HON BIO SCI II
HON BIO SCI II BSC 2011
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Date Created: 09/17/15
BSC 201103 1 l A Study questions lecture 25 Spring 2006 In lecture we discussed two alternative de nitions of a species Explain one of these de nitions and describe an advantage and a disadvantage of this de nition Using Mayr s Biological Species Concept it is possible for plants to create new species in a single generation How can this happen Give one example ofa prezygotic reproductive isolation mechanism Give one example ofa postzygotic reproductive isolation mechanism BSC 201103 Spring 2006 Study questions for lecture 8 1 Describe one ofthe examples from lecture of how the external environment can affect animal development What is the signal from the external environment and what are the developmental changes that result from that signal Draw a graph that shows the relationship between the signal and the response 2 Give two examples of cellcell interactions during development 3 An exercise to help you put what you have learned about development together Draw a concept map using as many of development terms below as possible If putting them all together seems too hard start by grouping terms into smaller maps You can use arrows to join terms boxes or brackets to group terms etc For example a concept map of DNA RNA Protein Transcription translation gene expression might look like this transcription DNA RNA m Protein Gene expression Note terms that are hard to t in or groups of terms that won t link together Those are likely to be topics that you don t fully understand yet and should ask Dr UndenNood or your TAs about List of development terms to map Here is an example of a concept map of terms from cell structure and function not something you have to know for the exam as an example of a slightly different way to use a map to organize what you have learned about a subject comm at Plant cells Serves my Nucleus canalns Chlumusumes Fund and malsllals stulae plausymlass VII Variation Among Populations A Geographic variation 1 Ecogeographic rules 2 Clines B What causes clines l Reciprocal transplant experiments Species and Speciation I What is a species A Binomial nomenclature B The Morphological species concept C The Biological species concept negativepole Electrophoresis separates norriogenaro in protelns based on dlfferences 1n 39quotquot P 5quot39 quotJ J Lgl LJ LJ Lal JL size and electrical charge sample pocket negatively charged proteins bands of protein aher electrophoresis direction oi movement of proieins positive pole Hete ozygous Homozygous fast Homozygous slow 397 Mr ZEHSVQgrg ligu PL Survey of electrophoretic variation in natural populations gtlltgtllt Proportion of Proportion of Number of Average number polymorphic heterozygous species of loci studied loc1 per loci per Organisms studied per species population individual Invertebrates Drosophila 28 24 0529 0150 asps 6 15 0243 0062 Other insects 4 18 0531 0151 arine 14 23 0 439 0 124 Land snails 5 18 0 437 0 150 Vertebrates Fish 14 21 0306 0078 Amphibians ll 22 0336 0082 Reptiles 9 21 0231 0047 Birds 4 19 0145 0042 Mammals 30 28 0206 0051 Average values Invertebrates 57 39 21 8 0469 0134 Vertebrates 68 24 1 0247 0060 Plants 8 8 0464 0170 Fig 1411 Epistasis can hide dominant alleles from natural selection C pigment c none B deposition of lots of pigment black b less deposition brown If cc fur is White regardless of genotype at B locus Genetic hitchhiking tight linkage to a favorable gene can protect a less favorable gene from selection Good gene Bad gene Heterozygote advantage in Sickle cell anemia Hb normal RBC codominant Hbs sickled RBC Susceptibility Relative Genotype RBC to malaria tness HB Hb normal highest intermediate Hb Hbs norma1 lower highest Hbs Hbs sickled lower lowest Carriers can be identi ed by subjecting a blood sample to very low oxygen conditions some cells will sickle Distributional quota jquot malaria caused by LJf PIHSmadium falciparum a pretezean Copyrighln l Pearson Educatlan Ina publishing as Benjamin Uummmgs Frequencies of the sicklegeell allele 1 o25 E 25 53 E 504592 i 7540096 1 min125 gt12 5 Diversifying selection in space in deer mice mam gt9 932 Dark color is favored on Light color is favored on rich soil sandy soil Diversifying selection in time in the snow goose