nor smile I can t leave until my replacement arrives Interjection an eXpletive like those often deleted from con dential tapes that have been subpoenaed Oh Ouch Aargh Snell and framnation Odds bodkz39ns My experiment didn t work Charlie Brown replied quotAargh quot Oh I didn39t know it was you Verbals verb forms used as other parts of speech 1 In nitive quottoquot plus a verb Can be used as noun adjective adverb To err is human to forgive is divine nouns used as subjects He lacked the will to continue adjective modifying quotwillquot You must study to learn adverb modifying quotstudyquot Can keep complements and modi ers Unlike other verbals can keep its subject which gets put in object case I want him to build a house retains subject quothimquot and object quothousequot She worked to earn their respect retains object quotrespectquot He struggled to speak clearly retains modi er quotclearlyquot Participle past and present quotingquot form invariably present quotedquot form or equivalent past Used as adjective Can keep objects and modi ers but not subject The regular program was interrupted by a report of breaking news Watch out for falling rocks I wore a painting smock The pieces of a broken lamp littered the oor Fallen rocks blocked the road The newly painted house looked better retains modi er quotnewlyquot Painting the house I got spatters on my smock retains it object quothousequot If the subject is retained the result is an absolute not a participial phrase All else being equal the apple doesn39t fall far from the tree A gerund is the present participal used as a noun Can keep complements and modi ers but not subject Painting the house was a good idea acts a subject of sentence retains its object quothousequot I hate studying hard acts as direct object retains a modi er quothardquot I hate studying history acts as direct object retains its object quothistoryquot If the subject is retained it must be made a modi er possessive My breaking the lamp annoyed my mother acts as subject of sentence retains its old subject as a modi er quotmyquot and its object quotlampquot Examples of Sentence Structures Transitive active I gave John a book Morton paddled the canoe home I hate horror movies Everybody loves a lover John sings songs Transitive passive The man was bitten by the dog John was given a book The rule was broken The canoe was paddled home by Morton Intransitive complete John sings Frieda fell Nobody starves Intransitive linking I feel sick He acts drunk Joyce seems depressed today This situation is ridiculous Her brother is a female impersonator The dog is man s best friend Don t be a fool The king is a fink Examples with Compound Structural Elements John and Mary sing John sings and dances Joyce and Fred both seem depressed and gloomy today The king is a fink a rat and a meany I gave John and his best friend a book and a bookmark Examples with Added Modi ers Joe sings badly Her older brother is a highly successful female impersonator Everybody in his right mind loves a lover Alice fell through the looking glass John sings and dances nightly at the Copa Cabana The task of bringing to the attention of a badly informed public the plight of our endangered species and their vanishing habitats falls to the investigator with the ability and willingness to recast the results of his work in language comprehensible to the curious but scientifically untrained voter Examples with Added Absolute Constructions All other things being equal everybody loves a lover I gave John a book all his mother s objections having been withdrawn John I love you I love you too Marsha Oh he acts drunk Examples of Concatenated Clauses John sings and dances nightly at the Copa Cabana and he39s terrible John sings and Mary dances Her older brother is a highly successful female impersonator he gets offers from glamorous nightspots all the time Examples of Embedded Clauses Used as adjectives Everybody in his right mind loves a lover who doesn39t rub it in too badly A few structures exist that can simply be attached to the basic structures Used as adverbs A braggart is unlikely to make many friends unless he can demonstrate a sufficient sense of humor in his boasting I couldn t go because I got sick Used as nouns I want John to go with me I39d hate for that to happen I don t believe that he d do that Whoever reads this wonders who wrote it Buying on margin involves taking risks
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