CONSERVATION BIOLOGY BSC 3052
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kari Harber Jr. on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 3052 at Florida State University taught by Peter Beerli in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see /class/205424/bsc-3052-florida-state-university in Biological Sciences at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Conservation biology study questions Community effects and is land biogeography DH 03 F 0 Explain Mutualism indirect interaction What is a keystone species Give an example and give also an example of a community with a keystone species Island biogeography suggests that the number of species on an island is a function of the colonization rate and the extinction rateWhat are some factors that can in uence colonization and extinction rates Show with graphs the equilibrium number of species when island sizes of two island and their distance to the mainland differ Explain how many species we expect to nd on islands in the Paci c that got colonized from Indonesia or Malaysia Explain why the number of species is today less dependent on island biogeography What are the limitations of island biogeography under what conditions might it not apply Similarities between fragmented landscape and islands Dissimilarities De ne Disturbance De ne Succession Discuss the intermediate disturbance hypothesis Olina Parakeet Panthera Ieo barbaricus Barbary Lion extinct around I935 I9I8 I Extinct I922 Tasmanian Tiger Gastic rooding frog 0 Extinct 7 I Extln I936 0 Not found since I985 mu 22 Asm z ufspcles um Lhaughlexlmubnlnalsmnd m mm mum 39 m Aldabra tortOIse pmmmw Emma 1951 m pmamougma Wemmabmm 1923 m Mama ma murkggeamxex 2m 1m Gaimlobmmlahmanm champ 2mm 23 Haparopmm pums sm 2mm 9 WWW gm Gdhm39spumma 1994 25 Mam1m mmmm 1999 31 Lapniopmxfamxlyhpmwlabms Galdzncmwnzdmamhn 2mm 45 Seychelle t rtois e Seychelle saddleback Measuring Current Extinctions I Direct observation are dif cult I Indirect observation species area relationship SpeciesArea relationship 2 S c gtlt A s is ataxon spemfk onstant z is he extinmon oef ment is in the range 0 l O 0 3 Number of species S Area A SpeciesArea relationship 2 S c gtlt A s is a axon spetifk onstant z is estimated using the slope logNumber of species S logArea A lat Arthur and Wilson l 967 the theory of island biogeography we c a o NuMuzmrsr L no mo n mu w m m m 1 17 L Lnquot Bangkn 4 Cclol Us r j V V u r z s u Vi E e s r w l in Ha Na quotin is my M mum granivores all small mammals r2 proportion ofvariation explained Esmmatmg extmctmn mes mmmg haw mnyspums go mm mm me mm mm MK MN W mm WM mmquot m m We mendungevmen Fame 01 mmmun Causes of extinction lHamaI deswcua is hamax iass HESS 5125 lewev species 1 mm wagmemmmn mm Wm warm m Wmmm Causes of extinction am deswcuan x hams mss Hess m z lewev Species x mm wagmemmmn 7 Eda Fvagmemaiiun mos SmaH mam mais in mm Evanivuves 1 Pvapaman mvanaiian Emiained Causes of extinction lHabitat destruction Ii Habitat loss less area fewer species I Habitat 39agmentation I Edge effects Q Isolation a 17 a imam me Causes of enda ngermenl 1 gun m 090 39 70 3 gw 150 to E39 E20 313 2 a e a a o u 1 a o o u a EguE 3 g E E 2 a D x 3 5 5 39u Exotic species IExDIiC species species introduced to regions outside of their native range I nvasive species an exotic species with strongly increasing populations and most often detrimental effect on the native species or habitats Exotic species Invasive species predated and eradKaEed East USA for their edible Great Laksl logging up water H a t a a r k y Spemes Overgrowlngforestsl errettwe out ofwater tolumn hanging native Habitats than Hath6 Causes of enda ngermenl 3m m 390 39 70 3 gw u 150 to E39 E20 m 2 1 n g h g a 1 o w o a h gt u 1 23 a a 3 m g 3 h 3 3 Fe 3 u Pollution NonPoint sources Point sources Pollution lAir lGIobaI warming lAcid rain lOzone depletion smog mm m Pollution lWaIer IToxins lNutrienIs leutrophic vs oligotrophic mm mm mLst mm Lomnmwmvaxsmiz MARINE cousomum mm m mm mm mammam BUTANAVERIGE YEAR m emum mm nimeLrnmma ean zme mm was weak 1 sunny man was 315 mu m s xnn Suarem zs mimmm was nun mamz hem 11335 is u nun m s nun sunarem zs m mam and m mm mndmms 1111mm m mamz Elms uzxe mymnghmnnnnalmdummnnxmmscmx nimereaIMlssmpplm 2mm mm nenmmznm mm mmmmmmm Fehmxy Mm 31d May humed by amnlnnzed ahwe magma mat 115mm m hmumn my as m m Everglades excerpts of a talk by Fritz Davis 2004 RIVER 0F GRASS m MAIUORV h rumiMAN DOUGLAS John Kunkel Small The Keysquot 0 Lower keys 0 Upper keys 0 Miami Rocklands Everglades Keys 0 Sea of saw grass 0 Sea of pine trees 0 sea of tropical hardwoods o Mangroves stood at the margin The Source of the Everglades Dominant Ecosystems of the Everglades before drainage 0 Custard Apple Swamp o Sawgrass Marshes 0 Miami Rockland Pine and Mixed Hardwood Forests o Mangrove borders virtually gone L0 Reminded EXploreTrs of quotcathedrals 39 Gourd vinesgiant39iferns andl b eautiful epipihytes o Uninhabitable for Europeans 0 Indians promoted the growth of the custard apple swamp Anb39th e r virtua l ly i Vpenietra39bfle barrier 