Frequencydependent selection the relative tness of a genotype depends on how common it is Fig 2311 100 on G l Infectlon rate of snails infected Four different Rare common clones clone Oupyrighi Pearson Education Inc publishing as Bemamln Cummings Predator present Geographic variation populations of the same species have different phenotypes in different geographic areas Gray squirrels in the northern US are much larger than those in the southern US Cline variation among populations that is consistent with respect to geography subcaudal scales in racers Apical taper in milkweeds Fig 238 A cline in plant height With altitude G D m Mean height at varruw plants cm m 77quot Altitude n1 Unpyrigh39lm Faarsnn Educatlon Ina publlahlng a5 Benjamin Cummings Expected results from reciprocal transplant between low and high elevation sites If cline is caused by environment effects FROM Low high TO Low tall tall High short short If cline is caused by genetic differentiation FROM Low high TO Low tall short High tall short BSC 201103 Study questions lecture 33 Spring 2006 1 Think about some animal or plant you ve met in your life a What kinds of resources does that species need to survive b What other species might also compete for these resources Are these other species closely related or not I Explain two different ways that competition can affect a population A Recall the logistic growth equation which describes the population growth of a single species to its carrying capacity Is the carrying capacity ofa species going to be higher or lower when other competing species are present Why BSC 201103 Lecture 5 Spring 2006 Pattern of development in animals 1 Spermatozoon 2 Ovum Structure includes jelly coat outside vitelline membrane egg cell including plasma membrane a Eggs are specialized for b individual egg large Fertilization 0 fusion produces a zygote o Zygote is diploid o Fertilization triggers a chain of reactions Example of fertilization in Sea urchin 1 attraction 2 Acrosomal Reaction 3 Fusion fast block to polyspermy A Cortical Reaction at site of sperm entry fusion of cortical granules with egg membrane granules release enzymes and solutes enzymes loosen bonds swelling of perivitelline space fertilization envelope slow block to polyspermy U39l Egg Activation 6 Nuclear fusion 0 Cleavage 1 major features of cleavage a rapid mitotic divisions b no growth 0 little synthesis d parceling out of maternal determinants e directed by maternal determinants 2 Patterns of cell divisions a polarity of egg Example unfertilized amphibian egg vegetal pole animal pole BSC 201103 Spring 2006 Study questions for lecture 9 What is one thing that happens during each ofthe major parts ofthe cell cycle G1 8 G2 M l Explain what the Go stage ofthe cell cycle is A In the cleavage stage of development cells divide rapidly but don t grow In terms of the phases ofthe cell cycle explain why cells undergoing cleavage don t grow BSC 201103 Lecture 17 Mutations Spring 2006 Chromosomal abnormalities these were discussed 217 in lecture 16 Mutation A Point mutation m C 1 substitution 2 insertion 3 deletion frame shift mutations What causes mutations Consequences range from none to deadly 1 Beneficial mutations Examples 2 Neutral mutations Examples 3 Deleterious mutations Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 4 Lethal mutations 5 Consequences of where a mutation happens Only some mutations are heritable 6 Mutations can be dominant or recessive 7 Mutations can be autosomal or sexlinked on the X or Y D How frequent is mutation Mutation rate Mating between close relatives inbreeding E Examples of human abnormalities caused by single mutant alleles 1 Phenylketonuria PKU autosomal recessive 2 Huntington39s Chorea autosomal dominant rare 3 Sicklecell anemia autosomal codominant 4 Xlinked recessive mutations Transition to next unit What is evolution 5 Growth in Natural Populations a Regulated growth 1 mechanisms 2 density dependent factors b Unregulated growth 1 density independent factors c Applied population dynamics 1 Maximum sustainable yield general logic effects of age effects of sex 2 Controlling pest populations 3 The Human population Fig 5211 The patterns of exponential and logistic population growth 2000 7 1 21 ON Exponential E growth v 1500 g x 1500 n g Logistic growth 5 1000 7 dquot 1 500 N 5 