HON BIO SCI II
HON BIO SCI II BSC 2011
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kari Harber Jr. on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2011 at Florida State University taught by Patricia Spears in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 215 views. For similar materials see /class/205422/bsc-2011-florida-state-university in Biological Sciences at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
BSC 2011 UNIT 11 STUDY GUIDE PART B 1 Assume that the cell in the figure above is from a crayfish testis and is about to undergo spermatogenesis gamete production by meiosis The letters represent alleles at particular gene positions eg A and a alleles for one gene B and b alleles for another gene etc on each chromosome a HaVe the chromosomes replicatedyet Is the cell shown haploid or diploid HOW DID YOU DECIDE What is the haploid number of a sperm cell from this the crayfish What is the diploid number of this crayfish39s somatic cells b How many chromosomes might you observe in a muscle cell at GO from this crayfish c What are all the possible combinations of alleles that could be found in a gamete produced by the cell in the figure aboVe d Which of Mendel39s laws tells us that a gamete containing a chromosome with the quotAquot allele will not necessarily contain a chromosome with a quotBquot allele e Which of Mendel39s laws tells us that a gamete cannot contain both an quotAquot allele and an allele quotan 2 Assume that the cell illustrated in the figure above is from a species of crab a Is this cell undergoing mitosis meiosis I or meiosis II HOW DID YOU DECIDE b What is the haploid number of this species ie in a gamete produced by an organism of this species What is the species39 diploid number c Has any crossingrover occurred prior to this stage If so for which alleles d Will the daughter cells from this division be haploid or diploid e How many chromatids would be present in a muscle cell from this crab in the G2 phase of its mitotic cell cycle 3 Imagine that the cell in the figure above if from a bird known as a blueifooted booby a Is this cell undergoing mitosis meiosis I or meiosis II HOW DID YOU DECIDE b What is the diploid number of the organism from which this cell arose c Name the structures being pulled apart by the spindle fibers d Has crossing over occurred in this cell If so for which alleles e What combination of alleles ie what genotype will be found in each of the daughter cells that immediately result from the completion of the cellidivision stage shown above f What is the gem ge of the individual or the diploid cell that gave rise to the cell above g How many genetically distinct or different gametes with respect to the genes and alleles shown can an individual with this diploid genotype produce Please write the geno ges for all possible gametes that this individual could produce BSC 2011 UNIT III STUDY GUIDE PART A UNIT III Evolution and Population Genetics The purpose of this study guide is to encourage you to review your notes and text material and to integrate numerous facts and terms into broad but meaningful concepts Please try and work on your own at first but don t hesitate to ask for assistance from me or your TAs I will randomly select a question to use on your Unit III exam Thanks Dr Spears 1 Discuss the following various views people held about life s diversity how it arose and the age of the earth old young before evolution was suggested a essentialismidealism b natural theology c catastrophism d uniformitarianism 2 a What is the biological meaning of the term evolution b Contrast microevolution with macroevolution 3 Describe explain how each of the following served as evidence at the time of Darwin that evolution could be a means by which life s diversity arose a artificial selection b comparative anatomy c geology d paleontology e comparative embryology 4 a How can molecular biology provide evidence for evolution b Provide two examples 5 Distinguish between a homologous b analogous and c vestigial structures providing at least M EXAMPLE of each 6 a What did Darwin find intriguing about the finches on the Galapagos Islands b Explain why how the Galapagos finches might have helped Darwin formulate his hypothesis of evolution by natural selection 7 a Describe the process by which populations evolve via natural selection bWhy is it said that genetic variation is a prerequisite is required for evolution by natural selection 8 Lamarck thought that evolution was the best explanation for life s diversity as did Darwin How did Darwin s view differ from Lamarck s 9 Explain what is meant by the phrase populations evolve not individuals 10 Consider a population of animals of some sort a Why must there be genetic variation within a population for natural selection to occur b What is meant when we say that natural selection eliminates variation hence the paradox of evolution 0 Your notes list mechanisms that act to maintain genetic variation in a population Describe six of these mechanisms 11 Definedescribe a gene pool b allele frequency 0 genotype frequency d phenotype frequency e gene fixation Using actual letters and descriptive terms Give an example for b c d and e 12 a Explain the Hardy Weinberg theorem b provide all of the conditions that are required for a population to remain in HW equilibrium and 0 how is the HW theorem useful in the study of evolution 13 Describe how each of the following affect allele and genotype frequencies in populations a genetic drift b mutation 0 population bottleneck d founder effect e gene ow f non random mating and g natural selection Please describe a possible real life example for each of a through g 14 a Explain the story of the peppered moth b It is often cited as one of the earliest examples of what process 15 Define a adaptation b relative fitness and c explain how natural selection adaptation and relative fitness are interrelated 16 Define m provide