0 TraVel slowedth as little as armil e an a half 39per ay Healthful place o Hardwood hammocks sje ding r 0 Only plume hunters Visited Breeding sites for marine animals and wading birds Reclaim soundsworthy Actual meaning drainage and conversion to farmland Goyerr gbtriwii l iam 13 El 39x 1 quotrra39nge to sell Hamilton Disis tqn 4quot million acres of Florida land for 1 million 0 Disston could claim half of the land he drained and reclaimed Dug a canal from the Caloosahatchee River to Lake Okeechobee 118 7 First rainjaquot quot 39eieo n39nai s39sance of the Evergla rir f39 I 390 Florida s firStse atorJD Westcott r health hazard fromdying sh and vegetation o Swamp Lands Act of 1850 0 Internal Improvement Fund IIF reclamation quotember 1958 r Lmii9n foir 5 0on agress ef Everglades land 0 Trustees agreed to spend 150 of each 200 per acre on 5 canals 6 8ca nal si39frqm Lake Okeechobee through the Everglades 0 Reclaim reug hly 1850000 acres one dollar per acre 0 Th ree ceimanies sol39dr 4ooo 1ioacreafgrm 3620 20 acres 20 to Z00 per acre 39 3940 250 aICT39e S 20 160 acres 8 320 acres 2 640 acres 10000 10 acre farms sight unseen fthucfk39dri ed a n d quot mied dust sthms Inltheisawigraissl 3 0 Land was not as fertile Msithe farmers theseed and 39in 8 weeks you will have imagined 5 iiCattledied an incomeu Lack of trace metals in the soils Custard apple and elder machetes Pull up the smaller brush and to cut the larger roots 0 One week to clear an acre Cold Weather Flood Control 1914 0 1913 1927 13 major control Frost every two weeks between structures gt18 million November and April 0 1926 Hurricane passed over Lake Damaged fragile truck crops Dike burst and the town of Moore Haven suffered severe flooding n A Damlash av u lIAHE man umnsm m was nunmcms Areas of Damage Hoover Levee Army of Corps of Engineers 4 recommendations regarding Lake Okeechobee Increase the depth of the Caloosahatchee River Expand the St Lucie Canal the existing control structure Dredge the channel of Taylor Creek to control ooding in Okeechobee Build a much larger levee along the south shore of the Lake NinaIrv r quot quot lt Ee nnlng Connmc on Hauvu Levee quotN I w t v 1 South Side mm Okeechobee c 1951 Hoover Dike Unintended Consequences Everglades Agro Area 0 wildfires 19505 EAA supported 0 soil loss 0 Winter vegetables 0 saltwater intrusion into freshwater 0 sugar cane wells 0 cattle After 1961 sugar Cuban tension government subsidies Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District Established by Congress after 1947 floods Army Corps of Engineers 1600 miles of canals levees and spillways agricultural area 3 water conservation areas 2 national parks Straightened the Kissimee River Guaranteed an overland water supply for southern Miami Dade County ugar Cane South Florida Water Everglades National Park Management District 0 Controls quantity quality distribution timing 0 of water release into the Everglades 0 Also in 1947 0 Harry Truman dedicated 13 million acres 0 Ended 4 decades of squabbling at the local state and federal levels The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan 0 Reestablish a more natural flow of water throughout South Florida Including The Everglades 0 Ensure reliable water supplies and provide flood control 4 Reunvi MA 8 Billion and 50 Years More than 240 miles of canals and levees will be removed Most of the Miami Canal and the levee that separates the Big Cypress National Preserve from the Everglades National Park 20 miles of Tamiami Trail Route 41 will be rebuilt on a bridge to allow a freer ow of water into the Everglades National Park Water will be captured and stored in new reservoirs man made wetlands and underground wells e Reskorallon Everg a Comaaxed 1 m m MM bmand Budget vnmrd vuuv wquot Malaya mumm hv M m quotn m smmm mm mu BSCBOS2 Spring 2005 Conservation Biology Week 2 0 Why is it dif cult to use direct observation to estimate current extinction rates Name 4 species whose extinction has been documented by direct observation For each of these species what was the major cause of their extinction Direct observations are dif cult because extinctions happen over a long period of time Nat ural populations are uctuating in size without possible predictors we will not know whether that population goes extinct in the future or recovers from small population sizes Many species are not yet identi ed It is not possible to take into account their extinction 1 Passenger pigeon 2 Steller s sea cow 3 Barbary lion 4 Tasmanian tiger In each case the cause is hunting by humans What are the causes of extinction Give examples and describe their effects Causes of extinction are 1 Habitat destruction Human alteration of habitat Loss of habitat due to agriculture and urban expansion Pollution toxins chemicals in water can reduce populations of sh and lead to extinc tion of some to Exotic species Introduction of exotic species can cause extinction of endemic species For example Rats house cats decimated endemic paci c island birds which are mostly ground nesting OJ Exploitation for example Whales were