g d 139ou 1500 n 500 0 i 39 39 o 5 1o 15 Number of generations camma Pearson Enumllon lnn Dubllmlnuas amummcummmgs Fig 5212 Growth in real populations Number 01 ParameciumNIL m e a 5 10 IS Tum days a A Paramecium population in me lab Mme can a m e o m a n a a c Number a emllai Number of Damquotum mL 8 a a Time days r 1975 19m 1985 1390 1995 m 11m9yaars nun Copynm a nlwv Enum m mum mnmmcummng Logistic model for population growth dNdt r N K NK If N lt K dNdt is positive and the population grows If N K dNdt is zero and the population does not grow If N gt K dNdt is negative and the population shrinks The growth rate is densitydependent growth is regulated nynwilydauandam Flg 5213 T quotquot quot 2 a 5 u k x a Enunmnum i 5 density 1 Ponulalion deniily 4r Danilydanandam birth quotI Denilty g independent dexlh mg 5 E 8 G a quot 5 R an bn39um 5 density 1 Ponulalion densi39y a mm y dnpomIM newquot dull u 1 indawndum birth III 5 a g n v I 5 i f m Iv Population deniliy Cammmne Pearson Educanon m DubHsMnuaxemlzmmcummvgs Fig 5214 Density dependent birth rates 1 0000 1000 Average number of seeds per reproducing individual 3 o Clutch size 1 0 1 DO Seeds planted per m2 a Plantain cw mm Fenian 2mmquot in Wbiiim vzx s iammcummmgi Fig 5215 Density dependent survival 0 10 20 30 50 60 70 BD 40 Densin 0 females b Song sparrow Survivor 94 3 730000 5 0 3 a 390 2 E 2 g 5 D C O 0 a a 3 2 8 L E 2 E 5 1960 1970 19 80 1990 2000 o Year 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 mmmmmamm m mmquotsmmmmms Year 3 Snowshoe hare a 17 160 7 c 7 C 171 2 quotO 120 2 1 H I 9 a c L a g g 80 s 3 n o O 32 15 a 34 3 x V a a I 0 o 1850 1875 1900 1925 Year Slot limits can protect specific age classes Mycleroperca microlcpis NE GULF OF MEXICO O o Fondtwisd m quot I 9 quotI MilRood and O henI lom 39 NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS u v Y r 300 400 500 600 100 no 900 loan Ilul lzuo TOTAL LENGTHSmIn A population model that includes age sex and harvestng 5 Suem Um Females age 1 FI sag CI Fill1 Em ecIFIlmFIUH g E 730000 a 3 Females 3 age 3 2 F g quot6 1 2 Females 3 age 4 a E E E 10000 8 I I I I 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 I Year Fig 1 Deterministic model skeleton for Dunge ness crab The model dock grams in December WyllvmaPearsanElluullon lnLvMbllshlnn EE lamlnCummmgs Fig 5220 Human population growth 6 5 4 3 2 The Plague i i 8000 4000 3000 2000 1000 o 1000 2000 30 36 50 36 BC AD AD cavhimnc Peavsou Euumllon inn whilshi nasEsviammcummmgs Human population size billlons Fig 5222 Rapid gmwlh Kenya Male Female Female Year nr hinh 19201524 I925r1929 19301934 1935r1939 1940 1944 I94amp1949 19501954 1955 1959 19601964 19701974 197 979 1980 1954 198amp19E9 i 19901954 zero gmwwdecmasa Italy Male Female 2 a i i 42 246 Commle Fenian Enucaliun in WMmeasEE lammcummingi s4 2 l i 2 6 About 80 of the human population is in countries where growth is rapid BSCZO1101 Lecture 3 Spring 2008 Reading Chapter 21 just through section 213 Transcription continued The fate of mRNA in 1 2 Prokaryotes Eukaryotes mRNA processing a cap b polyA tail 0 RNA Splicing Exons lntrons V Translation Codons Features of the genetic code reading frame The Process of Translation Spliced mRNA moves out of nucleus tRNA binds to the ribosome at rst codon AUG anticodon the tRNA corresponding to next codon binds to ribosome stop codon polypeptide released and processed Early ideas about development before the middle 1800 s 0 Spontaneous generation 0 Preformation o Epigenesis Development Model organisms Development from an egg cell to a whole organism is In uenced by four factors 1 2 3 4 Consists ofthree processes 1 2 3 Based on gradual narrowing of cell fates Cell fates Cell differentiation determination Cell Differentiation BSC 201103 Lecture 20 Mechanisms of evolution Spring 2006 Remember that HW equation describes allele and genotype frequencies in a population at equilibrium where they don t change so it describes conditions in a population that is not evolving f genotype frequencies don t match HW expectation evolution is happening because the population s allele frequencies are changing over time 0 Genetic drift 1 Violates the assumption of 2 Three causes of drift a Normal small population size b Population bottlenecks Examples 0 Founder effects Example 0 Mutation 1 Creates new alleles 2 mutation is an