a possible real life example of a directional selection b stabilizing selection and c disruptive selection d How does each affect the mean and variance of the distribution of phenotypes in a population 17 a Why is genetic variation within a population important M provide a possible real life example b What are six mechanisms that serve to maintain genetic variation or polymorphism in natural populations 18 a Define AND give a possible real life example of frequency dependent selection b how does frequency dependent selection play a role in the evolution of mimicry c contrast Batesian and Mullerian mimicry 19 a Why was Darwin perplexed by the presence of bizarre or large flashy and showy features on the males of many species b Distinguish between natural selection and sexual selection c Please give three examples of sexual selection in the animal world 20 a What is a cline b Please provide two biological examples of clines cWhat mechanisms might cause a cline to be observed for a particular species d What is a reciprocal transplant experiment and how can this be used to determine the cause of some observed clinal variation 21 Know the basis for the various species concepts and the advantages and disadvantages of each for classifying organisms 22 Know what makes the biological species concept superior for the study of evolution 23 Be able to describe and distinguish 4 prezygotic and 4 postzygotic mechanisms that reinforce reproductive isolation 24 Know how hybridization followed by polyploidy can lead to speciation 25 Be able to recognize and distinguish the defining features of allopatric and sympatric speciation and the conditions required for each to occur 26 Be able to define and distinguish the geographic and peripheral isolates models of allopatric speciation 27 Be able to describe the difference between the pattern of evolution suggested by gradual speciation and punctuated equilibrium and what evolutionary mechanisms each emphasizes 28 Understand how systematists use phenotypic similarity among species to reconstruct evolutionary history how convergent evolution presents a problem for this approach and how using similarity of molecules DNA sequences or amino acid sequences of proteins is similar to and different from using morphological similarity to infer evolutionary history 29 Define systematics phylogeny phylogenetic tree be able to interpret a phylogenetic tree with respect to time ancestor descendent relationships nodes 30 Know the hierarchy of classification know the usefulness of scientific names to what does binomial nomenclature refer 31 Be able to do all of the problems on the Populations Genetic Problems worksheet Bio 2 Unit 1 Study Guide 1a DNA made of the Nitrogenous bases CG and AT DNA is a double stranded helix the 2 strands are connected by Hbonds between the bases DNA s function is to store genetic 39 f 39 aka I of 39 39 39 DNA replication is semiconservative RNA single stranded molecule and consists of the nitrogenous bases AU and C G 3 major types of RNA mRNA messenger tRNA transfer rRNA ribosomal Proteins types of proteins and their functions Enzymes catalyze reactions ex DNA polymerase Structural support ex Collagen Transport other molecules ex Hemoglobin Hormones coordinate cellorg activities ex Insulin b The function of replication is to make a copy of the DNA Replication occurs in the nucleus The function of transcriptions is to make an RNA copy of the DNA and occurs in the cytoplasm The function of translation is to translate the RNA into protein and occurs in the ribosome c Ribosomes are the site of translation from RNA to protein and tRNA carry specific amino acids that are chained together into a polypeptide d Genetic code a codon a triplet of 3 mRNA bases which codes for 1 amino acid Genetic code is redundant and is universal e A mutation is a change in the genetic material of a cell A missense mutation is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide is changed A nonsense mutation is a point mutation that changes the DNA to code for a stop codon A frameshift is causes by either an insertion or deletion of a nucleotide and alters the 3 codon reading frame of amino acids f A gene is a discrete unit of hereditary information on a part of a chromosome 1 molecule of double stranded DNA g Chromosomes are structural units composed of chromatin DNA protein that bind to DNA h Euchromatin loosely packed DNA proteins DNA wraps around Nucleosomes 8 of the 5 types of histone proteins euchromatin is actively transcribed strains lightly because GC rich Heterochromatin tightly packed DNA proteins genetically inactive stains darkly because ATrich found in Eukaryotes only 2 a Differential gene expression gene expression that responds to signals or triggers a means of gene regulation Gene expression is generally controlled at transcription level Gene regulation is the control of gene expression It s importantnecessary to regulate genes because for example stomach cells don t need to express the hair color gene Some genes are more important than others B transcription factors facilitate binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter of a gene forming a lltranscription initiation complexquot Control elements TFs and control elements regulate genes at the initiation of transcription Histone acetylation modification of histone proteins by addition of acetyl group COCH3 DNA methylation adding a CH3 group to CampG nucleotides tend to quotinactivatequot DNA miRNA small RNA molecules that bind to mRNA transcripts and block their translation at the ribosome c genetic engineering is the direct human manipulation ofan organism39s genetic material in a way that does not occur under natural conditions Recombinant DNA is a form of artificial DNA that is created by combining two or more sequences that would not normally occur together through the process of gene splicing
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