hunted to extinction for oil and whale bone Also includes extinctions caused by 7Bycatch7 or incidental exploitation 4 Diseases Chytrid a fungus is believed to be one of the causes of amphibian decline De ne invasive species Any species including its seeds eggs spores or other biological material capable of propagat ing that species that is not native to that ecosystem and whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health httpwwwinvasiveorg De ne Biodiversity How do you measure it Biodiversity can be de ned as 1 The number and variety of organisms found within a speci ed geographic region R BS03052 Spring 2005 Conservation Biology 2 The structural and functional variety of life forms at genetic population community and ecosystem levels OR 3The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro de ned alpha biodiversity as The variability among living organisms from all sources including inter alia terrestrial marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part this includes diversity within species between species and of ecosystems Alpha diversity or diversity of species within an ecological community can be measured as 1 Species richness Count of number of species 2 Species evenness Count of species taking into account number ofindividuals abundance One measure of evenness is the Shannon Wiener index 3 Phylogeny Species phylogeny could be taken into consideration van Dyke pg 80 90 0 Name 3 ways to de ne a species Why does it matter Species de nition van dyke pg 83 Table 42 A fundamental goal of conservation is conserving species Hence it becomes very important de ne a species for setting realistic conservation goals Mathematical measurement legal pro tection and management of biodiversity depend on how species is de ned An example from class The everglades black racer and Southern black racer Everglades racer is endangered while Southern racers are not If it is de ned as a separate species then efforts can be made on having a conservation plan van Dyke pg 81 83 0 Species area relationships can be used to indirectly estimate extinction rates What equation is used to predict the estimated number of species in a given area How can this equation be used to indirectly estimate extinction rates What assumptions does this method make we talked only a little bit about this Equation used to predict the estimated number of species assumes that the number of species is a function of the island s area That is we lose species as habitat shrinks S CA2 1 Where S number of species on an island A islands area c constant 2 extinction coef cient If this is true we can predict loss of species based on loss of area That is SW lt2 Soriginal Aoriginal van Dyke pg 94 o A very accurate survey in the year 2000 found 57 bird species in a forest covering an area of 25 km 2 The forest was 7 times bigger when the last survey 1955 was done they found 66 species but the exact records got lost Assuming the species area curve relationship is correct and also assuming that the area exponent z02 do the 66 species t our expectation Could BSCBOS2 Spring 2005 Conservation Biology you explain possible deviations of the expected number Given that Snow 57 Soriginal 66 Anow 25 sqkm Aoriginal 175 sqkm and 202 Assuming species area relationship is correct we can calculate the expected number in 1955 by using equation 2 Soriginal 8419 which is more than 66 One obvious reason could be because records were lost It could also be that our estimate of z is incorrect 0 Name an invasive species other than those discussed in class and explain why it is invasive Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes It has a high growth rate Water hyacinth infesta tions prevent sunlight and oxygen from getting into the water Decaying plant matter also re duces oxygen in the water Water hyacinth infestations reduce sheries shade out submersed plants crowd out emersed plants and reduce biological diversity For more information Visit http wwwinvasiveorg http wwwinvasivespecies gov Genetics in Conservation ICan be used to clarify species status IGenetic variability is needed to respond to environmental change IHeterozygosity or high genetic variability is bene cial positively related to tness IGenetic diversity as it is represented by the genes of all species contains all information for all the biological processes like a large library Genetic data can be used to clarify species status Olive Ridley Tu rtle Kem ps Rid leyTu rtle o a l Variability is important Variation of phenotype can be due to genotype and environment Frequency Phenotype VPhenotype VGenotype VEnvironment VGVE Variability is important Evolution through natuml selection results in a change of allele frequencies over time Frequency Phenoty p e Genetic variation is important Phenotype The speci c phenotype could do best at a speci c temperature temperature changes will wipe out the population where the individuals are ill adapte Individual Heterozygosity Population size Modeling populations ztk3s Random Genetic Drift
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