important source of genetic variation but not usually an important mechanism of shortterm evolution because 0 Gene flow Example 0 Assortative mating 1 Nonrandom mating does not affect allele frequencies but 2 Two forms with different effects on genotype frequencies a positive b negative 0 Natural selection differential survival and reproduction of genotypes KINGDOM Protista Names reflect modes of locomotion Phylum Ciliophora cilia Phylum a rcomastigophora Subphylum a rcodina pseudopodia Subphylum Mastigophora flagella Phylum Sporozoa non motile as adults Protista Facto Protists are usually unicellular but can be colonial Can colonize just about any moist environment Autotrophs PHS heterotrophs phagocytosis parasitic malaria even symbionts termite amp zoo agellates mutualistic relationship Reproduce asexually by binary ssion or by budding Reproduce sexually by conjugation or by syngamy gametes Phylum V n u f Paramecium conjugating sexual reproduction controlled by the micronucleus can t see not the macronucleus A CHAMBERED shells amp bubbles CaCO3 tests skeletons extend pseudopodia through pores 5 V Phylum Sarcomastigophora Subphylum Sarcodlna I Radlolarla rund 3quot 5 Generally pelagic live here J wx a u a w L 1 x t i 7 h I I V SPHERICAL bodies silica tests skeletons extend pseudopodia through the tiny holes in the shell BSC 201103 Lecture 15 Mendel didn t know about chromosomes Spring 06 Sexlinked inheritance Autosomes Sex chromosomes Digression Mechanisms of sex determination are different for different kinds of species 1 XY system XX XY The XY system in some other species 2 X0 3 ZW Sex determination systems that don39t involve sex chromosomes Can be both chromosomal and nonchromosomal 1 haplodiploid systems 2 Parthenogenesis 3 nonchromosomal mechanisms Environmental control Developmental control Social control Back to our original subject sex chromosomes and sexlinked inheritance Xlinked inheritance in XY systems Alleles X normal vision X0 color blind X is dominant Possible phenotypes Female genotypes Male genotypes normal XX XY color blind XcXc XcY carrier XXc Cross X XC with XY Gametes F1 Holandric genes Expression of sexlinked traits a Xinactivation Examples b Sexinfluenced traits Example Linkage nonindependent assortment 1 TH Morgan Experiments Looked at two traits body color and wing shape First a dihybrid cross bbvgvg with bbvgvg F1 genotype F1 phenotype Crossed these expected 9331 Instead To gure out why he did a test cross female F1 bbvgvg wild type grey normal with male bbvgvg black vestigial Result Phenotype observed Expected Ratio wild grey normal 965 575 5 roughly Black normal 185 575 1 Gray vestigial 206 575 1 Black vestigial 944 575 5 Conclude 2 Linkage Linked genes Crossing over 1 How crossing over happens review recombinant gametes 2 Why are some genes more tightly linked than others Xover frequency BSC 201103 Lecture 9 Cell Division Spring 2006 For single celled organisms cell division reproduction For muticellular organisms division allows Growth Development Renewal and repair of damaged cells and tissues in adults 0 0 0 o Gamete production The cell cycle The life cycle of a Prokaryotic cell Details of cell division in Prokaryotes binary fission The life cycle of a Eukaryotic cell A continuous process lumped into two stages and then some substages 1 lnterphase A G1 phase gap1 B S phase Synthesis C GZ phase gap 2 2 M phase or MIC mitosiscytokinesis Mitosis Cytokinesis End result Variation in the length of the cell cycle Some cells don t ever divide Some cells don t normally divide but can be stimulated to start dividing Some cells divide very frequently Differences in length of the cell cycle Go Control of the cell cycle 1 Experiments with cell fusion 1970 s a fuse a G1 cell and an 8 cell Conclude b fuse a G1 and G2 cell Conclude c fuse any cell with an M stage cell Conclude 2 Cytoplasmic signals a cyclins b Cyclin dependent kinase Cdk 3 Signals for division respond to internal state of the cell 4 Signals for division respond to information from outside the cell a Nutrients b Growth factors c Anchorage dependence d Density dependence 5 Cell division and cancer Example mutation of the ras gene How growth factors work normally BSC 201103 l Spring 2006 Study questions for lecture 19 Give the more precise population genetics de nition of evolution Explain the difference between allele frequency and genotype frequency Use an example to illustrate this difference make up your own example Define natural selection DanNin and Wallace s proposed mechanism for evolution and explain how it is different from Lamarck s proposed mechanism for evolution inheritance of acquired characteristics BSC 201103 Lecture 13 Spring 2006 Mendelian genetics multiple traits Summary of Mendel39s theory Mendel39s Laws Law of unit factors Law of segregation Law of Dominance IV Law of independent assortment Important differences from blending inheritance Mendelian genetics can predict quantitative patterns Probability theory used to predict likelihood ofa particular outcome of an event 1 The probability of a particular outcome of one event eg heads in a coin toss When all outcomes equally likely the probability that a given outcome will occur ways to obtain that outcome Itotal possible outcomes Probability scales from 0 to 1 Sometimes outcomes are not equally likely 2 Rules for probability of more than one event or outcome Outcomes of multiple events must be independent Product rule quotandquot rule BSC 201103 Lecture 25 What is a species Spring 2006 Variation among populations rather than within another kind ofvariation Variation among populations is common Recall differences can be genetic or phenotypic How genetically different can two populations be and still be the same species How do we define species Morphological species concept Advantages Problems Individual variation Cryptic species The Biological Species Concept Ernst Mayr 1940 Advantages Problems Not practical Doesn t address gradual geographic variation ring species Asexual species Fossil species Summary of species definitions How do species form Reproductive isolation Prezygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms Geographic isolation Ecological isolation spatial temporal Behavioral Mechanical Gametic isolation Postzygotic RIM Hybrid inviability Example Hybrid infertility Example Speciation General pattern Allopatric Speciation Example Sympatric Speciation polyploidy assortative mating Parapatric Speciation BSC 201103 Lecture 3738 Spring 2006 Conservation Biology Measuring biodiversity how many species do we have Value of biodiversity why should we care if we have it Ecosystem Services Examples I Reducing droughtfloods I Protection from UV I Raw material for dru s I Reducing coastal erosion I Control of agricultural pests I Maintenance of soil fertilit Climate stabilization Airwater puri cation I Pollination of crops Value of Pollination Value of biodiversity for drugs The problem loss of biodiversity Species loss Genetic diversity loss within species Population bottlenecks Loss of local populations Causes of biodiversity loss Habitat loss and fragmentation Example Introduced species See FSU website for other examples httpwwwfsueduimspsientinvadersnewweedsmainhtmindexhtm Example Fire ants g 552 Overexpoitation Example Fisheries How does conservation biology address these problems 0 Document population dynamics interactions with biotic and abiotic components of ecosystem using ecology and ecosystem studies 0 Design reserves to maximize population sizes preserve genetic variation This uses population genetics evolution ecology behavior etc 0 Calculate maximum sustainable harvesting using population dynamic models knowledge of lifehistory evolution Education is only good if you use it for something BSC 201103 Lecture 4 outline Spring 2006 Stem cells Cloning Control of gene expression in Eukaryotes 1 l Chromosome level 0 Multiple chromosomes 0 Condensation of chromatin o Methylation Transcriptional level 0 Recall how transcription starts 0 Proteins transcription factors can affect RNA polymerase binding in two ways a Induction b Repression 0 control elements 0 related genes not necessarily adjacent 0 shared control elements Posttranscription 0 RNA Processing a Splicing b Caping 0 Translation control by initiation factors Example Sea Urchin eggs 0 Posttranslational control a Protein activation Example Insulin b Metabolic regulation Take home ideas Why so many different ways to control gene expression 0 Pattern of development in animals 0 Gametes haploid vs diploid Spermatozoon Structure includes flagellum midpiece and head containing acrosome a Sperm are specialized for b individual sperm small BSC 201103 Study questions lecture 32 Spring 2006 Is the historical pattern of human population growth better described by the exponential model or the logistic model Why Which model do you think will better describe the future of human population growth 2 To the nearest billion what is the current human population ofthe Earth 3 To the nearest 50 million what is the current population of the USA I didn t give this number in lecture but you can nd it easily on the web 4 To the nearest 10 million what is the current population of Florida 5 Based on patterns from the last 10 decades Florida s population will double in the next 25 to 30 years In your opinion what factors will be the most challenging for accommodating that projected population growth BSC 201103 Lecture 10 Mitosis Spring 2006 Mitosis 5 stages really a continuous process 1 Prophase a lnthe nucleus Nucleolus disappears Chromatin condenses Centromere Kinetochores Sister chromatid b In the cytoplasm Formation of mitotic spindle centrosomes centrioles 2 Prometaphase Nuclear membrane disassembled Spindle grows into nucleus Spindle includes three kinds of tubules coming from centrosome kinetochore microtubules non kinetochore microtubules asters Chromosomes begin to move 3 Metaphase Chromosomes arrive at metaphase plate Centrosomes arrive at poles 4 Anaphase Centromeres split Chromosomes move to opposite poles Kinetochore microtubules shorten Nonkintetochore microtubules lengthen 5 Telophase chromosome movement has stopped Cytokinesis In animal cells In plant cells End of cell division end of development BSC 201103 Lecture 26 Spring 2006 Macroevolutionary Pattern phylogeny phylogenetic tree Example salamander rag muuse bird lizard snake A current species ancestors not currently existing common ancestor more closely related less closely related horizontal order The following trees show the same relationships lrag salamander lizara snaxemra mause mause snaxe lizara aira salamander lrag use degree of similarity in trails to infer relatedness exception traits due to convergent evolution BSC 201103 l A A Spring 2006 Study questions for lecture 11 Use the following three terms in a sentence that correctly indicates what each term means alleles genes locusloci a Draw a cell from a diploid organism with n 2 2 chromosomes at metaphase of meiosis I Label sister chromatids homologous chromosomes and centromeres b Draw a cell from the same organism at metaphase of mitosis De ne sister chromatids and homlogous chromosomes making sure to explain how the two differ a What are the three ways that genetic variation among offspring is produced by sexual reproduction b EXPLAIN how ONE ofthese three mechanisms produces genetic variation among offspring l A 4 BSC 201103 Spring 2006 Study questions for lecture 7 What are some ofthe differences between sea urchins and frogs in their blastulas and gastrulas How are morphogens and hormones similar How are they different Two drugs that are commonly used in developmental biology studies are Actinomycin which inhibits transcription and Cyclohexamide which inhibits translation Explain which drug you would choose to treat a fertilized Drosophila egg with ifyou wanted to disrupt determination of the head end in the early embryo ln lecture I described an experiment by J Holtfreter who separated the cells in a gastrula and then watched them to see what happened What did those cells do and what can we learn from his experiment BSC 201103 Lecture 27 Spring 2006 Two more important types of natural selection Sexual selection Example peacocks Example lazuli buntings Example Costa Rican weevils Coevolution Example PIantPollinator Coevolution Example AntAcacia interaction Things to remember about evolution by natural selection review BSC 201103 Lecture 18 Spring 2006 What is evolution Definition Historical development of idea of evolution 1 Early ideas originating pre1700 s a About the earth geology Catastrophism Earth not very old b About organisms biology Species do not change Plato Variation within species exists Modern representation Less variation more variation 2 Enlightenment ideas 1700 s to early 1800 s a About the earth Uniformitarianism Lyell Gradualism Hutton Earth very old b About organisms Natural Theology Organisms well adapted Organisms can be categorized Linnaeus Common ancestry Traits heritable Species change inheritance of acquired characteristics Jean Baptiste de Lamarck More organisms are born than can survive Malthus 3 Darwin 1830 51860 5 a About his life b Darwin s big contribution 0 Natural Selection Darwin and Wallace Basic idea More offspring are produced than can survive to reproduce Individuals within a species vary in their traits phenotypes Different traits are heritable can be passed to offspring if based on genotype Individuals with some traits reproduce more than others Result Summary Natural Selection 2 Important things to remember artificial selection Example BSC 201103 Lecture 1 outline Spring 2006 Reading Chapter 1 in Campbell and Reese Just skim this chapter it s pretty uffy 1 Course mechanicsexpectations a Syllabus b Web site 0 Graphs Course structure a Lecture format encourages memorization of facts over thinking i Science is a process not a pile of facts What is a theory anyway a Hypothesis b Theory ii Is there progress in science b There isn t much biology in a lecture hall Course overview a In Biol b In Bio 2 BSC 201103 1 Study questions lecture 27 Spring 2006 In lecture we have discussed many examples of adaptations including insecticide resistance in scale insects antibiotic resistance in bacteria HIV resistance to drugs bright spots in guppies brightdrab colors in lazuli buntings hairs on leaves number of eggs starlings lay a Choose your favorite adaptation from lecture and explain how that adaptation might have evolved by natural selection Imagine you are explaining this to someone who does not know what natural selection is Make sure your answer addresses the following points How did that trait arise in the rst place What are the conditions that are necessary for natural selection to work What aspect of the environment causes differences in tness b Draw a graph showing the pattern of selection relationship between the phenotype and tness for the adaptation you are discussing Be sure to label the axes correctly Be sure that you can distinguish between the pattern of selection and the effect of selection 2 Define sexual selection How does sexual selection differ from natural selection BSC 201103 Spring 2006 Study questions for lecture 14 1 Define genotype and phenotype 2 Name one reason why two individuals with different genotypes at a particular Sgthsrnight have the same phenotype Explain using an example how this 3 Define and compare pleiotropy and epistasis 4 Do some more of the genetics problems BSC 2011 O3 Lecture 14 Spring 2006 Some assumptions about inheritance that Mendel made Each gene has 2 alleles eg Purple white Alleles are either dominant or recessive Each gene locus affects only one trait Each trait is affected by only one locus The genotype determines the phenotype All genes assort independently All traits in diploid organisms are affected by 2 copies ofa gene chromosomes occur in homologous pairs ICDU39IAOONA NonMendelian patterns of inheritance exceptions to Mendel39s Rules Exceptions to these rules show up as nonMendelian ratios in crosses Multiple alleles Partial dominance interactions among alleles at a single locus 1 Complete dominance Examples 2 Incomplete dominance Example 3 Codominance Examples Pleiotropy Example Polygenic inheritance 1 Epistasis Example 1 Coat color in mice Gene 1 C pigment produced c no pigment Gene 2 B lots of pigment in fur b less pigment in fur Phenotypic ratios in a dihybrid cross P BBCC X bbcc F1 all CcBb CcBb X CcBb F2 9 CB black 3 Cbb brown 3 ccBalbino 1 ccbb albino Phenotype ratio Example 2 eye color in humans very complex simpli ed to 3 genes for example Gene 1 B Brown dominant melanin on b recessive melanin off Gene 2 D dark brown D pale brown D and D are codominant Gene 3 G green pigment G blue G and G are codominant 2 Additive gene action Example Genotype to Phenotype The phenotype is determined by a complex interaction of many genes and the environment 1 Most traits are continuous rather than discrete 2 Genes interact with the environment Examples Norm of reaction Examples SKIN EYE COLOR COLOR Exposure to Sunlight Exposure to Sunlight Sexlinked inheritance Autosomes Sex chromosomes Mechanisms of sex determination are different for different kinds of species 1 XY system XX XY Some genes on the human Y BSC 201103 Lecture 8 Spring 2006 Cellcell interactions continued An example of cellcell communication at a larger scale Effect of hormones on frog metamorphosis o Metamorphosis o Metamorphosis is gradual and induced by thyroxin 0 Evidence for role of thyroxin Summary of cellcell communication Influence of external environment on development Example 1 Development of cannibal morph in the spade foot toad Spea bombifrons larger Size of tadpole smaller Time Example 2 Endocrine disruptors example 2 continued Effects on alligators higher larger Concentration Alligator of toxins in penis water Size lower smaller Lake WOOdn Lake APOPka Lake Woodru quot Lake Apopka Effects on frogs How do you go from an egg cell containing DNA to a whole organism BSC 201103 Lecture 35 Spring 2006 Community Ecology Community Examples Food web Example Antarctic food web Fig 5311 see also 5312 Properties of a community traits not de ned for individuals or populations species richness evenness relative abundance Example Fig 5321 biodiversity Trophic structure fig 541 Primary producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers etc Omnivores Detritovores Direct versus indirect effects Direct effects Indirect effects Example A eats B eats C Increase in predator A decrease species B which will increase species C The enemy of my enemy is my friend This is a trophic cascade 0 gtw gtgt OUTLINE 11 ll Theories of Inheritance A Informal knowledge B Early theories 1 Hippocrates direct blending inheritance 2 Aristotle criticisms of blending inheritance C Knowledge of sexual reproduction 1 spontaneous generation 2 Animalculists vs Ovists lll Mendel A New Theory A Who was Mendel B What did Mendel know C Plant breeding IV Mendel39s work A Monohybrid cross B Interpretation in modern terms gene dominant homozygous genotype locus recessive heterozygous phenotype allele C Quantitative results 1 quantitative results of monohybrid cross 2 tools for predicting patterns of inheritance Punnet square test cross Patterns of Inheritance twins a sister Mom and offspring The Homonculus Gregor Mendel Two Varieties of Sweet Peas Fig 141 Plant Breeding 1 391 0 Remeved stamens frnm purple ewer Carpal female 9 Traneferred pulln frnm stamens of white flewer tn eerpel of purple flower Pullinated carpel matured inte pad a Planted seeds frnrn purl a Examined offspring all Hm purple uwers gearuranium 39 anyrlghl Pearsen Educatlan Inn publlshlng as Emjamin Gumminge Table 141 39rl39ahlie 111 The Result of Mendel F1 trusses fur Seven in Pea Plants Hummer Dominant Trait Flower calm I 33 Purple Hummer pnsitiacn Mal Seed valor I 5 55 Sand shape 391 3 Pad shape Pod calm Sumkngth Ddl G p fl lgh l l Paar mn Education Inc nuhlishing as Benjamln Cummlngs massive Trait Ganeratim Dumlnant eeessive FDSQZ39I 65120 lli l MHHESD 552295 28352 787F227 Ratio 3151 311 3911 2961 2951 2821 2341 Fig 142 A monohybrid cross Iquot P Generation i x r x truebreeding 39 Parsntsl Purple White flowers flowers Fl Generation hybrids All plants had purple flowers F2 Generation quot Flatie 31 v TD5 plants 224 plants had purple had white flowers flowers Cnpyrlght Pearsen Educatlcn IntL publlshlng as Benjamin Cummings Fig 145 Genotype Phenotype H h mazvgaus J Purple n 339 PP a p I gt3 hEtEl39Dzyg us Ik J Iquot Lll39p e 2 PP P heterezygous K1 1quot livery quotquot3 e quot L f J39k H PP White gt1 hemezygeus Ratio 121 Ratie 31 Copyright Pearson Educatlon Im publlshlng as Benjamlh Gummmgs Fig 146 A Test Cross Dominant phenotype Fieneseive phenotype unknown genotype known genotype FF or Pp pp If PP If Pp then all offspring purple then 2 offspring purple and 3912 offspring white 69 npyrlgh l l Pearson Educatlon Ina publlshlng as Benjamin Eummmgs BSC 201103 l A Study questions lecture 26 Spring 2006 Why is reproductive isolation important for speciation What are allopatric and sympatric speciation What is convergent evolution and why is it a problem for guring out how species are related Consider the tree we discussed in lecture see below and answerthe following questions salamander a what is the closest relative ofthe lizard b Which two are more closely related the frog and mouse or the bird and snake c What is the common ancestor of the mouse and bird d Is the statement snakes evolved from lizards true or false and WHY frog mouse bird lizard snake
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